…non-cell-autonomous autophagy is induced both in the tumour microenvironment and systemically… transformed cells engage surrounding normal cells as active and essential microenvironmental contributors to early tumour growth through nutrient-generating autophagy.
Non-cell autonomous autophagy links non-random natural selection for codon optimality from the nutrient energy-dependent pherormone-controlled physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry via fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
The supercoiled DNA links metabolic networks to genetic networks and chromosomal rearrangements to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological phenotypes and behavioral phenotypes. Chromosomal inheritance links the 1933 Nobel Prize winning works of Thomas Hunt Morgan and Erwin Schrodinger to the works of 2016 Nobel Laureates Ben Feringa and Yoshinori Ohsumi. Collectively, their Nobel Prizes explain why Richard Axel and Linda Buck won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for detailing how the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors was linked to healthy longevity in all living genera.
It has become obvious that light induced changes in chirality must be linked from chemotaxis and phototaxis to all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Serious scientists start with the anti-entropic virucidal energy of UV light, and link energy to behavior.
Up-to-date research shows that they may employ dozens of mechanisms including epigenetic, hybridization, cryptic variation, behavioral changes, unreduced gametes, directed crossover, regulated micro-RNAs or RNA splicing, horizontal gene transfer, and even modulation of an organism’s microbiota. None of these mechanisms require a struggle for life and death!
See also this easy to read accurate representation of facts about healthy longevity compared to virus-driven pathology. Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. 2015. Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk. Acts & Facts. 44 (4).
See also: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
Cytochrome C is an enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of aerobic cells. It is found in the most diverse organisms, from man to molds.
E. Margoliash, W. M. Fitch, and others have compared the amino acid sequences in cytochrome C in different branches of the living world. Most significant similarities as well as differences have been brought to light. The cytochrome C of different orders of mammals and birds differ in 2 to 17 amino acids, classes of vertebrates in 7 to 38, and vertebrates and insects in 23 to 41; and animals differ from yeasts and molds in 56 to 72 amino acids. Fitch and Margoliash prefer to express their findings in what are called “minimal mutational distances.” It has been mentioned above that different amino acids are coded by different triplets of nucleotides in DNA of the genes; this code is now known.
There are certain things that we accept as facts with no alternatives,” according to the site. “The Earth is becoming warmer due to human action. The diversity of life arose by evolution. … An American government that ignores science to pursue ideological agendas endangers the world.
Anyone who accepts the claim that the diversity of life arose by evolution is not a serious scientist. Pseudoscientists who sign up for the march should repeatedly march themselves into a corner for a “time-out” until they learn not to throw temper tantrums or make claims that cannot be supported by experimental evidence of biologically-based facts. All serious scientists know that their claims must link chirality and autophagy to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA.
See: Dobzhansky 1973 and precision medicine (6) in prep