Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Hydrogen-atom energy in DNA base pairs

See also: Consciousness is simply food rearranged
Role of Double Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions in Atmospheric Chemistry
Abstract excerpt: 

Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions are ubiquitous and play a crucial role in chemistries occurring in the atmosphere, biology, and industry.

My comment: The link from physics to chemistry and the conserved molecular mechanisms of biologically-based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation has been the focus my works for more than 20 years, even before I knew what I would need to explain about the energy-dependent links from angstroms to ecosystems via hydrogen-atom energy in all living genera.
See also: For first time, researchers see individual atoms keep away from each other or bunch up as pairs
Excerpt:

Different configurations of electrons give rise to specific elements, making carbon atoms, for instance, distinct from hydrogen atoms.

My comment: Without the different configurations of electrons,  energy-dependent changes in angstroms could not be linked from hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) in DNA base pairs in solution to all biodiversity in all ecosystems. Simply put, the sun’s biological energy must be linked from atmospheric chemistry to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry on Earth.
When these interactions are seen for the first time the experimental evidence must confirm theories. Otherwise physicists will try to come up with new untestable theories to stall scientific progress.  Serious scientists make progress when experimental evidence is accepted. Chemists typically know what to accept. So do molecular biologists.
What do evolutionary theorists or other social scientists know about physics, chemistry, or molecular epigenetics? How do pseudoscientists known what to accept when they already have accepted only theories?
For comparison, serious scientists know that angstroms measure distance, and every angstrom is dynamic in the context of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. How can any serious scientist understand the claims of theorists made in the context of articles like this:
Humans and Neanderthals had sex. But was it for love? An investigation
Excerpt:

We know for sure humans and Neanderthals had sex because of a Swedish scientist named Svante Pääbo, who “more or less invented the field of paleogenetics,” Elizabeth Kolbert wrote in a terrific New Yorker article in 2011.

My comment:  Elizabeth Kolbert lied and used Svante Pääbo’s works to support her ridiculous claim:

We know for sure humans and Neanderthals had sex…

Serious scientists know that Svante Pääbo is the senior author of two articles. The two articles linked Natural Selection on the Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in Humans and Chimpanzees and Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates.
Natural selection for the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes and the loss of genes is not an indicator that humans and Neanderthals had sex. It is an indicator that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality occurred in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all primates. For contrast, all serious scientists know that members of two different species do not have sex. Chromatin remodeling and chromosomal rearrangements limit fertility among species via their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and their behavior. The behavior is linked to energy-dependent codon optimality via the physiology of reproduction, not by sex between consenting humans and Neanderthals.
Is is silly to ask questions about sex for love without consideration of fertility, since the sexual interactions must be linked to survival of the species via biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry in the context of the physiology of reproduction. The biophysical constraints are energy-dependent, but the theorists’ and journalists’ preference for fiction is clear.
Excerpt:

Robert Sawyer is a science fiction author who won the Hugo Award — one of sci-fi’s highest honors — for his 2002 book Hominids, a story that imagines a parallel world where Neanderthals survived and we didn’t. In the book (which spawned a trilogy), a Neanderthal physicist opens up a rift between the worlds and falls in love with a human.

For comparison, see this presentation text about Greg Bear’s novels in which he detailed for his non-technical audience how the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction is linked from RNA-amino acid substitutions to all cell type differentiation in all individuals of all species. The Darwin Code
See also: Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A Pilot Study on Expertise in the Brain
Excerpt:

This study identified enhanced structural and functional patterns in the olfactory network of sommeliers. These findings are consistent with the learning they undergo in achieving the status of Master Sommelier. Furthermore, the volume of a region of the brain involved in olfactory memory was associated with experience, suggesting that the continued training results in morphological changes of the brain. These results speak to the plasticity of the adult brain in response to sensory expertise.

Reported as: Smelling Lots Of Wine Makes Your Brain Alzheimer’s Resistant

Overall, these differences suggest that specialized expertise and training might result in enhancements in the brain well into adulthood,” the study states. “This is particularly important given the regions involved, which are the first to be impacted by many neurodegenerative diseases.

See also:  What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs
My comment to the Scientist (I have posted: 361 comments so far)

20 years ago, we published: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior, which was a review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. We included a section on molecular epigenetic in the Hormones and Behavior review.

Unfortunately, few people realize that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links the de novo creation of genes from the creation of G protein-coupled receptors to chemotaxis and to phototaxis before biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity via RNA-mediated protein folding biochemistry can be linked to all biodiversity by amino acid substitutions.
When others report that mutations are linked to pathology, they seem to miss the fact that virus-driven energy theft causes the mutations. Nutrient-energy dependent viral latency has gone missing from explanations that would otherwise link what is known about biologically-based cause and effect from physics to chemistry and everything known about molecular epigenetics.
See also: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization
My comment: Pseudoscientists could challenge representations like this if they had experimental evidence for comparison. They don’t. They have only their ridiculous theories, which they report in the story about sex between modern humans and Neanderthals. It is unadulterated pseudoscientific nonsense and nothing more than an unsubstantiated fictional account. It is not science fiction. The theorists claims are not scientifically based.
See for comparison: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction and Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis
Both articles cite Kohl (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
See also: The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience
Excerpt:

12. Plotnick, Dornbos, and Chen (2010). Others who advocate smell-first are Lucia Jacobs (Jacobs, 2012), who says the building of smell maps of environmental space came first and James Kohl (Kohl, 2013), whose model says chemical ecology is the main driver of adaptive evolution.  — p. 263

My comment: Chemical ecology is the main driver of energy-dependent ecological adaptations. It is not not the driver of mutation-driven evolution, and so far there is no other model for comparison to my model of chemical ecology. I deliberately used the term adaptive evolution to see if someone would take the bait and offer another model for comparison. No one did.
See also: How Psychiatrist Jon Lieff Turned an Interest in Cellular Intelligence into Award-Winning Blogging!
My comment: Lieff still presents cellular intelligence in the context of evolution. He ignores what is known about hydrogen-atom energy in DNA base pairs in solution. That shows how successful a blogger can be if they simply fail to address what is known about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. His focus is on evolution! That means he does not need to explain anything about how evolution occurs, or explain what he thinks cellular intelligence is or where it came from!
See for comparison: Direct interrogation of the role of H3K9 in metazoan heterochromatin function
Reported as: Tight DNA packaging protects against ‘jumping genes,’ potential cellular destruction
Tight DNA is supercoiled DNA and it protects the orgnaized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Simply put, supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft, which is the only way to establish a link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation without inventing another ridiculous theory.

… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…

Nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs are the obvious link from olfaction to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry, plasticity, and prevention of all pathology.
See for example: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

Supercoiled DNA is the link to viral latency, which is the link to healthy longevity.

See also, from the Neuroscience FB group “As simple as random can be”
See also:  Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
My comment: There is no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that links anything except energy or energy theft to the species-specific COMT Val158Met amino acid substitution during life history transitions and the development of morphological and behavioral phenotypes.

COMT val158met polymorphism and molecular alterations in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Differences in controls and in schizophrenia
Excerpt:

…the COMT val158met polymorphism is not found in species other than humans (Palmatier et al., 1999).

My comment: That fact makes the COMT val158met polymorphism a “smoking gun” in the context of energy-dependent de novo gene creation and virus-driven energy theft that links gene losses to loss of function via differences in G protein-coupled receptors.
Dopamine Neuron-Specific Optogenetic Stimulation in Rhesus Macaques
G protein-coupled receptor kinases as regulators of dopamine receptor functions
Subsecond Regulation of Synaptically Released Dopamine by COMT in the Olfactory Bulb
Programmable RNA-binding protein composed of repeats of a single modular unit
Excerpt from the conclusion:

… Pumby may present a simplified context in which to insert Pumilio modules to study how specific amino acids contribute to the emergent properties of modular RNA binding, independent of position-specific effects.

See also: Another gate-keeping attempt by Feierman

Amino acid modification FA_Epigenetics_Table1

Energy-dependent RNA methylation (10)

Plexciton Dirac points and topological modes

Reported as: Scientists design energy-carrying particles called ‘topological plexcitons’
Excerpt:

This should eventually enable engineers to create plexcitonic switches to distribute energy selectively across different components of a new kind of solar cell or light-harvesting device.

My comment:Single-residue insertion switches the quaternary structure and exciton states of cryptophyte light-harvesting proteins” links their discovery to the complexity of energy-dependent epigenetically-effected biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry in all living genera.
Two epigenetic traps are required to prevent virus-driven energy theft, which is consistently linked from mutations to all pathology.
Excerpt:

…cryptophytes have evolved a structural switch controlled by an amino acid insertion to modulate excitonic interactions and therefore the mechanisms used for light harvesting.

My comment: Some people probably still believe that the energy-dependent structural switch could have evolved to control nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions after the anti-entropic virucidal effect of the sun’s biological energy emerged and automagically began to link the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA in all living genera. I call those people biologically uninformed theorists until some of them force me to use a form of rabbinical debate.

Quantum biology: Algae evolved to switch quantum coherence on and off

Excerpt:

Most cryptophytes have a light-harvesting system where quantum coherence is present. But we have found a class of cryptophytes where it is switched off because of a genetic mutation that alters the shape of a light-harvesting protein.

See also: Physics: Bell’s theorem still reverberates
Excerpt:

Quantum theory does not predict the outcomes of a single experiment, but rather the statistics of possible outcomes.

My comments: The statistics of possible outcomes never integrated what is known to serious scientists about the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy. The discussion thread of “Quantum biology” was pointless.
I (JVK) wrote: “De novo creation of olfactory receptor genes is only possible in the context of quantum mechanics, not mutations and evolution.”
anonymous_9001 (Andrew Jones) responded:  False dichotomy
Even John Hewitt’s comment could not prevent the further demise of my attempt to convey what is known to serious scientists about biophyically constrained top-down causation.
jonhew asked: How so JVK and anon??
Others began their attacks.
I wrote:
Thanks for asking, John
As you know, “The genetic and biophysical mechanisms by which new protein functions evolve is a central question in evolutionary biology, biochemistry, and biophysics.”

I cited: Biophysical mechanisms for large-effect mutations in the evolution of steroid hormone receptors

Excerpt:

…explicit studies of protein structure and dynamics…” show how a “…shift in function was driven primarily by two historical amino acid changes…

My comment: The amino acid substitutions are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in my atoms to ecosystems model, which cannot be discussed because anonymous fools and idiot minions of biology teachers like PZ Myers have no clue about what needs to happen with hydrogen bonds to achieve biophysically constrained thermodynamically controlled seemingly futile cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that enable organism-level thermoregulation manifested in biodiversity.
If you can eliminate the idiots here, progress might be made.
————————————
On Jun 4, 2014, Andrew Jones, published: Criticisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolutionary model. 
He got me banned from participation in the International Society for Human Ethology’s yahoo group, and eventually disclosed his identity — as the author of this undergraduate thesis about abiogenesis.
Excerpt: 

Despite their challenges, ribozymes have made an interesting niche for themselves in the field of abiogenesis. The evolution of a successful RNA polymerase ribozyme is a lofty goal. While its discovery would not be the be-all and end-all of abiogenesis research, it would represent an important stepping stone between prebiotic chemistry and life. The encapsulation of such a ribozyme is also an important step, as it would enable a system of heredity and evolution through natural selection. Based on progress in current research, it is only a matter of time before that ribozyme is discovered.

My comment: Obviously, there is no way to compare his speculation to my model, and in his criticisms he simply claimed this:

James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others’ research. It was a mistake to let such a sloppy review through to be published.

Andrew Jones, BA

See also the:  Editor’s note

The 2013 review article by James Vaughn Kohl published in Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology and criticized in the above Letter to the Editor was subjected to standard peer review and the revised version was accepted by me after it had been accepted by both reviewers.

In my review Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, , I concluded:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

After 3 more years, and 2 years after Jones’ criticisms of my model were published, there is still no other model of energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation for comparison. Theories like this one have begun to appear even more ridiculous than ever: Periodic Scarred States in Open Quantum Dots as Evidence of Quantum Darwinism.

But, as all serious scientists have always known New evidence for quantum Darwinism… will always be accepted by biologically uninformed pseudoscientists who refuse to learn anything about how angstroms and ecosystems must link the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.

See also: I’ve never read such a damning rebuttal of anyone’s work as Jones’ of your paper. It’s just one long list of basic mistakes. And you were asking me to define the difference between an aa substitution and a mutation? I’m beginning to think it’s because you don’t know yourself! Anyway, now writing my own post about how not to be a scientist online, and you’re the star…
 

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Energy-dependent creation and entropy

Theorists tend to use the term de novo when they don’t know.
If they don’t know how energy-dependent structures and functions are created, functional structures are created de novo.
See for example:  Lymphotoxin-Dependent B Cell-FRC Crosstalk Promotes De Novo Follicle Formation and Antibody Production following Intestinal Helminth Infection
If theorists don’t know what causes mutations, the mutations are de novo mutations.
See for example: Germline De Novo Mutations in GNB1 Cause Severe Neurodevelopmental Disability, Hypotonia, and Seizures
My comment: The energy-dependent de novo creation of functional structures readily extends what is known about viruses and energy theft to the creation of de novo mutations that cause all pathology. Serious scientists have linked the energy-dependent creation of nucleic acids from angstroms to ecosystems. They have linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via the creation of viral nucleic acids. Nucleic acids do not create themselves. Their creation is energy-dependent. Viruses steal the energy that links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to pH and healthy longevity.
See, for instance: DNA and RNA structure: nucleic acids as genetic material
Excerpt:

Asking what holds two strands of DNA together presupposes there’s some other force trying to pull the strands apart. There is, and that force is none other than heat. Heat, after all, is just random motion of molecules, and the force of this vibrational motion depends on temperature.

Remember this:

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

See also: Viral forensic genomics reveals the relatedness of classic herpes simplex virus strains KOS, KOS63, and KOS79
Excerpt:

KOS63 and its variants have a mutation present in the TATA-box promoter region of the membrane protein US9, as well as a substitution at position 58 in the US9 gene. This substitution introduces an early stop codon, and truncates the last 32 residues of the US9 protein (Macdonald et al., 2012; Negatsch et al., 2011). This mutation removes the stop codon and elongates the neighboring open reading frame of US8A, a protein of undetermined function (Macdonald et al., 2012; Negatsch et al., 2011).

My comment: If you don’t know the difference between a mutation and an amino acid substitution, you know nothing about how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained in the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation.  But, you are among the majority.
See for comparison to what others do not know about energy-dependent cell type differentiation: Achieving diverse and monoallelic olfactory receptor selection through dual-objective optimization design
Excerpt:

Comparative Model Studies Reveal That Nature Chooses the Simplest and Robust Design of Feedback Regulation.

Conclusion:

 …enhancer elements may also help on recruiting histone modification enzymes, leading to coupling between the two layers of regulation. Future studies will reveal these possible fine-tuning elements and address its implications in other processes of gene regulations.

My comment: In other words, nature fine-tunes itself by choosing which genes must be regulated by feedback. Serious scientists joke about such ridiculous misrepresentations.
Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (parody)
Chemists know (parody)
See also: New Insights into the Mysteries of Smell
Excerpt: 

In the new study, Dr. Xing and colleagues used these existing experimental data to create a computational model of how olfactory receptor expression can be both uniform across a single neuron, yet very diverse across the entire population of neurons. They then used this model to correctly predict several additional findings that have been demonstrated by other research groups, demonstrating that their model is valid.

My comment to the Neuroscince News site: Their model seems irrelevant compared to what is known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of energy-dependent protein folding.I plan to present this tomorrow at this free online conference.

http://www.labroots.com/virtual-event/genetics-genomics-2016

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics

Abstract: Olfaction and the innate immune system link energy as information from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA. The sun’s biological energy is the source of the information that links angstroms to ecosystems via physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics.
RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and amino acid substitutions link the anti-entropic quantized energy of sunlight from the virucidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) light to healthy longevity via biophysically-constrained energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and cell type differentiation.
Biomarkers link energy-dependent differences in base pairs and amino acid substitutions to biosignatures across the healthy life span. RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions also reveal the increasing complexity of interactions among cell types as pathology progresses. For comparison, successful reproduction links energy from supercoiled DNA to protection of all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and pathology.
This model links the sun’s biological energy from top-down causation in microbes to the most recent model of bottom-up gene activation and cell type differentiation in vertebrates. Citations to extant literature provide examples of what is currently known about how ecological variation leads to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in the context of nutritional epigenetics and Precision Medicine, which clearly link metabolic networks and genetic networks to pharmacogenomics.
———————-
Summary: In the series of five blog posts “RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics” (1-5), I included citations to experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect. The citations link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems because that is what serious scientists do.

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (5) 5/10/16

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (4) 5/9/16

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (3) 5/9/16

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (2) 5/6/16

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics 5/4/16

Serious scientists do not link computer models of biologically-based cause and effect to cell type differentiation without an energy source. That’s what pseudoscientists do.
If the switch on a pseudoscientist’s computer is turned off, or their computer gets infected by a virus that steals its energy to replicate, pseudoscientists no longer have a model of anything. They have only their ridiculous theories, and the ridiculous theories of pseudoscientists do not link energy-dependent life to biodiversity via what is known to serious scientists.
See for comparison: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction and Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (4)

Femtosecond structural dynamics drives the trans/cis isomerization in photoactive yellow protein 5/6/16

Summary excerpt:

Visualizing a response to light

Many biological processes depend on detecting and responding to light. The response is often mediated by a structural change in a protein that begins when absorption of a photon causes isomerization of a chromophore bound to the protein

Article excerpt:

Ultrafast fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopy of PYP have shown that excited state decay is multi-phasic (3, 5, 39). The fast (sub-picosecond) time constants are significantly more productive in creating the cis-like photoproduct than the slow (picosecond) time constants; the long-lived excited state population primarily decays back to the ground state (5, 36)

reported on 5/5/16 as

Scientists watch bacterial sensor respond to light in real time

Excerpt:

The researchers had already studied light-induced structural changes in PYP at LCLS, revealing atomic motions as fast as 10 billionths of a second. By tweaking their experiment, they were now able to improve their speed limit 100,000 times and capture reactions in the protein that are 1,000 times faster than any seen in an X-ray experiment before.

My comment: Their results link femtosecond blasts of ultraviolet (UV) light from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and microRNA flanking sequences to energy-dependent changes in the microRNA (miRNA)/messenger RNA (mRNA) balance. Changes in pH and changes in the miRNA/mRNA link the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to healthy longevity via what is known about supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy.

See also: Edward Snowden nominated for Nobel peace prize

Withholding information is usually a tactical measure. Promoting ignorance that fails to link the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to morphological and behavioral diversity contributes to belief in ridiculous theories and beliefs about other people that are based on those ridiculous theories.
If you can’t link energy-dependent changes to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution via the speed of light on contact with water, you may have missed everything known about how angstroms are linked to ecosystems via the creation of the sun and energy-dependent creation of GPCRs. The GPCRs link the epigenetic landscape to receptor-mediated behaviors via nutrient-dependent hormone organization and hormone activation in all vertebrates and invertebrates.
Information dissemination
4/6/16 Race/Ethnicity-Specific Association of Vitamin D and Global DNA Methylation: Cross-Sectional and Interventional Findings
reported on 5/2/16 in Engaging Epigenetics Experts:
Excerpt:

This PLoS ONE study is the first to show that vitamin D regulates global DNA methylation in humans. This is important because decreased global DNA methylation is associated with higher disease risks, (cancer, cardiovascular, immune function). Our bodies need sunshine to be healthy!

See for comparison:

“…calcitriol is the active form of vitamin D. Its effects on the microRNA(miRNA)/messenger RNA (mRNA) balance appear to protect against perturbed protein folding, which is associated with colorectal cancer. MiRNA-627 targets the mRNA that encodes an enzyme linked to histone demethylation and amino acid substitutions that increase stability of hydrogen bonds in DNA, which are important to protein folding (Padi, Zhang, Rustum, Morrison, & Guo, 2013). Rarely does a week go by without yet another report that details cause and effect in the context of miRNAs (Follert, Cremer, & Beclin, 2014). For example, the potential for therapeutic use of miRNA-126-5p to treat atherosclerosis was reported in time for me to note the importance of miRNAs to cell type differentiation via the circulatory system (Schober et al., 2014).” — Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

My comment: My invited review of nutritional epigenetics was returned without review. It linked the conserved molecular mechanisms of Vitamin D regulation of global DNA methylation to energy-dependent healthy longevity and to energy-loss, which I have since linked from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
If you’re not interested in at least scanning the works I have already presented, published, or those that editors returned without review, you’re not likely to grasp the magnitude of the problem with reviewers. Most of what is being published as mainstream science attempts to continue to support the ridiculous theories invented by neo-Darwinists. If you believe in the ridiculous theories, you won’t look for accurate representations of biophysically constrained energy-dependent cause and effect. You will miss the link from nutrition to DNA methylation and the link from virus-driven energy theft to hypomethylation and cancer. Virus-driven energy theft will continue to be ignored and biologically uninformed theorists will help the viruses to kill us all.
For more examples of ignorance about cell type differentiation, see:
An inter‐species protein–protein interaction network across vast evolutionary distance 4/22/16
Altered primary chromatin structures and their implications in cancer development 3/23/16
Identification of a Novel RNA Virus Lethal to Tilapia 9/17/14
Structure and mechanism of the ATPase that powers viral genome packaging 7/8/15
Ancient Virus DNA Gives Stem Cells the Power to Transform  3/30/14
Virus-based piezoelectric energy generation 5/13/12 reported as: A virus that creates electricity 5/16/12
See also: Is Biodiversity Research Biased? 4/11/16
The report of a virus that “creates” electricity shows how reports that link viruses to pathology are placed into the context of a battle between neo-Darwinian theorists and serious scientists. Biodiversity research is biased by the neo-Darwinian theorists. Anyone who attests facts forces biologically uninformed theorists to add to their theories. None of their theories link energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect, which means that none of their existing theories have any explanatory power.
For example, On day two of the Molecular Diagnostics event, Clustered mutations in hominid genome evolution are consistent with APOBEC3G enzymatic activity was reported as Virus fighter may have played a key role in human evolution.
Genetic and environmental influences interact with age and sex in shaping the human methylome was reported with no mention of how energy-dependent RNA-dircted DNA methylation must be linked to supercoiled DNA via the immune system so that all organized genomes are protected against virus-driven energy theft and entropy.
Thus, even after others admit that no experimental evidence links mutations to the biophysically constrained chemistry of energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding, they do not admit that Schrodinger’s claim about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight in “What is life?” (1944) was correct. Instead, one day after the Molecular Diagnostics event Ribose and related sugars from ultraviolet irradiation of interstellar ice analogs was reported as Scientists say the ‘R’ in RNA may be abundant in space.
The ultraviolet irradiation was not linked to ultraviolet absorption on contact with water on Earth, which left serious scientists to ask for an explanation of what ultraviolet irradiation in deep space has to do with energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and the link from the RNA-mediated innate immune system to supercoiled DNA. Instead, on April 8, 2016, Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water was reported as A single ion impacts a million water molecules and  Viruses work together to attack their hosts was reported based on a published work from October 14, 2015.

See also: Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiles of Streptococcus mutans UA159 Map Core Streptococcal Competence Genes 4/26/16

Reported on 4/20/16 as Scientists sharpen view of gene transfer between pathogenic bacteria

Excerpt 1)

Bacteria possess the ability to take up DNA from their environment, a skill that enables them to acquire new genes for antibiotic resistance or to escape the immune response.

Excerpt 2)

Our findings — that two-thirds of the core activated genes in streptococcus have transformation functions — suggest that this is an ancient response, maintained because of its value in promoting ready access to external DNA.

My comment: Femtosecond changes in time constants link fast or slow changes in energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from the speed of light on contact with water to thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation.  Virus-driven energy theft perturbs those cycles. That is how viruses are linked from the accumulation of mutations to all pathology. Watch closely as each day goes by and more news reports try to misrepresent what is known about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.  Theorists are scared, and they will do anything they can to help science journalists continue to misrepresent the facts known to serious scientists who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
 

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics (3)

Summary of the metabolic pathways altered in cancer that are described in this review

Microtargeting cancer metabolism: opening new therapeutic windows based on lipid metabolism

My comment: Metabolic networks are linked to genetic networks by the normal metabolic landscape, which is linked to healthy longevity. Virus-driven energy theft links changes in the metabolic landscape to changes in the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA, which typically maintains healthy longevity across the lifespan by preventing virus-driven entropy. When no consideration is given to facts about virus-driven entropy, you are stuck with theories about brain evolution.
See for example: Metabolic acceleration and the evolution of human brain size and life history 5/4/16 reported as: Humans have faster metabolism than closely related primates, enabling larger brains

My comment: Place that claim into this regression.

Genome reduction uncovers a large dispensable genome and adaptive role for copy number variation in asexually propagated Solanum tuberosum 1/15/16
My comment: Copy number variation is nutrient energy dependent
Small RNAs: essential regulators of gene expression and defenses against environmental stresses in plants 2/28/16
My comment: MicroRNA flanking sequences link hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to nutrient energy-dependent copy number variation.

An Ancient Transkingdom Horizontal Transfer of Penelope-Like Retroelements from Arthropods to Conifers 4/1/16
reported 4/14/16 as: Scientists document rare DNA transfer between animals and plants
My comment: “Among different bacterial species existing in similar environments, DNA uptake (Palchevskiy & Finkel, 2009) appears to have epigenetically ‘fed’ interspecies methylation and speciation via conjugation (Fall et al., 2007; Finkel & Kolter, 2001; Friso & Choi, 2002). This indicates that reproduction began with an active nutrient uptake mechanism in heterospecifics and that the mechanism evolved to become symbiogenesis in the conspecifics of asexual organisms (Margulis, 1998). In yeasts, epigenetic changes driven by nutrition might then have led to the creation of novel cell types, which are required at evolutionary advent of sexual reproduction (Jin et al., 2011). These epigenetic changes probably occur across the evolutionary continuum that includes both nutrition-dependent reproduction in unicellular organisms and sexual reproduction in mammals. For example, ingested plant microRNAs influence gene expression across kingdoms (Zhang et al., 2012). In mammals, this epigenetically links what mammals eat to changes in gene expression (McNulty et al., 2011) and to new genes required for the evolutionary development of the mammalian placenta (Lynch, Leclerc, May, & Wagner, 2011) and the human brain (Zhang, Landback, Vibranovski, & Long, 2011).” — Kohl (2012)
My comment: Place all claims (above) that link nutrient-dependent ecological adaptations into the context of healthy longevity. Place all claims (below) into the context of  virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.
Wolbachia Blocks Currently Circulating Zika Virus Isolates in Brazilian Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes 5/4/16

reported 5/4/16 as: Bacteria-Infected Mosquitoes Could Slow Spread of Zika Virus

The genetic basis for ecological adaptation of the Atlantic herring revealed by genome sequencing 5/3/16

reported 5/1/16 Australia to spend over $11mn to eradicate carps by releasing herpes virus into rivers

My comment: Place all claims about nutrient energy-dependent cell type differentiation and all claims that link virus-driven energy theft into the context of physics and chemistry linked to the conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation in twin studies. For example,  NASA’s Twins Study Explores Space Through You: Videos Highlight Omics  4/20/16

What does it take to detect entanglement with the human eye?
reported 5/3/16 as  An experiment seeks to make quantum physics visible to the naked eye

RNA splicing is a primary link between genetic variation and disease 4/29/16

3/31/16 Carl Zimmer Episode 5: Everything you thought you knew about the shape of DNA is wrong

4/24/16 Sea Slug Senses 1/15/13 The sea slug that eats the sun (video)

Saturation of recognition elements blocks evolution of new tRNA identities 4/29/16

reported 5/2/16 Discovery of a fundamental limit to the evolution of the genetic code

Two Conserved Histone Demethylases Regulate Mitochondrial Stress-Induced Longevity and Mitochondrial Stress Induces Chromatin Reorganization to Promote Longevity and UPRmt

reported 5/2/16  Genetic switch could be key to increased health and lifespan

The Role of Correlation and Solvation in Ion Interactions with B-DNA 1/19/16

delayed reporting till 5/3/16 A new model for simulating DNA’s ‘atmosphere’ of ions

5/3/16 Part I: Epigenetics: Why Your DNA Isn’t Enough C. David Allis

5/3/16 Part II: Epigenetics in Development and Disease C. David Allis

Genomic instantiation of consciousness in neurons through a biophoton field theory 6/13/14
4/18/16 Dense EM-based reconstruction of the interglomerular projectome in the zebrafish olfactory bulb and 5/1/16 Remote z-scanning with a macroscopic voice coil motor for fast 3D multiphoton laser scanning microscopy 
collectively reported 5/2/16 as Unraveling complex neuronal networks
My comment: The de novo creation of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA via olfaction and the innate immune system.

Imaging GPCRs trafficking and signaling with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cultured neurons. Delgado-Peraza F, Nogueras-Ortiz C, Acevedo Canabal AM, Roman-Vendrell C, Yudowski GA. Methods Cell Biol. 2016;132:25-33.
Chapter 1 – Localization and signaling of GPCRs in lipid rafts

Chapter 2 – Imaging GPCRs trafficking and signaling with total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy in cultured neurons
Chapter 4 – Single-molecule resolution of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) complexes
Chapter 13 – Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Approaches to Study GPCRs
My comment: Place everything known about nutrient energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and cell type differentiation into the context of virus-driven energy theft and cancer.

Deletion of Amino Acid Transporter ASCT2 (SLC1A5) Reveals an Essential Role for Transporters SNAT1 (SLC38A1) and SNAT2 (SLC38A2) to Sustain Glutaminolysis in Cancer Cells (4/26/16)
reported on 5/5/16 Starving cancer the key to new treatments
Excerpt:

The research team blocked gateways through which the cancer cell was obtaining the amino acid glutamine and found the cells almost completely stopped growing.

My comment: They prevented the viruses in the cancer cell from adapting. Otherwise, energy theft enables amino acid substitutions in the virus that would link ecological variation to healthy longevity when nutrient-stress or social stress is biophysically constrained. Links from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. They have been placed into the context of mutation-driven evolution by theorists who have killed millions with their ridiculous theories.

See for comparison:

reported 5/2/16 We are pleased to announce that today marks the formal release of our latest title: Amber Palaeobiology by Dr David Penney.

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics

RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics

Genetics and Genomics May 11-12, 2016


Published on 3 May 2016  See the full size poster displayed on Figshare.com

Abstract:

Olfaction and the innate immune system link energy as information from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA. The sun’s biological energy is the source of the information that links angstroms to ecosystems via physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics.

RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and amino acid substitutions link the anti-entropic quantized energy of sunlight from the virucidal effects of ultraviolet (UV) light to healthy longevity via biophysically-constrained energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and cell type differentiation.

Biomarkers link energy-dependent differences in base pairs and amino acid substitutions to biosignatures across the healthy life span. RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions also reveal the increasing complexity of interactions among cell types as pathology progresses. For comparison, successful reproduction links energy from supercoiled DNA to protection of all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and pathology.

This model links the sun’s biological energy from top-down causation in microbes to the most recent model of bottom-up gene activation and cell type differentiation in vertebrates. Citations to extant literature provide examples of what is currently known about how ecological variation leads to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in the context of nutritional epigenetics and Precision Medicine, which clearly link metabolic networks and genetic networks to pharmacogenomics.

Content:
Physics:  Quantum theory links ecological variation and food odors from the supply of specific nutrients to climate change and stress-effected differences in human brain development. [1-3] [1] A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution
[2] Climate warming is predicted to reduce omega-3, long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acid production in phytoplankton
[3] Maternal choline intake alters the epigenetic state of fetal cortisol-regulating genes in humans
Chemistry:  Quantized energy from the sun links ultraviolet (UV) light on contact with water to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and RNA-mediated DNA repair via amino acid substitutions. [4-9] Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) [10-11] and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo -EM) [12] link electron density from angstroms to ecosystems in the context of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of energy-dependent RNA-amino acid substitutions and/or virus-driven pathology. For example ~10 amino acids surround the Asn154 glycosylation site of the Zika virus. Remarkably similar findings were confined to one generation of mass die-offs in a species of fish. [13] Transgenerational effects of the Zika virus link the nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated immune system and the physiology of reproduction in vertebrates to supercoiled DNA, which typically prevents virus-driven entropy in all organized genomes. [14-17] Outside the context of the non-linear links from physics and chemistry to biologically-based cause and effect, the differences in the Zika virus and all living organisms are typically placed into the context of neo-Darwinian evolution via master genes that drift to fixation in the host population. [18-19] For contrast, everything known about nutrient energy-dependent cell type differentiation links viruses in gut microbes from metabolic networks and genetic networks to invertebrate and vertebrate biodiversity. [20-23]

[4] Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water
[5] Serial interactome capture of the human cell nucleus
[6] Pado, a fluorescent protein with proton channel activity can optically monitor membrane potential, intracellular pH, and map gap junctions
[7] Dissipation Bounds All Steady-State Current Fluctuations
[8] Physicists prove energy input predicts molecular behavior
[9] Metabolic Regulation of Histone Post-Translational Modifications
[10] Architecture of the symmetric core of the nuclear pore
[11] Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
[12] The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus
[13] Characterization of a Novel Orthomyxo-like Virus Causing Mass Die-Offs of Tilapia.
[14] Force distribution in a semiflexible loop
[15] Mammalian elongation factor 4 regulates mitochondrial translation essential for spermatogenesis
[16] The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
[17] Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk
[18] From Mosquitos to Humans: Genetic Evolution of Zika Virus
[19] Comprehensive Transcriptome Profiles of Streptococcus mutans UA159 Map Core Streptococcal Competence Genes
[20]  A Tunable Mechanism Determines the Duration of the Transgenerational Small RNA Inheritance in C. elegans
[21] Resveratrol Attenuates Trimethylamine-N-Oxide (TMAO)-Induced Atherosclerosis by Regulating TMAO Synthesis and Bile Acid Metabolism via Remodeling of the Gut Microbiota
[22] Wolbachia Blocks Viral Genome Replication Early in Infection without a Transcriptional Response by the Endosymbiont or Host Small RNA Pathways
[23] Ancient horizontal transfers of retrotransposons between birds and ancestors of human pathogenic nematodes

Molecular epigenetics
It has become clear to all serious scientists that nutrient-dependent microRNA flanking sequences link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to  ecological adaption via protection against virus-driven energy theft, which links a single amino acid substitution to increased virulence of viruses. [24 -28] The role of the nutrient-dependent substitution of the achiral amino acid glycine in position six of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide, established GnRH secretion as the link from the gut microbes of invertebrates to all vertebrate biologically-based cause and effect. GnRH secretion links hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors from invertebrates to vertebrates via olfaction and the innate immune system. [29] This representation of epigenetically-effected genome organization can be compared to theories about mutations in the context of facts about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and energy-dependent cell type differentiation. The nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all genera via what is currently known about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.

[24] Identification of Amino Acid Substitutions Supporting Antigenic Change of Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 Viruses;
[25] Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
[26] The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences;
[27] Distinct E-cadherin-based complexes regulate cell behaviour through miRNA processing or Src and p120 catenin activity
[28] Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization
[29] From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Microbiomes, Metabolism, Mitochondria, Mechanisms, and Molecular diagnostics
What is known about  Microbiomes, Metabolism, Mitochondria and Molecular diagnostics links any energy-dependent systems approach from -omics to Precision Medicine via the innate immune system. [30] All phenotypic expression starts with the energy-dependent creation of nucleic acids and the creation of G protein-coupled receptors. The receptors allow nutrients to enter cells. For example, see [31] The energy-dependent creation of olfactory receptor genes links metabolism and mitochondrial function to stress-driven changes in neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, transcirptional responses and to differences in behavior. [32-33] Expression of c-fos links gene expression in GnRH neurosecretory neurons from the first step to the final steps of cell type differentiation all vertebrates. [34-36] Nutrient stress and social stress link changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from pH and virus-driven energy theft to mutations and all pathology.[37] GnRH secretion links nutrient energy-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation to the stability of organized genomes RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. [38]  See also: [39]

[30] Endolysosomal trafficking of viral G protein-coupled receptor functions in innate immunity and control of viral oncogenesis
[31] An Epigenetic Signature for Monoallelic Olfactory Receptor Expression
[32] Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress
[33] Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity
[34] Evolution of Constrained Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Ligand Conformation and Receptor Selectivity
[35] Induction of FOS immunoreactivity in central accessory olfactory structures of the female rat following exposure to conspecific males,
[36] Stimulus-specific combinatorial functionality of neurona c-fos enhancers
[37]  Allosteric switch regulates protein–protein binding through collective motion
[38] Stress-induced gene expression and behavior are controlled by DNA methylation and methyl donor availability in the dentate gyrus,
[39] Direct evidence for sequence-dependent attraction between double-stranded DNA controlled by methylation

Conclusion:
Nutrient energy-dependent changes in base pairs link olfaction and c-fos expression from microRNAs to changes in the innate immune system via microRNA flanking sequences and energy-dependent DNA methylation that varies with stress.[40] In mammals, DNA methylation and microRNA activity link gene activation from olfaction to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors via the secretion of hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and downstream effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and HP-adrenal (HPA) axis. [41] One base pair change and a single RNA-mediated amino acid substitution link the stability of viruses to the stability or the instability of metabolic networks and genetic networks in the organized genomes of all living genera. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are inappropriately called mutations. [42-48] Mutations are linked from emergence to evolution by theorists who may not know anything about RNA-mediated biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. Many theorists seem to know nothing about the conserved molecular mechanisms of healthy longevity and biodiversity in all living genera. See [49]

 [40] Rapid Down-Regulation of Glucocorticoid Gene Expression in the Dentate Gyrus after Acute Stress in vivo: Role of DNA Methylation and microRNA Activity
[41] Systems Nutrigenomics Reveals Brain Gene Networks Linking Metabolic and Brain Disorders
[42] Molecular requirements for a pandemic influenza virus: An acid-stable hemagglutinin protein
[43] Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant
[44] The SNP rs1625579 in miR-137 gene and risk of schizophrenia in Chinese population: A meta-analysis
[45] COMT val158met polymorphism and molecular alterations in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Differences in controls and in schizophrenia
[46] Reduced protein synthesis in schizophrenia patient-derived olfactory cells
[47] Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity
[48] Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
[49] Essential role for a novel population of binucleated mammary epithelial cells in lactation

Chemistry

Energy is INFORMATION

Hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution

Photosynthesis

Nutritional epigenetics

base pair substitutions

microRNA flanking sequence

miRNA/mRNA balance

RNA/DNA Methylation

 RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions

Thermodynamic cycles of nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation

Quantum and Classical Physics

innate immune system

de novo creation of nucleic acids

microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis

alternative splicings / pre-mRNA

G protein-coupled receptor gene creation

Molecular Epigenetics

Olfactory receptor genes

 Food odors & Pheromones

 Feedback  loops

 Physiology of Reproduction

 RNA-mediated DNA repair

 Supercoiled DNA

 HHHealthy longevity

Excessive STRESS

 changes in pH

Virus-driven energy theft

ENTROPY

 Altered Brain development

 Altered Learning and memory

 Altered Life history transitions

 Altered Feedback loops

 Altered Reproduction & Aging

 Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance

 Virus-perturbed neural circuitry, odor hedonics, mood, memory, motivation, expressions of affect, cognitive behavioral state, and potentiating responses to other stimuli link energy theft from stress  to mutations and all pathology.

 
Youtube Narrative:
My name is James Kohl. I’m a medical laboratory scientist.
Physicists, chemists, and molecular biologists have linked energy-dependent changes in DNA base pairs from angstroms to ecosystems and healthy longevity in all living genera.
Energy is information. The innate immune system links the information from the epigenetic landscape to the de novo creation of genes and to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent supercoiled DNA protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven energy theft.
Energy theft causes the accumulation of mutations that leads to all pathology.
In this presentation, I link ecological variation to energy-dependent RNA-mediated events and ecological adaptation. Chemical ecology links the energy-dependent events from nutrient-dependent microRNA flanking sequences to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry links the conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation to all biodiversity.
Simply put, the sun’s biological energy links what organisms eat to cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction. Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance links single nucleotide polymorphisms and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, such as COMT Val158Met  and BDNF Val66Met to differences in phenotypes. Fixed amino acid substitutions exemplify differences in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera.
The color-coded sections of the model include links to cited works that support the brief representations in the text. The center section of the poster attests to the fact that cause and effect is non-linear. Experience-driven changes link energy from physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics via RNA-mediated protein folding.
That’s how experience links top-down causation from sunlight to molecular epigenetics and the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera across their lifespan. All life-sustaining interactions must be integrated during life history transitions and successful transitions are manifested as fixed amino acid substitutions.
The sections in yellow, green, and white link the anti-entropic quantised energy of the sun from the virucidal effects of ultraviolet light to healthy longevity. The citations attest to facts about energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry links hydrogen-atom transfer  from angstroms to ecosystems via pH in the context of cell type differentiation.
Facts about measured analytes in addition to pH link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction. All facts about cell type differentiation link biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry to pH and protection from virus-driven entropy.
For contrast, everything in red links excessive nutrient stress and/or social stress from changes in pH and virus-driven energy theft to mutations and all pathology.  If everything in yellow, green, white, and red is not considered in the context of healthy longevity compared to virus-driven pathology, researchers and clinicians are left with theories.
In the context of genetics and genomics all theories are equally irrelevant compared to the facts that link angstroms to ecosystems. Virtually all theories ignore Schrodinger’s claims about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight. And most theories also ignore Dobzhansky’s claims about nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions and biodiversity.
Facts link chemical ecology from quantum physics to olfaction and facts link the immune system and the sense of smell. The sense of smell is linked from symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s to the hard problem of consciousness. The sense of smell also links the bull sperm microRNAome to microRNAs in human breast milk that are essential to brain development. Brain development occurs in the context of fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes.
In the age of Precision Medicine and problems like energy theft by the Zika virus, genomics and genetics must be linked by facts about cell type differentiation. What is known about  Microbiomes, Metabolism, Mitochondria and Molecular diagnostics links this energy-dependent systems approach from the innate immune system to Precision Medicine.  All phenotypic expression starts with the energy-dependent creation of nucleic acids and the creation of G protein-coupled receptors. The receptors allow nutrients to enter cells.
Receptor-mediated gene expression links c-fos in the gonadotropin releasing hormone neurosecretory neurons of all mammals from the first step to the final step of cell type differentiation in all vertebrates. That fact has been known for more than two decades.
MicroRNA flanking sequences link nutrient energy-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and histone acetylation to the stability of organized genomes via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in all genera. That fact has been known for more than a year.
Conclusion:
Nutrient energy-dependent changes link olfaction and c-fos expression from microRNAs to changes in the innate immune system via microRNA flanking sequences and energy-dependent DNA methylation that varies with stress. In mammals, DNA methylation and microRNA activity link gene activation from olfaction to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors via the secretion of hypothalamic GnRH and downstream effects on the HPG and HPA axis.
One base pair change and a single RNA-mediated amino acid substitution link the stability of viruses to the stability of metabolic networks and genetic networks in the organized genomes of all living genera. Unfortunately, energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are frequently called beneficial mutations by theorists.
Definitions of mutations and assumptions about what mutations do has biased biodiversity research and patient outcomes since de Vries defined “mutation” in 1904.

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Millions of water molecules vs years of evolution

Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water

Reported as: A single ion impacts a million water molecules

See also:  Remembering Evolution Visionary Mae-Wan Ho

Excerpt:  

Mae-Wan Ho believed that “water is the medium of life,” that “[q]uantum coherent water underlies the quantum coherence of organisms.”

My comment 1) It saddens me to think about how many intelligent visionaries have been lost during the time that neo-Darwinists continued to tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of their well-funded claims about beneficial mutations.

Thank you for continuing to help show how what started with definitions and assumptions has become an almost insurmountable force for virus-driven pathology. Many scientists appreciate the works of journalists who are willing to learn about biologically-based cause and effect. I’m sure that Mae-Won Ho appreciated your efforts.
For example, you may help put a stop to claims about weekend evolution of the bacterial flagellum, which was attributed to two mutations instead of two RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
The nutrient-dependent substitutions link the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all livng genera. But see the forward by Roger Penrose to: “What is Life?: The Intellectual Pertinence of Erwin Schrödinger.”
Excerpt: “How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?”
Similarly, how often does anyone link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight on contact with water from Mae-Won Ho’s works to healthy longevity compared to virus-driven pathology?

My comment 2)

I suspect that someday soon everyone will place this fact into the context of the fact that there is no boundary between genetic and epigenetic (per Mae-Wan Ho and all other serious scientists).

A single ion impacts a million water molecules http://phys.org/news/2016-04-ion-impacts-million-molecules.html
SARCASM ALERT: Contextualization of facts must wait until after the upcoming Royal Society meeting on the evolution paradigm shift.
Apparently, they are not going to allow anyone to address the effects of virus-driven energy theft, which are linked to all cell type differentiation in all living genera by those damned viruses in the water. The viruses cause the mutations that some people still want to link to evolution across millions of years.
But then, what about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum?
Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system http://www.sciencemag.org/content/347/6225/1014.abstract
I don’t think anyone invited to the meeting is ready to talk about that, either.

See also: The pressing need to link physics and chemistry to biologically-based cause and effect, which is what Mae-Wan Ho tried to do, can be viewed in the context of findings from cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) and links from angstroms to ecosystems in the context of cryo-EM.

See:

  1. Architecture of the symmetric core of the nuclear pore
  2. The 3.8 Å resolution cryo-EM structure of Zika virus
  3. Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

Physics

Soil bacteria, bulls, cows, microRNAs, and mammary glands

What is Life?
Excerpt: 

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight)

My comment: Sunlight is the anti-entropic force that links the physiology of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in soil bacteria from plants to mammals via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes via fixation in supercoiled DNA in the context of the physiology of reproduction.

The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

Systematic microRNAome profiling reveals the roles of microRNAs in milk protein metabolism and quality: insights on low-quality forage utilization
Human milk miRNAs primarily originate from the mammary gland resulting in unique miRNA profiles of fractionated milk

How The Nose Knows: Research On Smell Boosted

Excerpt:

The sense of smell, notes LSU biology professor John Caprio, originally evolved to detect water-soluble chemicals like amino acids. The ability to detect volatiles in air is an adaptation of the original mechanism.

My comment: No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect links anything to the evolution of anything else. Quantum physics links the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to all biologically-based cause and effect. All experimental evidence links the sun’s biological energy from top-down causation to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry via amino acid substitutions in organized genomes, which link behavior and supercoiled DNA to protection from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.

See also: Breast Milk Sugars Support Infant Gut Health
This is their graphic representation (a “picture” of health) is what I have repeatedly reported as the link from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. In this case, the solution is breast milk.

Excerpt:

Bode noted that human milk oligosaccharides are more than just meals for gut microbes. Recent evidence has suggested that these sugars may serve to lower the risk of bacterial and viral infections in the gut, among other things.

My comment: Finally, two decades after we detailed how RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of mammalian reproduction, science news outlets have been forced to deal with the fact that nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions are biophysically constrained. Anyone who reports the amino acid substitutions as if they were constraint-breaking mutations should be stopped from reporting any more pseudoscientific nonsense.

See: Mutation-Driven Evolution

Excerpt:

…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements (p. 199).

My comment: Nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair in the context of the physiology of reproduction protects all organized genomes from from virus-driven pathology. Why was that fact not obvious to all intelligent scientists? How could anyone have ignored the links from microRNAs to adhesion proteins in supercoiled DNA, which protects us from stress-linked pathology. 

Bacillus (redirected from Bacillus fragilis)

Excerpt:

a genus of aerobic or facultatively anaerobic, spore-forming rods, most of which are gram-positive and motile. There are three pathogenic species:B. an´thracis,which causes anthrax;B. ce´reus, a common soil saprophyte that causes food poisoning by the formation of an enterotoxin in contaminated foods; and B. sub´tilis, a common soil and water saprophyte that often occurs as a laboratory contaminant and occasionally causes conjunctivitis. B. subtilis also produces the antibacterial agent bacitracin.

B. subtilis produces an antibacterial agent that links it’s nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation to protection from viruses in other bacteria. The bacterial flagellum is also an ecological adaptation that protects the organized genome of Pseudomonas fluorescens  from virus-driven entropy by ensuring that individual organisms can find food and reproduce. Many people have tried to put a stop to the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by people like Larry Young, who portrays the virus-driven evolution of prairie vole monogamy and human heterosexual love in this video representation.


Pseudoscientists are often cited as experts who support the ridiculous misrepresentations of other so-called experts. Those who challenge the expertise of pseudoscientists are often removed from their positions, when it is the pseudoscientists who need to be removed. See for example:  NYC Doctor Says She Lost Job After Questioning DNA Technique
Anyone who has ever worked in an environment where diagnostic testing is performed probably already realizes how ridiculous the neo-Darwinists and their idiot minions have become. But all those who understand anything at all about cell type differentiation are outnumbered by the ignorant theorists.

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Bacteria see the light and they adapt

Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction

Excerpt:

From the observed dimensions of the spot of 488 nm light focused by Synechocystis cells (Figure 3c) we can estimate that Synechocystis “vision” has an angular resolution (FWHM) of about 21°, essentially limited by light wavelength and the area of the plasma membrane, which is tiny in comparison to an animal retina. However, this resolution is sufficient to incorporate quite complex spatial information into a 360° image of the cell’s surroundings, and our data in Figure 1e indicate that the cell can integrate information from distinct and spatially separated light sources. The directional motile responses of the cells (Figure 1c,d) show a distribution of displacement angles with FWHM ~30°. This is less accurate than the initial imaging of the light source, which suggests an unsurprising degree of spreading and noise during the signal transduction that comes between initial light perception and the response of the motility apparatus.

My comment: The spot of 488 nm light focused by Synechocystis cells links phototaxis and chemotaxis from photosynthesis to all nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated biodiversity. See for instance:

Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution

Introduction:

For over fifty years, the role of interstrand proton or hydrogen-atom transfer in double-helix DNA has been debated as a possible precursor for mutagenesis and carcinogenesis.[1] However, recent theoretical studies postulated that ultrafast interstrand electron-driven proton transfer (EDPT) instead contributes to the prevention of mutagenic photolesions in DNA excited by absorption of solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. [2]

Excerpt:

At an excitation wavelength of 260 nm,  about 80% of the photons are absorbed by G (see the Supporting Information, Figure S5).[5c,8a] Excitation at the red edge of the absorption spectrum at 290 nm promotes the same photochemistry, but the product bands observed in TEAS and TVAS are weaker because of the lower absorption by G at this wavelength. Excitation of C leads to monomer-like deactivation (see Section S12). Therefore, the discussion in this paper focuses on the results after 260 nm excitation.

My comment: The mechanism that emerges is not links UV light to everything currently know to serious scientists about biophotonics. The mechanism is not placed into the context of anything except a biophysically constrained epigenetic trap. The trap links the speed of light on contact with water from different wavelengths to differences in  hydrogen-atom transfer in double-helix DNA. Hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution links phototaxis and chemotaxis.
Chemotaxis links the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction to all biomass and all biodiversity. The mechanism that emerges can be compared to claims that evolutionary mechanisms link the emergence of life from mutations to increasing organismal complexity via natural selection in the context of ridiculous neo-Darwinian theories that ignored Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
For examples of that ignorance, see these reports on the article (with my emphasis): Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction
Excerpt:

…findings are most likely an example of convergent evolution between bacteria and more complex multi-cellular organisms including animals and humans.

My comment: The findings link the speed of light on contact with water from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation via the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding in all living genera.
Dobzhansky’s “light of evolution” can be placed into the context of the amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of chimpanzees and modern humans from the cell types of gorillas.

Like all other serious scientists, Dobzhansky (1973) linked the anti-entropic energy of sunlight to all biodiversity via nutrient-dependent ecological adaptations and the physiology of reproduction.
Pseudoscientists hate the fact that they didn’t realize Dobzhansky was joking about mutations and evolution. They never learned the difference between mutations and amino acid substitutions, and Dobzhansky knew they would not. The jokes played on pseudoscientists by serious scientists may have started with Dobzhansky (1964).
Excerpt:

Cyanobacteria evolved around 2.7 billion years ago and the fact that they are able to produce oxygen and fix carbon dioxide using energy from the sun – photosynthesis – is thought to have caused mass extinctions and the oldest known ice age.

My comment: Phototaxis and chemotaxis are not linked from the sun’s biological energy to photosynthesis and EVOLUTION or EXTINCTION. Chemotaxis and phototaxis are linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair and supercoiled DNA that protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy.
For a reality check, see these reports on the article (with my emphasis): Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction
Excerpt:

They get energy from photosynthesis, meaning they need plenty of light to perform the same chemical reaction as plants.


Previous studies have shown Synechocysti contain photosensors and that they are able to perceive the position of a light source and move towards it – a phenomenon called phototaxis. This study showed how this process works. Bacteria moving towards a light is pictured
Excerpt:

The ability of optical objects to distinguish fine detail is determined by “angular resolution”. In the human eye this is an impressive 0.02 degrees. The team estimate that in Synechocystis it is about 21 degrees.

My comment: Is anyone willing to place the change in the degrees of resolution into the context of beneficial mutations and evolution of human visual acuity and specificity?
Excerpt:

Within minutes, the bacteria grow tiny tentacle-like structures called pili that reach out towards the light source.

My comment: The light source is the energy source for growth of the pili, which occurs within minutes. The light source links metabolic networks from their energy source to genetic networks that control colony growth. Colony growth is biophysically constrained in bacteria via the systems complexity of nutrient-dependent quorum sensing, a function of pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral phenotypes. The structure and function of the phenotypes extends to humans via biophysically constrained RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of protein folding chemistry.
Conclusion: The laws of physics and the chemistry of protein folding link the sun’s biological energy to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction, which is controlled by pheromones in species from microbes to humans.
See also: Researchers illuminate ‘dark side’ of the transcriptome

 

A new method to detect, quantify and visualize RNA splicing helps to shed light on the “dark side” of the transcriptome: complex splicing variations that have been known to exist but have not been well studied.

Credit: Illustration conceived by Matthew Gazzara in the Barash lab, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania

My comment: Credit for linking RNA splicing to cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans should be given to Teresa Binstock, who co-authored our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review and was solely responsible for the section on molecular epigenetics.

See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Excerpt:

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
A potential ramification of epigenetic imprinting and alternative splicing may be occurring in Xq28, a chromosomal region implicated in homosexual orientation (Brook, 1993; Hu, Pattatucci, Patterson, Li, Fulker, Cherny, Kruglyak, and Hamer, 1995; Turner, 1995). Xq28 contains one of the X chromosome’s two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs), adjoins the telomere, and has various means of gene expression control (D’Esposito, Ciccodicola, Gianfrancesco, Esposito, Flagiello, Mazzarella, Schiessinger, and D’Urso (1996). Xq28, therefore, is a chromosomal region that has many of the heterochromatic and telomeric characteristics that participate in sexual determination and behavior in other species.

See also: The Light and Darkness of “Evolution 2.0”
Excerpt: The sun’s biological energy links its anti-entropic virucidal epigenetic effects to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.”
See also: Sighted Microbes
Excerpt:

…the study offered an “elegant demonstration” of the mechanism for phototaxis in these bacteria. “Cyanobacteria are 2.7 billion years old…

My comment to “The Scientist”
Their results link phototaxis to chemotaxis. They also link microbial foraging behavior to human metabolic networks and genetic networks via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pair in solutions like sea water and circulating blood.
Facts about light intensity and energy-dependent changes in base pairs link everything known to serious scientists about physics, chemistry, and the conserved molecular mechanisms of biologically-based RNA-mediated cause and effect. The insertion of the spurious claim that the “Cyanobacteria are 2.7 billion years old” should not be placed into the context of what is known to serious scientists about nutrient-dependent biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.
Theorists invite more ridicule when they make such claims and ignore facts like these:

…a family of microbes has persisted essentially unchanged for the past 2.3 billion years—half the age of Earth.

Bacteria that lack a vital protein for growing flagella—tail-like structures that enable the microbes to swim—can attain flagella in as little as four days given enough pressure to evolve…

The facts link energy-dependent base pair substitutions and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Only neo-Darwinists and others who are equally biologically uninformed will continue to place what is known about hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution into the context of evolution without explaining how “evolution” occurs in 4 days or does not occur in 2.3 billion years.

See also: Criticisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolutionary model

Conclusion:

Based on his writings, both published and unpublished, James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others’ research. It was a mistake to let such a sloppy review through to be published.

My comment: So far as I know, the criticisms of this biologically uninformed undergraduate have not been placed into the context of a model that links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all individuals of all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms I detailed.
The molecular mechanisms link information transfer in microbes to information transfer in the human brain via two epigenetic traps. Others have detailed aspects of the epigenetic trap that traps the anti-entropic virucidal energy of UV light. But, so far as I know, no one else has linked the first epigenetic trap to the de novo creation of odor receptor genes.  The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in all vertebrates and invertebrates links the second epigenetic trap to supercoiled DNA during thermodynamic cycles of nutrient-dependent protein folding biosythesis and degradation. The supercoiled DNA protects organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

That fact has now been placed into the context of RNA-mediated DNA repair, which typically occurs in the absence of nutrient stress and or social stress.
Stress alters pH via virus-driven energy theft. The proliferation of viruses prevents RNA-mediated DNA repair. For example, viruses would prevent repair of damage due to excess infrared light.
 
 

terrarium-eco-system

Virus-perturbed alternative splicings

Computing in mammalian cells with nucleic acid strand exchange
Abstract excerpt:

…we established that functional siRNA could be activated through strand exchange, and used native mRNA as programmable scaffolds for co-localizing gates and visualizing their operation with subcellular resolution.

Reported as:

Scientists Demonstrate Basics of Nucleic Acid Computing Inside Cells

Excerpt:

Cells, of course, already know how to sense toxic molecules and the development malignant tendencies, and to then take action. But those safeguards can be turned off by viruses or cancer cells that know how to circumvent natural cellular processes.

My comment: They seem unwilling to tell others how the proliferation of viruses links nutrient energy theft from viral microRNAs in cancer cells to all RNA-mediated cell type pathology.  Perhaps it is just the reporting of their research that leaves out the most important aspect of top-down causation. The anti-entropic epigenetic effect of UV light links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs to healthy longevity or virus-driven genomic entropy in all living genera.
Other works from this group attest to that fact.
2013 Conditionally fluorescent molecular probes for detecting single base changes in double-stranded DNA
2014 MicroRNA-Based Single-Gene Circuits Buffer Protein Synthesis Rates against Perturbations
2015 Learning the Sequence Determinants of Alternative Splicing from Millions of Random Sequences
See also:  1996 From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Excerpt: 

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…. That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
A potential ramification of epigenetic imprinting and alternative splicing may be occurring in Xq28, a chromosomal region implicated in homosexual orientation… Xq28, therefore, is a chromosomal region that has many of the heterochromatic and telomeric characteristics that participate in sexual determination and behavior in other species.

My comment: Epigenetically-effected RNA-mediated cell type differentiation has since been linked from soil bacteria and grasses to the reproductive physiology and behavior of mammals via nutrient-dependent microRNAs.
See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
See also: Soma-to-Germline Transmission of RNA in Mice Xenografted with Human Tumour Cells: Possible Transport by Exosomes
See also the comment on this article by Abhay Sharma

Cossetti et al. provide experimental evidence supporting a role of exosomal RNA mediated soma to germline information transfer in transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Notably, it is consistent with the previous bioinformatic evidence and theoretical prediction. First, analysis of genome level expression profiling data recently suggested that circulating and exosomal miRNAs may potentially mediate this transfer (1). Next, similar evidence for exosomal mRNAs and proteins was also provided (2). Later on, inheritance of behavioral effects of traumatic stress in mouse was found to accompany upregulation of an miRNA, miRNA-375, in hippocampus, serum and sperm of the exposed animals (3). Experimental designs to test a hypothetical role of exosome borne miRNAs in intercellular communication in epigenetic inheritance have also been proposed recently (4). In conclusion, prior evidence supports Cossetti et al.’s findings.
1. Sharma A. Novel transcriptome data analysis implicates circulating microRNAs in epigenetic inheritance in mammals. Gene 538:366-372 (2014).
2. Sharma A. Bioinformatic analysis revealing association of exosomal mRNAs and proteins in epigenetic inheritance. J. Theor. Biol. 357:143-149 (2014).
3. Gapp K, Jawaid A, Sarkies P, Bohacek J, Pelczar P, Prados J, Farinelli L, Miska E, Mansuy IM. Implication of sperm RNAs in transgenerational inheritance of the effects of early trauma in mice. Nat. Neurosci. 17:667-669 (2014).
4. Smythies J, Edelstein L, Ramachandran V. Molecular mechanisms for the inheritance of acquired characteristics-exosomes, microRNA shuttling, fear and stress: Lamarck resurrected? Front. Genet. 5:133 (2014).