Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

Creating biophysically constrained viral latency (2)

Creating biophysically constrained viral latency (2)
Serious scientists have reached the point where they are finally ready to expose the pseudoscientific nonsense during Evolution – Genetic Novelty/Genomic Variations by RNA Networks and Viruses and also during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018.
Until then, pseudoscientists may want to see these examples of accurate information about top-down causation.
MicroRNA Processing Gene Methylation and Cancer Risk

Methylation of three CpGs (DROSHA: cg23230564, TNRC6B: cg06751583, and TNRC6B: cg21034183) was prospectively associated with time to cancer development (positively for cg06751583, inversely for cg23230564 and cg21034183) whereas methylation of one CpG site (DROSHA: cg16131300) was positively associated with cancer prevalence.

Oncogene-induced regulation of microRNA expression: Implications for cancer initiation, progression and therapy

microRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression, assisting or antagonizing oncogenic signalling. The differential expression of microRNAs in cancer is well-documented and is considered a fundamental aspect of tumourigenesis.

Dengue virus causes changes of MicroRNA-genes regulatory network revealing potential targets for antiviral drugs

This study showed a preliminary support to suggest that the herbal medicine RDN combined with LRD can reduce both susceptibility and the severity of DENV.

Dampened STING-Dependent Interferon Activation in Bats
Reported as: How bats carry viruses without getting sick
There is a clear link from the gut bacteria of insects to food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency in mammals.
See: Regulation of midgut cell proliferation impacts Aedes aegypti susceptibility to dengue virus

Our study demonstrates that the intestinal epithelium of the blood fed mosquito is able to respond and defend against different challenges, including virus infection. In addition, we provide unprecedented evidence that the activation of a cellular regenerative program in the midgut is important for the determination of the mosquito vectorial competence.

Amino Acid Residues Contributing to Function of the Heteromeric Insect Olfactory Receptor Complex
Our work suggests that the Or-Orco complex has two important characteristics. First, the biophysical properties of the channel vary according to subunit composition, even with highly similar proteins such as BmOr-1-Orco and BmOr-3-Orco. Second, because ligand-selective Or sequences within and between insect species are extremely divergent, the primary amino acid sequence of the ion-conducting pore is likely to differ according to the subunit composition of the Or-Orco complex.

Figure 1) Targeted mutagenesis of Ae. aegypti orco

a, Snake plot of Ae. aegypti Orco with amino acids colour-coded to indicate conservation with Drosophila melanogaster.

It should have been perfectly clear to Leslie Vosshall and others like her that the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs was the key to ecological adaptation via RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera. Instead, she attempted to make scientific progress by genetically engineering changes to the fertility of mosquitoes.
She appears to think that genetic engineering of the mosquitoes is the way forward.
Genetic engineering alters mosquitoes’ sense of smell 5/29/13

…the mosquitoes with orco mutations showed reduced preference for the smell of humans over guinea pigs, even in the presence of carbon dioxide, which is thought to help mosquitoes respond to human scent. “By disrupting a single gene, we can fundamentally confuse the mosquito from its task of seeking humans”…

Genetic engineering is gene-centric pseudoscientific nonsense. See: Nothing in cancer makes sense except…

An evolutionary logic pervades all major areas of cancer sciences including causation, cancer clone development and resistance to therapies [10] (Fig. 1).

What some people call evolutionary logic failed to link mutations to beneficial changes in behavior.

 

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