Neo-Darwinian theorists and others who are biologically uninformed will learn this in September (2018).
Synopsis: The difference in two photons has been linked to the Proton motive force. It drives the activity of the enzyme, ATP synthase, which makes ATP. All energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has since been linked from the creation of ATP synthase and the creaton of ATP to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and healthy longevity. For comparison, the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology.
There is no such thing as an intrinsic biogeochemical cycle of energy-dependent protein biosynthesis. Light activated endogenous substrates are required for energy-dependent protein biosynthesis. Energy-dependent biophysical constraints on protein biosynthesis link the intrinsic biogeochemical cycle to biophysical constraints on the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
After the presentations during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018, some theorists may need to be placed on a suicide watch due to the availability of “Cytosis” and the ability of students aged 10+ to learn more about cell biology than theorists have learned during the past 75 years.
See for example: Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment (2017)
Reported as: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons
…unlike the theoretical predictions, analysis of the OLYMPUS measurements suggests that, most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…
The link from differences in the energy of photons to the amount of ATP that must be be biophysically constrained has been largely ignored since the time that McEwen et al., (1964) linked the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA via oxidative phosphorylation.
Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
The difference in two photons have been linked to the Proton motive force. It drives the activity of the enzyme, ATP synthase, which makes ATP. All energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has since been linked from the creation of ATP synthase and the creaton of ATP to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and healthy longevity. For comparison, the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology.
See for instance this 6-7 minute-long video: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (February 15, 2017)
Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.
See for comparison: The energy expansions of evolution (April 28, 2017) with my emphasis.
Sunlight is a consequence of the planet’s position in the Solar System, whereas geochemical energy is an intrinsic property of the Earth. Geochemical energy arises when water reacts with basalts and other rocks…
Although sources of geochemical energy can be at or near Earth’s surface, they need not be: many are deep within the planet, out of reach of sunlight.
That fact became clear in the context of bacteria that eat electrons and the physiology of their reproduction, which was linked to the creation of uranium isotopes.
See: Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits
Many low-temperature ores display similar isotopic fractionation59,60 as found here suggesting an under-recognized importance of biological processes in roll-front ore formation.
The origin of microbial life and the creation of uranium ores via the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria appears to have gone missing in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists who are already scheduled to present during: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
See also: Proton gradients at the origin of life (May 16, 2017) by Nick Lane
People like Nick Lane still claim that biochemistry emerged from geochemistry. They link the origins of biochemistry to the emergence of genetically encoded catalysts, such as ribozymes, ATP synthase and other enzymes. Then they proceed to tell others about naturally occurring evolutionary processes. The evolutionary processes supposedly link the automagical creation of ATP sythase in some geochemical settings to the biochemistry of our last universal common ancestor (LUCA).
See: Evolution of ATP Synthase (Video) Jackson Wheat claims that ATP and ATP synthase might link the Last Universal Common Ancestor to the evolution of all biodiversity on Earth.
See for comparison the claim from A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.
The magic and logic of evolution now start with the evolution of an enzyme (ATP synthase) linked from ATP to the creation of RNA and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera only in the context of the physiology of energy-dependent biophysically constrained reproduction.
See for comparison: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor
We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.
Unfortunately, Nick Lane and others appear to initially missed the connection from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to the creation of archaea from bacteria. He reported the bioenergetic basis for divergence as if DNA replication somehow arose in LUCA outside the context of everything known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained top-down energy-dependent creation of membranes.
See: A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria (2014)
Because the bacterial replicon is attached to the plasma membrane during cell division –, this complex presumably arose after (or coevolved with) the bacterial membrane, which must have driven a deep phylogenetic disparity, even if DNA replication had arisen in LUCA.
Anyone who still touts claims of emergence or pretends to think that the complexity of the plasma membrane in bacterial replicons automagically arose or coevolved in the context of phylogenetic disparities, may want to attend Schrödinger at 75 and laugh at the nonsense touted by Nick Lane and other neo-Darwinian theorists who are scheduled to present.
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
Nick Lane is an evolutionary biochemist
Beth Shapiro is an evolutionary biologist
Svante Pääbo is a Swedish biologist specialising in evolutionary genetics.
In 2012, I attended a conference presentation on microRNAs and the speaker confirmed the fact that every aspect of cell type differentiation occurs downstream from changes in microRNAs. He claimed that is what had been learned during the past 10 years. I confirmed that others who attended his presentation also knew the facts about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation before publishing a refutation of neo-Darwinian nonsense in 2013.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
After the presentations during Schrödinger at 75, all neo-Darwinian theorists and most big bang cosmologists who have no valid model for comparison may need to be placed on a “suicide watch” for losers.
Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event (2016)
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.
Published works by people like Nick Lane, Beth Shapiro, and Svante Pääbo have not been at the cutting edge since 1964.
See: Biology, molecular and organismic
The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.
Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.
See also: Patterns of shared signatures of recent positive selection across human populations
…we present a catalogue of selective sweeps in humans, and identify those that overlap and share a sweeping haplotype. We connect these sweep overlaps with potential biological mechanisms at several loci, including potential new sites of adaptive introgression, the glycophorin locus associated with malarial resistance and the alcohol dehydrogenase cluster associated with alcohol dependency.
The failed pattern recognition of biologically uninformed theorists has led serious scientists to proclaim that the pseudoscientists have no way out. Every aspect of life on Earth is energy-dependent, RNA-mediated and biophysically constrained in the context of viral latency.
See: No way out: when RNA elements promote nuclear retention