Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Dobzhansky 1973 and Precision Medicine (2)

What Did Neanderthals Leave to Modern Humans? Some Surprises

A few years ago, the Swedish geneticist Svante Paabo received an unusual fossilized bone fragment from Siberia. He extracted the DNA, sequenced it and realized it was neither human nor Neanderthal.

Savante Paabo co-authored this refutation of neo-Darwinian nonsense in 2003.Natural Selection on the Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in Humans and Chimpanzees

It links natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from archaea to humans via what is known to serious scientists about the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. He also co-authored this article: Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates It links the virus-driven energy theft to the mutation-driven loss of G protein-coupled receptors in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.

John Anthony Capra, the expert on what Neanderthals left to modern humans is probably aware of this fact: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

One energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution was linked from G protein-coupled receptors to differences in morphological and behavioral phenotypes and the “personality” difference in human adolescents compared to adults. Dobzhansky (1973) put that fact into the context of other facts that link fixation of amino acid substitutions to all cell type differences in all individuals of all living genera.

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).

The problem with this fact manifests itself in attempt by pseudoscientists to ignore it. At the same time, all serious scientists have place the facts into their perspectives on hemoglobin variants such as the hemoglobin S variant.

Genetic Variations: Heroes or Villains

Variations have not only been associated with diseases like cancer, turner syndrome, sickle cell anaemia, cystic fibrosis etc., but some of them have even been proved to be beneficial in certain cases like for increasing bone density, lowering down cholesterol level, and for developing malaria resistance.

Many pseudoscientists did not learn that there are now more that ~1200 hemoglobin variants, or that sickle cell anemia is an example of an ecological adaptation. Some have learned not to refer to variants as mutations in the context of mutation-driven evolution. But past claims about mutations and evolution have become a nightmare scenario for anyone who has ever made them.

What Did Neanderthals Leave to Modern Humans? Some Surprises (revisited)

But I received racist inquiries, too. I got calls from all over the world from people who thought that since Africans didn’t interbreed with Neanderthals, this somehow justified their ideas of white superiority.

What happens next will be more interesting. As people like John Anthony Capra and Svante Paabo try to extricate themselves from the muck of ridiculous theories, which they nearly let engulf them, they will be forced to start naming names. The people who taught them to believe in pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution will be reviled instead of revered for their expertise.  Ultimately, works by people like Masatoshi Nei will be viewed as if they were published by people who were biologically uninformed.

See for example: The neighbor-joining method: a new method for reconstructing phylogenetic trees(1987)

For comparison, see: Genomic locations of conserved noncoding sequences and their proximal protein-coding genes in mammalian expression dynamics (2016)

Naruya Saitou is the first author of the 1987 revised theory and the senior author of the accurate representations of biologically based cause and effect from 2016.

His co-author Masatoshi Nei published Mutation-driven evolution on the same day in 2013 that my review of everything known to serious scientists about biologically-based cause and effect was published. Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

See also: We are all mutants

Every part of our body is controlled by molecules, so you have to explain on a molecular level. That is the real mechanism of evolution, how molecules change. They change through mutation. Mutation means a change in DNA through, for example, substitution or insertion [of nucleotides]. First you have to have change, and then natural selection may operate or may not operate. I say mutation is the most important, driving force of evolution.

The changes are nutrient energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of chromosomal rearrangements and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

See for confirmation: Spliceosomal intronogenesis

The group II intron-derived features are likely to have degenerated over time, leading to a necessity for the development of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery composed of trans-acting snRNAs and trans-acting protein factors (11, 18). Within this context…
 
Every aspect of energy-dependent RNA-mediated life on Earth occurs “within this context.” Life is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pre-mRNA splicing machinery in the context of the physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements.
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The sex difference in cell types have since been linked via conserved molecular mechanisms to all differences in all cell types of all individuals in all living genera.

Virus-driven energy theft was rarely considered since the time of our 1996 review. It has now been linked from communication among viruses to nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation in species from archaea to humans. Archaea and Zika virus-damaged DNA of human infants exemplify how virus-driven energy theft links degenerated mRNA from failed DNA repair to differences in species of bacteria and difference between non-human primates and modern humans.

See also: Quantum leap: Physicists can better study the quantum behaviour of objects on the atomic scale.

…quantum behaviour: a microscopic mirror in a quantum superposition, created through interaction with a photon, would involve about 1014 atoms. And, letting their imaginations run wild, researchers have proposed a method to do the same with small biological structures such as viruses.

The quantum leap has never been imaginary. Schrodinger recognized that it was energy-dependent and many others have linked energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems. Theorists have been left with no excuses for their ignorance, which is still displayed in video representations such as this one.

See also:

See also: The tipping point? 50, 000 publications

Did Dobzhansky see the UV light of creation?

ALPHA GENOMIX

Conclusion from 2): “The ability to recognize endogenous RNAs within complex mixtures with high affinity and in a programmable manner paves the way for direct transcript detection, analysis and manipulation without the need for genetically encoded affinity tags.”

That ability to recognize endogenous RNAs within complex mixtures shows up in Alpha Genomix testing, which represents a quantum leap forward from what many experts inaccurately attribute to mutations, natural selection, and evolution. Instead, Alpha Genomix is leading the way by incorporating what is currently known about RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated events that link enzymes to amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types.

Evolving DNA before RNA

Any discovery that links a chain of evolutionary events to anything  known about gains and losses of abilities attributed to biologically-based cause and effect would be remarkable. So far, not even one evolutionary event has been described. Thus, linking the dawn of life to the food on our tables via evolutionary theory would represent a quantum leap from a ridiculous theory to what is known about biological facts by serious scientists.

For example, quantum physics is linked to quantum biology via a light-induced amino acid substitution that links cell type differentiation in plants from ecological variation in light-dark cycles to RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

Order and disorder: Ecological adaptations not mutations

A microRNA (abbreviated miRNA) is a small non-coding RNA molecule (containing about 22 nucleotides). Thus, the quantum leap from biophysically constrainted light-induced amino acid substitutions to the nutrient-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance that controls genome stability via epigenetically-effected amino acid substitutions is replaced with the concept of epigenetically-effected mutations, which are called epimutuations.

By mixing the theory of mutation-initiated natural selection and the evolution of biodiversity with biological facts about how ecological variation leads to epigenetically-effected ecological adaptations manifested in biodiversity, the senior author of the “epimutations” article sets the stage for his claim to be “the first” to find something new and important.

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