Follow up to: Stress-perturbed mitochondrial dysfunction
Summary: Bruce McEwen and others are taking the concept of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in cell type differentiation to a new level. They will force neo-Darwinian theorists to differentiate between mutations and amino acid substitutions. After February 14, 2016, if you still don’t know the difference, you may be subjected to ridicule by serious scientists who know how to link atoms to ecosystems in the context of biologically-based cause and effect.
Also, the “Precision Medicine Initiative” links metabolic networks and genetic networks via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. Virus-perturbed mitochrondrial energy function cannot be linked from mutations to increasing organismal complexity, and neo-Darwinian theorists appear to have no fall-back position. They seem to have bet everything on de Vries definition of mutation and their assumptions about how long the accumulation of mutations might take to cause the evolution of a new species. If you are in the USA and were not taught to believe in that pseudoscientific nonsense, you will have a nicer Valentine’s Day.
Evidence of a genetic ‘fountain of youth’ discovered is the most recent story about biologically-based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which is linked to life extension and increased vitality via nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino-acid substitutions. The coordinating author of the recently published study is a “Professor of Energy Metabolism at ETH Zurich.” Nutrient energy-dependent metabolic networks are linked to genetic networks via RNA-mediated events linked from gene duplication and gene expression to cell type differentiation and ecological speciation via the physiology of reproduction.
…it is helpful to have a basic understanding of how genes are expressed. A measure of gene expression can be found in the number of its mRNA molecules present in an animal’s cells. When the mRNA of a certain gene is widespread, that gene is being upregulated and when it is scarce, the expression of the gene is minimal. Using statistical models, the researchers looked for the intersection of genes that were regulated in the same manner across the different life stages of all three animals. Out of 40,000 genes shared by the organisms, the researchers identified a mere 30 that were significant markers for aging.
The journal article was published as: Branched-chain amino acid catabolism is a conserved regulator of physiological ageing, which is available for free.
My comment: The article shows that branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) alter a nutrient-dependent neuroendocrine signal, which impacts lifespan via receptor-mediated events. The amino acids clearly link the innate immune system via microRNAs, heat shock proteins, and cell adhesion proteins to the de novo creation of the receptors that protect organized genomes from virus-driven entropy in an experience-dependent cell type non-autonomous manner. Transcription factors control epistatic synergy, which is how the transcription factors modulate physiological aging.
Extended nutrient-dependent healthspan is linked from the pheromone-controlled life history transitions of nematodes across species from microbes to humans via the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all individuals of all species.
Journal article excerpt:
Lastly and consistent with previous findings in rodents, nutritional supplementation of BCAAs extends nematodal lifespan. Taken together, BCAAs act as periphery-derived metabokines that induce a central neuro-endocrine response, culminating in extended healthspan.
Journal article conclusion (with my emphasis):
Since daf-7 is expressed in ASI neurons only30, while its receptors daf-1 and daf-4 act in the periphery49, daf-7/TGFβ may now be considered to act cell-non-autonomous as a neuro-endocrine hormone that impairs lifespan in otherwise healthy animals in response to evolutionary conserved pathways and amino acid signals derived thereof (Fig. 9g).
My comment: The obvious need to link atoms to ecosystems via nutrient energy-dependent life was removed when they placed their experimental evidence into the context of “evolutionary conserved pathways.” Instead of conserved molecular mechanisms, they claim that evolutionary conserved pathways automagically link atoms to ecosystems in the context of population genetics and ridiculous theories based on neo-Darwinian concepts. Neo-Darwinists also link accumulated mutations to the evolution of different species.
De Vries 1904 definition of “mutation” is typically included in articles that clearly link what is known about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions. The substitutions link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA via microRNAs and cell adhesion proteins that stabilize organized genomes in all living genera.
Neo-Darwinists seem unable to grasp the fact that there are obvious differences between mutations, which linked to pathology and amino acid substitutions, which are linked to nutrient-dependent healthy longevity.
See: What is Life?
We know definitely, today, that Darwin was mistaken in regarding the small, continuous, accidental variations, that are bound to occur even in the most homogeneous population, as the material on which natural selection works. For it has been proved that they are not inherited.
My comment: More than 70 years later, all serious scientists know that the accidental variations, which are still called mutations, contribute to virus-driven genomic entropy. Viruses steal the energy that is required for nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Simply put, viruses are linked to loss of function and the loss of genes. Human life appears to involve the nutrient-dependent de novo creation of at least a few thousand genes that we cannot live without.
Among all those genes, the researchers found 10 million variants—places within genes that varied from person to person.
My comment: A report about the nutrient-dependent substitution of achiral glycine in position six of the GnRH decapeptide links the substitution from the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on the physiology of reproduction to the stability of vertebrate genomes via metabolic networks, genetic networks, and supercoiled DNA, which probably protects organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
See: “Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor”
Excerpt (with my emphasis):
It is very surprising and fascinating that the coordinated evolutionary selection of amino acids participating in binding GnRH has resulted in such perfection, that no substitution with a natural amino acid in any position improves binding potency.
My comment: What he calls “coordinated evolutionary selection of amino acids” requires fixation of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes, which occurs only in the context of the physiology of reproduction. It will be interesting to see how many essential genes from the forthcoming report can be placed into the context of this report: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.
At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons.
My comment: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions must have occurred in many of the neurons that transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. If fixation had not occurred, the stability of organized vertebrate genomes could not have been achieved.
For comparison, if the 10 million variants in the 10,000 neurons in these 26 different brain areas linked mutations to the development of the human brain, biologically uninformed science idiots could claim that the human brain evolved via a series of mutations in the genes of microbes that also led to the evolution of human morphological and behavioral diversity. However, no information that links biologically-based cause and effect includes experimental evidence that links mutations to the 10 million variants in the 10,000 neurons in these 26 different brain areas. All experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect links Schrodinger’s claims from 1944 to non-Darwinian cell evolution. which exemplifies ecological adaptation.
Indeed, the latest articles to report on non-Darwinian cell evolution in cancer tissues, links nutrient-dependent supercoiled DNA to protection from virus-driven genomic entropy and pathology.
Virus-driven pathology: Distinct E-cadherin-based complexes regulate cell behaviour through miRNA processing or Src and p120 catenin activity
Protection from virus-perturbed protein folding Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
My comment: Nutrient-dependent microRNAs link supercoiled DNA from mitochondrial function via metabolic networks and genetic networks:
See: Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress
Excerpt (with my emphasis):
In mice with WT mitochondria, stress significantly decreased circulating levels for 13 (65%) of the 20 amino acids investigated (Fig. S3).
My comment: The stress is readily linked to the proliferation of viruses. The viruses steal the nutrient energy that is required for DNA repair and biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Perturbed thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation link the viruses from energy theft to decreased levels of circulating amino acids, which are essential to the stability of organized genomes in all living genera. The microRNA/messenger RNA balance is linked from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to supercoiled DNA and protection of organized genomes except when stress alters the molecular mechanisms that are required for DNA repair.
For example, see: MicroRNAs: From Female Fertility, Germ Cells, and Stem Cells to Cancer in Humans
See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
My comment: Despite what is known about the links from branch-chained amino acids to mitochondria-driven metabolic and genetic networks, the fact that a single amino acid substitution is linked to the virulence of viruses via the theft of energy seems to be ignored.
See: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution
Excerpt: The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
My comment: Nutrient-dependent microRNAs are linked to RNA-mediated via DNA repair, which is linked to ecological adaptations that you cannot live without.