PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction centre with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC).
The living machinery responsible for photosynthesis – while commonplace and essential to life on Earth – is still not fully understood.
It is understood at every level of examination that links quantized energy to healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Thomas Hunt Morgan (Physiology or Medicine) and Schrodinger and Dirac (Physics) won Nobel Prizes in 1933 for linking energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction and chromosomal inheritance. Like Darwin, they did this based on his “conditions of life” without knowing how the experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect would soon begin to fill in the missing links.
Only pseudoscientists would link claims about one-electron photochemistry to thermodynamic cycles and the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) via five intermediate S-states linked to O2 evolution across three billion years. What’s worst is that they think some people are foolish enough to believe them because they are “experts” with academic credentials to prove it. They have proved how foolish all academics can be. Don’t let the fools fool you.
Let’s look at some practical applications of what is known about how to link the sun’s biological energy to life on Earth.
The ability to control very small groups of neurons could have big implications for brain science.
….conducted their experiments on mice that were genetically engineered to have light-sensitive neurons in a brain region called the orbitofrontal cortex. That area is involved in perceiving, and reacting to, rewards. By shining a laser at specific neurons, the researchers increased the pace at which the mice consumed a high-calorie milkshake.
The link from energy as information via the speed of light on contact with water and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution was placed into the context of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation (i.e., autophagy) and all biodiversity in this brief presentation.
The link from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via mRNA degradation in G protein-coupled receptors and receptor-mediated behavior seems unlikely to be considered. Indeed, researchers only recently decided to consider sex as a biological variable.
2016 Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain
The pervasive impact of sex on so many aspects of neural functioning in both the healthy and diseased brain demands that as neuroscientists, we incorporate sex as a biological variable…
Do we continue the status quo and ignore sex as a biological variable, or do we acknowledge that sex influences the brain at all levels and address the major gaps in knowledge? The National Institutes of Health now mandates the inclusion of sex as a biological variable.
Most of the contributors to articles about sexual differentiation still refuse to consider that the role of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction must extend from microbes to humans via the energy-dependent de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors.
Very few sex researchers can understand the importance of the claims in this published work.: Gender-Specific Association of Galanin Polymorphisms with HPA-Axis Dysregulation, Symptom Severity, and Antidepressant Treatment Response
Human galanin (GAL) is a 30 amino-acid neuropeptide, proteolytically processed from preprogalanin (PPGAL) (Evans and Shine, 1991; Schmidt et al, 1991). PPGAL is a single-copy gene located on chromosome 11q13.3–13.5, spanning over 6 kb of genomic DNA and organized into six exons (Rokaeus and Brownstein, 1986; Vrontakis et al, 1987).
One energy-dependent base pair change links the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs948854 in the human galanin gene to sex differences in multiple sclerosis via a single amino acid substitution in the supercoiled DNA of humans, and the base pair change is referred to as a “gender” specific risk factor.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs948854 in human galanin gene and multiple sclerosis: a gender-specific risk factor
The associations between rs948854 variants and MS demonstrated in the current study support our hypothesis that polymorphism in the promoter region that are likely to change expression level of the GAL gene affect the cause and the outcome of MS, shifting the balance in favor of either neuroprotection or neurodegeneration.
The microRNA/messenger RNA balance shifts in the context of nutrient energy-dependent base pairs changes and codon optimality that links the base pair changes to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation of all cell types in all living genera via their physiology of reproduction. See what happens when that fact is repeatedly placed into the context of social science and the pseudoscientific nonsense about sex-specific pathology, which is referred to as gender-specific.
Although all SNPs are biological variables that link base pair changes from RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to energy-dependent cell type variation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera, Val370Ala (aka rs3827760) was used as an example of how a mutation linked nutrient energy-dependent changes in human morphological and behavioral phenotypes via evolution with one caveat.
Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant
Alternatively, another phenotype, such as mammary gland branching or fat pad size could have been adaptive. The increased branching of 370A mouse mammary glands and the importance of mammary tissue in evolutionary fitness (Anderson et al., 1983; Oftedal, 2002) make this organ an interesting candidate. Alterations in gland structure have been reported to disrupt lactation in mice (Ramanathan et al., 2007), suggesting a functional consequence for this change. Unfortunately, it is not possible to assess mammary gland branching in living humans, highlighting the importance of animal models. Reports of smaller breast size in East Asian women (Maskarinec et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2004) are notable in light of the effects of 370A on fat pad size and the importance of breast morphology in human mate preference (Furnham et al., 1998, 2006; Dixson et al., 2011).
See also: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
See also: 23andMe has discovered hundreds of genetic links to traits, and much more is coming
One of 23andMe’s biggest discoveries came this summer with a paper linking 17 genetic tweaks, or SNPs (pronounced “snips”), that appear to be tied to one’s risk of developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
See also: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization
See also: Is brain plasticity the key to healing?