Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

The eternal significance of microRNAs (5)

Excerpt: Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.
Conclusion: Conserved energy biophysically constrains viral latency.

Ridiculously ignorant objections to my publication in what others claim is a predatory journal can be compared to my objection to publication of this article in PNAS.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
1) They linked environmental selection to the frequency of the EDAR V370A variant in the mouse model via positive selection for modulation of thermoregulatory sweating.
2) They linked environmental selection to similarities in human populations in North Asia, East Asia, and the New World. But they virtually ignored the mouse model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained ecological adaptation.
I linked the same food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled base pair change and microRNA-mediated fixation of the same amino acid substitution to all biodiversity in all living genera via feedback loops. See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Others see what passes peer-review published in journals that support the expense of efforts made by pseudoscientists and other theorists, but they claim that the OMICS journals are predatory. I claim that pseudoscientists and other theorists do not know the difference between predation and sympatric speciation because they place predation into the context of evolved biodiversity.

For comparison see: Whole-genome sequencing of the blue whale and other rorquals finds signatures for introgressive gene flow

Reported as: Baleen Whale Genomes Point to Evolution With Gene Flow

Large baleen whales in the Balaenopteridae family (commonly known as rorqual whales) have undergone sympatric speciation — speciation without clear geographic barriers between them — despite ongoing hybridization, according to new research from investigators in Sweden and Germany.

System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes

Reported as:

“The patterns of synaptic connections perfectly mirror the fundamental differences in the feeding behaviours of P. pacificus and C. elegans”, Ralf Sommer concludes. A clear-cut result like that was not what he had necessarily expected.

Neo-Darwinian theorists and other biologically uniformed pseudoscientists have failed to use any common sense in attempts to link what organisms eat from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained biodiversity.  For comparison, serious scientists have forced the denuclearization of North Korea by reminding others to start with what is known about how food energy-dependent autophagy protects all life on Earth from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…as a reviewer, it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 …appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used.

Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.

See: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The "walking fish" walks straight from quantum physics to quantum souls (2)

Summary: Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.

Application of RNAi and Heat-shock-induced Transcription Factor Expression to Reprogram Germ Cells to Neurons in C. elegans 1/01/2018

Summary

This protocol describes how to study cellular processes during cell fate conversion in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. Using transgenic animals,allowing heat-shock promoter-driven overexpression of the neuron fate-inducing transcription factorCHE-1 and RNAi-mediated depletion of the chromatin-regulating factor LIN-53germ cell to neuron reprogramming can be observed in vivo.

Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
Food energy arises only in the context of the creation of  The Immensity of the milky way…(video)

The facts that link sunlight on contact with water in this video from pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction have been largely ignored since the time this article was published [in Russian] in 1994. [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7995515

Non-human primates are the best example of how subatomic particles protect humans from all pathology in the context of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that links microRNAs to fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See: Five reasons we’re excited by how structural biology is advancing cancer research Posted on 15 June, 2017

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
See also: One amino acid substitution differentiates humans and chimpanzees from gorillas.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).

Humans And Chimps Differ At Level Of Gene Splicing (2007)
Comic relief for the biologically informed. Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear
Comic relief for seniors.
For serious scientists: Single-residue insertion switches the quaternary structure and exciton states of cryptophyte light-harvesting proteins

Using X-ray crystallography, we show that cryptophyte PBPs adopt one of two quaternary structures, open or closed. The key feature of the closed form is the juxtaposition of two central chromophores resulting in excitonic coupling. The switch between forms is ascribed to the insertion of a single amino acid in the open-form proteins. Thus, PBP quaternary structure controls excitonic coupling and the mechanism of light harvesting. Comparing organisms with these two distinct proteins will reveal the role of quantum coherence in photosynthesis.

The fact that a single amino acid substitution links energy-dependent changes in base pairs from electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera continues to be ignored by pseudoscientists and all theorists.
For comparison see: QuEBS 2018: Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

…has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.