Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

Ecological Adaptations vs the Randomness of Evolution (2)

Summary: See for comparison: Make ‘Em Resistant to Viruses

In the new proposal — which Science says was released in advance of a meeting today — GP-write leaders say “ultrasafe” cells could be developed by making some 400,000 changes to the human genome.

A Fast OneStep Digestion of DNA or RNA for Global Detection and Characterization of Nucleotide Modifications (link opens pdf)
Product information:

The Nucleoside Digestion Mix is an optimized mixture of enzymes that provides a convenient one-step method to generate single nucleosides from DNA or RNA for quantitative analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), eliminating the need for sequential multi-step, time-consuming digestion protocols.

Digests both DNA and RNA to single nucleosides

A source of anti-entropic energy is required to create nucleosides and nucleotides. The quantized energy as information was available to modify nucleotides after the creation of sunlight.
See also: Nucleoside vs. Nucleotide

A nucleoside consists of a nitrogenous base covalently attached to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) but without the phosphate group. A nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and one to three phosphate groups.

Nucleoside = Sugar + Base
Nucleotide = Sugar + Base + Phosphate

The link from the”optimized mixture of enzymes” to Digestion of DNA or RNA links the quantification of epigenetic modifications and the activity of nucleic acid modifying enzymes from energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis to the functional structure of cellular RNA, which has been linked to viral latency and ecological adaptations in all living genera.
The facts about the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and ecological adaptations have been placed into the context of High-Resolution Epigenomic Atlas of Human Embryonic Craniofacial Development.

These data are provided in easily accessible formats for both craniofacial researchers and clinicians to aid future experimental design and interpretation of noncoding variation in those affected by craniofacial abnormalities.

The facts were reported in Blueprint for the skull: A search for cleft palate’s cause reveals a map of the facial genome

He studies the human genome, but not the genes that tell the body what proteins to make. Instead, he focuses on regulators, parts of the DNA that tell genes when and where to act. These regulators, also known as enhancers, tend to be linked to specific parts of the body.

microRNA cleft palate
1 of 33: A functional polymorphism in the pre-miR-146a gene is associated with the risk of nonsyndromic orofacial cleft.
enhancer cleft palate
1 of 35 Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis During Palatal Fusion Reveals the Potential Mechanism of Enhancer Methylation Regulating Epithelial Mesenchyme Transformation.
The link from the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to food energy-dependent genome-wide RNA-directed DNA methylation is perfectly clear until the term enhancer is used in the context of a potential mechanism regulating epithelial mesenchyme transformation.
The conserved molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent epigenetically-effected cell type differentiation are missing and the substitution of a potential mechanism of methylation can be used to support neo-Darwinian nonsense about mutation-driven evolution.
Even after pseudoscientists admit that their theories of craniofacial development are ridiculous, since development is energy-dependent and epigenetically effected, they try to place their findings back into the context of gene-centric theories.
Alternatively, they must know that the virus-driven theft of quantized energy links Zika virus-damaged DNA to craniofacial development with the most severe effects on the size of the brain and skull.
See also: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen

Partially protective vaccination can sometimes select for increasingly virulent pathogens.

Reported as: In nature, an imperfect immune system drives the evolution of deadly pathogens

As annual flu shot patrons know, immune systems are not perfect and must be constantly reinforced to protect against rapidly evolving pathogens.


…birds that eat at feeders are more likely to be infected with the disease, which causes red, swollen eyes and often blindness that results in death.

The link from what the birds and the bees eat to healthy longevity was detailed in my 2013 refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Scientific creationists in the US have started to tout my model without attribution.
See: Are Evolution and Adaptation the Same? 

Mechanisms of adaptation are made up of complex integrated components, including environmental sensors, signaling pathways, feedback and feed-forward loops, and information control systems in the creature’s DNA.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
See for comparison: Next-generation diagnostics with CRISPR

The sentinel discovery that prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea) have heritable adaptive immunity mediated through CRISPR and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins has led to transformative advances in molecular biology, most notably in gene editing (2).

The discovery of heritable adaptive immunity ended the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution. It linked vaccinations and gene editing to unpredictable outcomes in species from microbes to humans by altering the perfection of our innate immune system. The alterations link the virus-driven degradation of our messenger RNA to all pathology.
But see: Cytosis for ages 10+

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See for comparison: Make ‘Em Resistant to Viruses

In the new proposal — which Science says was released in advance of a meeting today — GP-write leaders say “ultrasafe” cells could be developed by making some 400,000 changes to the human genome.

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