In 1964, the evolutionary biologist William D. Hamilton seemingly explained one of the greatest paradoxes in biology with a simple mathematical equation.
He will be remembered by all serious scientists for his ignorance of top-down energy-dependent causation.
For comparison, McEwen et al. (1964), explained energy-dependent ecological adaptation and sympatric speciation by starting with the energy-dependent creation of RNA.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.
Last year, the cell biology game “Cytosis” allowed ages 10+ to link ATP from the creation of RNA to biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.
Neo-Darwinian theorists still refuse to learn anything about viral latency. They think in terms of chronological clues rather than facts about energy-dependent gene transfers.
Traditionally, scientists have relied on “rocks and clocks” to date the tree of life: fossil evidence from the geological record, and “molecular clock” estimates that infer how long ago related species diverged by analyzing the rate at which mutations built up in their genomic sequences. But there’s a problem: Molecular clock rates differ between lineages — they’re much faster in rodents than in primates, for instance — so if they’re not calibrated against fossil data, they can lead to the wrong conclusions.
For comparison, see: Research: A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes
Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends.
Genomic trends? See for comparison: MicroRNA Regulation of RNA Virus Replication and Pathogenesis
…the development of a miRNA therapeutic for Ebola virus was used during the recent outbreak in Africa. However testing was ultimately suspended, as the drug did not demonstrate a significant role in patient recovery . Also, insertion of tissue-specific miRNA binding sites have been used as an effective mechanism to prevent virus replication in particular tissues as an attenuation mechanism for vaccines, helping to limit adverse events . Furthermore, recent evidence suggests the presence of viral-derived small RNAs during infection of both mammalian and arthropod cells [80,81]. While controversial, their presence and function during animal infections will need to be further examined. Viral interactions with the miRNA system can affect cellular miRNA and transcriptome levels as well as virus replication within a cell expressing a miRNA; these may indirectly modulate cytokine expression and tissue responses throughout an infected host.
The pause – which was first discovered 30 years ago by Cornell molecular biologist and geneticist John Lis – is a step in transcription where the enzyme RNA polymerase II begins transcribing and then is halted partway through the process and held in place by a specific protein complex.
The “pause” links seemingly futile cycles of microRNA biogenesis to the creation of enzymes and alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs (aka microRNAs). Energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link the fixation of amino acid substitutions in proteins to healthy longevity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Simply put, the pause links autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation. The length of the pause is quantized energy-dependent and/or biophysically constrained food energy-dependent. It ensures that enough energy is available for cell type differentiation to proceed so that the organized genome is protected from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
When atheistic Communist researchers learned that vaccines could not protect them from a genetically engineered virus that could be created to target human populations in North Korea and China, denuclearization was virtually ensured. The threat of a viral apocalypse is far greater than the threat of another land war in Asia or the nuclear threat.
In the end, everyone will learn what life is about after review of “What is Life? (1944) and my comments here: