My summary: Nucleosomes are dynamic entities that are repositioned by energy-dependent links from sunlight to ATP and RNA biosynthesis that act on DNA during the chromatin remodeling, which is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction during the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavioral phentoypes. processes.
…an incomplete formation of overlapping dinucleosome may trigger abnormalities in the genetic switch, turning normal cells into tumor cells. Accordingly, understanding the atomic structure of the overlapping dinucleosome may provide valuable information for understanding how the abnormal dynamics of chromatin are related to cancer…
The atomic structure of the dinucleosome is energy-dependent. The atomic structure links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all healthy longevity via endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). RNAi is is the nutrient energy-dependent link from atoms to ecosystems via what is known to all serious scientists about supercoiled DNA. Virus-driven energy theft causes the incomplete formation of the overlapping dinucleosome and all pathology in all living genera.
See for comparison my invited review of nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.
See also: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the parody from the Zechiedrich lab.
Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.
It’s time for biophysicists to tell theorists and pathologists how to differentiate between theories about the genesis of different cell types and the biological facts about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the genesis of different cell types in individuals of different species. Simply put, it’s time to stop trying to explain ecological adaptations in the context of mutations and evolution.
Taken together, our results show that both miR-21-3p and miR-433 down-regulate FSHb expression and cause FSH secretion decreased. These findings provide insights into the effects of the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs on the reproductive functions of the pituitary.
FSH secretion links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled epigenetic effects on endogenous RNA interference to healthy longevity and biodiversity in all vertebrates via the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide.
See also: Gonadotropin releasing hormone and human sexual behavior (1991)
…mice with Alzheimer’s have a different gut bacterial profile than those that do not have the disease.