5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The eternal significance of microRNAs (7)

Sales of human pheromone-enhanced fragrance products have been virtually eliminated by the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists. I may revisit their ridiculous claims at ScentofEros.com and Pheromones.com, but prefer to continue moving forward via my other domains: RNA-mediated.com and Autophagy.pro.

Summary: 2018 Update: Sympatric speciation has been linked to species diversity as an example of an ecologically validated proof-of-concept in all living genera.

Theorists, other psedoscientists and nearly all so-called science journalists have failed to use common sense in their ridiculous representations.
See for example: Beating the Odds for Lucky Mutations: If DNA repair makes useful mutations more likely, it could accelerate cells’ adaptations to harsh environments (8/16/17) by Jordana Cepelewicz
See: 4/18/18 Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems by James V. Kohl
My model of ecological adaptations was placed into the context of this article in Quanta Magazine by Jordana Cepelewicz — less than one year after she published her article on “lucky mutations” in Aeon.
5/10/18 A Thermodynamic Answer to Why Birds Migrate

…research makes a forceful argument that energy supply and demand is a driving ecological principle shaping the global structure of biodiversity.

See for comparison: 10/12/16 Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Evolutionary theorists and Big Bang cosmologists are forced to plagiarize the intellectual property of others like me and pretend that they are saying something new about the origin of all energy-dependent biophysically constrained biodiversity.
Jordana Cepelewicz is among the most serious offenders. I wonder why she thinks she can get away with directly contradicting the claims she made less than one year ago.
I have neglected some of the domains I established during the past 7 years because it became clear that pseudoscientists were not going to let people know that all aspects of sympatric speciation have been detailed in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction, which is required to biophysically constrain viral latency.
That fact was placed into the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis,” which was delivered to backers in October 2017.

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See also: A transmissible RNA pathway in honey bees (2018)
The authors link my model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained sympatric speciation from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via my 2013 published review and my unpublished invited review of nutritional epigenetics.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, 2012; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, 2008; Griggs et al., 2013; Monahan & Lomvardas, 2012) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

For a historical perspective, see: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014 preprint)

Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

The facts about sympatric speciation for comparison to the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution have been placed in to the context of 3 more recently published works.
A 360 degrees view of circular RNAs: From biogenesis to functions (2018)
Circular RNAs: Unexpected outputs of many protein-coding genes (2017)
The Output of Protein-Coding Genes Shifts to Circular RNAs When the Pre-mRNA Processing Machinery Is Limiting (2017)
It is no longer possible to successfully put the facts about sympatric speciation back into the context of ridiculous theories about the emergence of energy and evolution of all life on Earth. Anyone who returns to the links or to the published works I have posted here, will realize that pseudoscientists and most so-called science journalists know virtually nothing about food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in any species.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

2018 March for Science vs microRNAs

Summary: Only biologically uninformed theorists and other pseudoscientists do not seem to know that all carbon-based life is quantized energy-dependent and that biophotonic energy as information comes from the sun. It is obvious to all serious scientists that proton gradients link photons from quantized energy as information to the proton motive force, which is how the potential of hydrogen (pH) is linked to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution that must be linked to supercoiled DNA.
The Second March for Science a Smaller Affair

…the events are not devoid of politics—either on signs or in rhetoric.

“It is a remarkable outpouring of scientists to talk about the marvelous accomplishments of science, the amazing relevance of science, and a call for defending the conditions under which science can thrive.” — Rush Holt, the CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science is not thriving. See for comparison: All in the (bigger) family (2015)

…at a special symposium of the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, researchers reported new parallels between these two very successful groups of animals and new insights about what it took for an ancient crustacean to give rise to insects.

Energy-dependent microRNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency was required. The scientific facts about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency and microRNA-mediated sympatric speciation probably contributed most to the reduced turnout at the ridiculous Marches for Science. All serious scientists know that science is not thriving, and pseudoscientists are finding out.
This is serious science: miRNA regulation of innate immunity

In this review, we discuss the contributory pathways and mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence the development of innate immunity and fine-tune immune response. Moreover, we discuss the consequence of deregulated miRNAs and their pathogenic implications.

Who needs more proof that neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists are biologically uninformed science idiots?
When George Church reported in this interview that cyanobacteria fix light, he left no room for ridiculous claims about the emergence of energy or claims about mutation-driven evolution. Two months later, most theorists skipped the Marches.
I believe they probably stayed home and attempted to rewrite their grant proposals. But what I believe doesn’t matter. I can’t prove that they’ve been forced by serious scientists to eliminate “evolution” and/or their automagical “evolutionary processes” from the content/context.
But see at 15:10

“…the cyanobacteria turn out that they fix light ah as well or better than land plants…”

See for comparison, from the transcript:

The cyanobacteria fix [carbon via] light as well or better than land plants. Under ideal circumstances, they can be maybe seven to ten times more productive per photon.

Only biologically uninformed theorists and other pseudoscientists do not seem to know that all carbon-based life is quantized energy dependent and that biophotonic energy as information comes from the sun. It is obvious to all serious scientists that proton gradients link photons from quantized energy as information to the proton motive force, which is how the potential of hydrogen (pH) is linked to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution that must be linked to supercoiled DNA.
Theorists have been left behind and anyone who participated in the 2018 March for Science has revealed their overwhelming ignorance. Why didn’t George Church warn them? Richard Feynman did:
See: Food energy  for Feynman’s claim about human idiocy.
Alternatively, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
See also: A 360 degrees view of circular RNAs: From biogenesis to functions

The pre-mRNA splicing machinery generates circRNAs via backsplicing reactions, which are often facilitated by intronic repeat sequences that base pair to one another and bring the intervening splice sites into close proximity.

See also: Dr. Gene Nelson wrote:  “This year, I printed 500 copies of the handout that I wrote regarding CGNP’s battle with the CPUC and the plant’s owner. I returned with about 490 handouts.”
On April 19, 2018 “From Layout to Multi-Physics: Integrating Thermal and Photonics Simulation into the PIC Design Flow” will link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to thermal cycling.
The thermal cycles have been linked to cracks in the Vietnam Memorial Wall. This free Webinar will almost undoubtedly place the eternal significance of “The Wall” into the context of the eternal significance of microRNAs, which repair DNA damage in carbon-based life forms. Damage repair via the food energy-dependent creation of microRNAs is linked to the eternal significance of differences between organic and inorganic chemistry.
For instance, quantum physics can be linked to the biophysically constrained production of uranium isotopes by the physiology of reproduction in bacteria. And, the use of uranium isotopes in therapy attests to the fact that the unconstrained energy causes cracks in the human genome. The “cracks” are manifested in radiation-induced pathologies.
Treating glioblastoma with radiation may be ill-advised. For comparison, microRNA-mediated therapy has emerged as an effective treatment regimen based on naturally occurring prevention of all pathology.

Pseudoscientists are willing to let Vietnam Veterans and others with glioblastoma suffer unnecessarily and die prematurely. The pseudoscientists won’t admit that food energy-dependent changes in microRNAs have been linked to the stability of all organized genomes via sympatric speciation in all living genera.
 
 
 
There is no such thing as a de novo mutation. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked from mutations to all pathology via the death gene, which was discovered during the early 1990s by researchers who worked for Abcam.
See: Epigenetic modifications poster
See for comparison: A Crack in Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution

Why is Jennifer Doudna still touting controlled evolution at a time when other serious scientists have linked every aspect of the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to the epigenetically modified physiology of reproduction and all ecological adaptations? What hasn’t she learned about biophysically constrained microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans?
See: When the Most Potent Combination of Antibiotics Selects for the Greatest Bacterial Load: The Smile-Frown Transition (April 23, 2013)

Finding the most potent combinations of antibiotics in the lab can be a challenge if antibiotic interactions are not robust to evolutionary adaptation.

For nearly 5 years serious scientists have watched theorists try to escape from the traps that were set by their predecessors. All intelligent people now realize that there is no such thing as evolution of a new species. There is only ecological variation and quantized energy-dependent ecological adaptations to the virus-driven theft of quantized energy that comes from sunlight and sustains the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera.
Reported as: The XV Collection: What Happens when the Antibiotic 1-2 Punch Backfires? (April 13, 2018)

Antibiotic-resistant mutants readily arise within almost any population of bacteria. If a population containing both susceptible and resistant mutants is treated with two antibiotics, the susceptible majority is, as expected, rapidly wiped out. But this also removes any competition for the resistant minority, enabling them to quickly grow and proliferate.

The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria biophysically constrains the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links antibiotic resistance from mutations to all pathology.
Reported on June 14, 2013 as: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

That extension of the vertebrate/mammalian model to invertebrates occurred as researchers integrated what was known about human pheromones and their effects on neuroendocrine systems during the development of human behavior (Kohl et al., ). Invertebrate research rapidly progressed to include the epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression and on hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavioral transitions throughout life (Elekonich & Roberts, ), which is consistent with their epigenetic effects throughout the life of vertebrates, including mammals.

The honeybee model organism exemplifies what has been learned from the study of invertebrates (De Loof, Lindemans, Liu, De Groef, & Schoofs, ). This includes what has been learned about the epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on juvenile hormone (JH).

See also: Pursuing Preprints, Preventing Pandemics: How pre-peer review posting can accelerate outbreak science

Preprints are scientific manuscripts posted online prior to or concurrent with submission for peer review and publication in a scientific journal. They offer opportunities to share data and findings sooner and to get broader community feedback before publication. During outbreaks, decisions that can save lives must often be made quickly and with little information. The fast, open nature of preprint posting can help address these needs.

The posting of most preprints on the bioRxiv server obfuscates what is known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent microRNA-mediated sympatric speciation. The consistent focus of most preprints places the findings into the context of evolution because that is what biologically uninformed theorists have been taught to believe in.

Until everyone admits that the creation of microRNAs is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, the ability to respond to urgent and complex health challenges will be placed into the ridiculous context of evolutionary processes.

See for exception:  A transmissible RNA pathway in honey bees

…RNA extracted from worker and royal jellies harbor differential naturally occurring RNA populations. Some of these RNAs corresponded to honey bee protein-coding genes, transposable elements, non-coding RNA and exogenous viruses. These results reveal an inherent property of honey bees to share RNA among individuals and generations. Thus, our findings suggest a transmissible RNA pathway, playing a role in social immunity and epigenetic dynamics among honey bees and potentially other closely interacting organisms.

See for comparison: SLC6A4 binding site and acute prosocial effects of (+/-)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are evolutionarily conserved in Octopus bimaculoides

Human and octopus lineages are separated by over 500 million years of evolution, and show divergent anatomical patterns of brain organization.

No experimental evidence of top-down causation or energy-dependent RNA interference suggests separation of the lineages by 500 million years of evolution.

See for comparison: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction

From the concluding paragraph:

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000).

See also: See Diamond et al., 1996: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Elekonich and Robinson (2000) linked our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to the honeybee model of food energy-dependent biophysically constrained biodiversity.

Effects of hormones on brain and behavior occur through three mechanisms: (1) behaviors both organized and activated by hormones, (2) behaviors only organized by hormones, and (3) behaviors only activated by hormones (reviewed in Arnold and Breedlove, 1985; Diamond et al., 1996).”

See also: Honey bees as a model for understanding mechanisms of life history transitions

In this review we discuss the physiological and genetic mechanisms of this behavioral transition, which include large scale changes in hormonal activity, metabolism, flight ability, circadian rhythms, sensory perception and processing, neural architecture, learning ability, memory and gene expression.

See also: IAPV, a bee-affecting virus associated with Colony Collapse Disorder can be silenced by dsRNA ingestion (2009)

Here we report on RNAi-silencing of IAPV infection by feeding bees with double-stranded RNA, as an efficient and feasible way of controlling this viral disease. The association of CCD with IAPV is discussed, as well as the potential of controlling CCD.

"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Science vs Secularism: Molecular Mechanisms or Math?

Summary: An example from ancient knowledge of trigonometry links pattern recognition as the basis for the science of creationism, and pattern recognition also is the basis for molecular biology.
What form of virus-driven pathology would you most like to see eliminated from future consideration by serious scientists who know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs? In any case, a PubMed search for microRNA and your disease of choice will be enlightening. See for example: microRNA + Alzheimer’s or microRNA + fragile X syndrome; Parkinson’s disease; diabetes; cancer; malaria; and/or other human diseases
See:  Are scientists who speak out against religion hurting science? for discussion of Why religion is not going away and science will not destroy it

…science needs all the friends it can get. Its advocates would be well advised to stop fabricating an enemy out of religion, or insisting that the only path to a secure future lies in a marriage of science and secularism.

Serious scientists have met the enemies of science. One of them is the author of Quantum common sense

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

More than 64,000 indexed publications on the PubMed site attest to the fact that the energy-dependent de novo creation of plant microRNAs is linked to all healthy longevity via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Experimentally established facts about the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA are linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

What form of virus-driven pathology would you most like to see eliminated from future consideration by serious scientists who know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs? In any case, a PubMed search for microRNA and your disease of choice will be enlightening. See for example: microRNA + Alzheimer’s or microRNA + fragile X syndrome; Parkinson’s disease; diabetes; cancer; malaria; and/or other human diseases
Role of miRNAs in development and disease: Lessons learnt from small organisms

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a class of small (18-22 nucleotides) non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster, and many other small organisms have been instrumental in deciphering the biological functions of miRNAs. While some miRNAs from small organisms are highly conserved across the taxa, others are organism specific. The miRNAs are known to play a crucial role during development and in various cellular functions such as cell survival, cell proliferation, and differentiation. The miRNAs associated with fragile X syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, diabetes, cancer, malaria, infectious diseases and several other human diseases have been identified from small organisms. These organisms have been used as platforms in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of human diseases and to study miRNA biogenesis. Small organisms have also been used in the development of miRNA-based diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic strategies. The molecular techniques such as genome sequencing, northern blot analysis, and quantitative RT-PCR, have been used in deciphering the functions of miRNAs in small organisms. How miRNAs from small organisms especially those from Drosophila and C. elegans regulate development and disease pathogenesis is the focus of this review. The outstanding questions raised by our current understanding are discussed.

See for comparison: Quantum Theory Rebuilt From Simple Physical Principles by Philip Ball

“What is needed is new mathematics that will render these notions scientific,” he said. Then, perhaps, we’ll understand what we’ve been arguing about for so long.”

I do not believe that new mathematics will end the arguments, and I do not believe anything Philip Ball claims. Does any intelligent person on Earth believe this claim? “We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking”

For a historical perspective on the nonsense touted by theorists and so-called science journalists, like Philip Ball, see:

Secularism: This ancient Babylonian tablet may contain the first evidence of trigonometry

He and Wildberger concluded that the Babylonians expressed trigonometry in terms of exact ratios of the lengths of the sides of right triangles, rather than by angles, using their base 60 form of mathematics, they report today in Historia Mathematica. “This is a whole different way of looking at trigonometry,” Mansfield says. “We prefer sines and cosines … but we have to really get outside our own culture to see from their perspective to be able to understand it.”

When have serious scientists not gone outside our own culture to understand how the history of human behavioral development has been misrepresented by so-called experts.

See: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome

The findings confirm their earlier work suggesting that the majority of variants, including potentially harmful ones, were picked up during the past 5,000–10,000 years.

Simply put, the harmful variants probably contribute to our relative lack of intelligence compared to the intelligence of our ancestors, unless you think that a single-celled organism is one of your ancestors. Obviously, however, even if that is the case, you are somewhat more intelligent that pond scum. But, let me apologize in advance for referring to you as a “biologically uninformed science idiot” — in the context of the definition of “idiot” as someone with no professional expertise. Apologists might use the term “fool” in the context of this passage from the Holy Bible:

Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not quickened, except it die:”

Feynman used the term “human idiocy” in the context of representations made by theoretical physicists:

Prepare yourself to experience more insults from experts who have, during the past 5-10,000 years confirmed the links from energy to physics, chemistry, and molecular biology in the context of food energy and the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

Apologetics:Indiana Banks and the Tablet of Trig

This story attracted my attention because it is yet more evidence against the Darwinian narrative of human history, which holds that we evolved from apes and have been steadily gaining in technology and science ever since. The reality is very different. The evidence often points to initial brilliance followed by decline, the pattern that creationists would expect. In this instance, extremely ancient people pioneered a form of trigonometry that is more exact than the form used by later Mesopotamian nations and by the Greeks, Romans, and later Western Civilization.

Pattern recognition is the basis for the science of creationism and pattern recognition is the basis for molecular biology.

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

In their concluding paragraph, the authors link irreverent representations of the space-time continuum (Hawking, 1988) to our visual perception of mass and energy. With no vague representations of untested theories, they suggest that neural energy represents multisensory input at subsecond scales.

If what they suggest is true, their published work is an unprecedented refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense and an unparalleled refutation of “Big Bang” cosmology. Simply put, they concurrently link the creation of energy to the energy-dependent creation of the sense of smell in bacteria. The sense of smell is linked to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera via representations that link neural energy from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA.

For example, the sense of smell in bacteria is linked to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum.

See:Evolutionary Rewiring

Strong selective pressure can lead to rapid and reproducible evolution in bacteria.

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality was linked to the ability of P. fluorescens to find food, which was linked to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction by everything known about quorum sensing. But wait, that fact defies attempts to put the refutation of all theories into the context of something as simple-minded as this claim:

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

For more information on the mutation-driven “dumbing down” of you and your ancestors play the game “Cytosis” when it becomes available later this month and watch for more information on the game “Subatomic.” It is less difficult now than it ever has been to link energy-dependent changes from atoms to ecosystems by what is known to serious scientists. But first, you may need to dismiss the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

See also: Protecting 4 billion people from virus-driven entropy September 8, 2016
See also: Recurrence-Based Information Processing in Gene Regulatory Networks

We also show that the readout layer can learn to decode the information stored in the reservoir via standard evolutionary strategies. Our work thus suggests that recurrent dynamics is a key element for the processing of complex time-dependent information by cells.

What evolutionary strategies led to the recurrent dynamics of time-dependent information processing and the use of trigonometry ~5000 years ago?
Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing

It seems that bacteria have some sort of collective memory by which they keep track of how they handled their previous encounters with antibiotics. They know how to collectively glean information from the environment, “talk” with each other, distribute tasks, generate collective memory, and turn their colony into a “cybernetic system”—a massive “brain” that can perform natural distributed information processing, learn from past experience, and possibly alter the genome organization or even create new genes to better cope with novel challenges.8–13,17,18

Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology

Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.

 
 
 

Amino acid modification FA_Epigenetics_Table1

Food energy-dependent cell type differentiation (2)

Summary: The concept of “faster-evolving DNA” regions in the context of nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences is not consistent with any accurate representation of how the functional structure of supercoiled DNA must be linked from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. Conserved molecular mechanisms link the sense of smell in bacteria from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to the physiology of reproduction via the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and Feynman’s claim about the human idiocy of theoretical physicists who use different terms for their measurements of food energy.
See first: Food energy-dependent cell type differentiation
See also: Bacterial Communication And Relevance Of Quantum Theory
Thanks to antagonist Jay R. Feierman for calling this to my attention, See: Fwd: Bacterial Communication And Relevance Of Quantum Theory

The recent findings confirm that bacteria communicate each other through chemical and electrical signals. Bacteria use chemical signaling molecules which are called as quorum sensing molecules (QSMs) or autoinducers. Moreover, the ion channels in bacteria conduct a long-range electrical signaling within biofilm communities through propagated waves of potassium ions and biofilms attracts other bacterial species too. Both communication process are used by bacteria to make their own survival strategies. In this article, we model this bacterial communication mechanism by complex Ginzburg-Landau equation and discuss the formation of patterns depending on kinematic viscosity associated with internal noise. Again, the potassium wave propagation is described by the non-linear Schrodinger equation in a dissipative environment. By adding perturbation to non-linear Schrodinger equation one arrives at Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. In this paper we emphasize that at the cellular level (bacteria) we use Complex Ginzburg-Landau equation as a perturbed Non-linear Schrodinger equation to understand the bacterial communication as well as pattern formation in biofilms for certain range of kinematic viscosity which can be tested in laboratory experiment. Here, the perturbation is due to the existence of nonthermal fluctuations associated to the finite size of the bacteria. It sheds new light on the relevance of quantum formalism in understanding the cell to cell communication.

For everyone who does not follow my posts on groups and in forums where they are not commonly edited or fail to appear because the moderators and administrators are biologically uninformed theorists, I reiterate:
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and nutrient energy-dependent quorum sensing have been linked from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria that naturally produce a uranium isotope to all morphological and behavioral biodiversity via an atoms to ecosystems model that refutes every aspect of neo-Darwinian theory and all theories linked to the claims of “Big Bang” cosmologists.
Clearly, Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005) in all living genera can be compared in the context of two claims, which were made by the moderator of the ISHE’s human ethology group, soon after I published Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (6/14/13)
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
7/26/13
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
See for comparison: Quantum Souls

The sun’s energy flows to Earth as information that is absorbed by energy-dependent organisms. Along with nutrient-dependency and pheromones, it effects all living genera and ensures reproduction. God’s “conditions of life,” described in part by Darwin, come before natural selection.

For additional evidence that links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity and the concept of quantum souls, I reiterate:
Figure 4: Conceptual model of uranium roll-front deposit formation. — from Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits (open access)

Precursors and conditions favouring the formation of uraninite, biogenic uraninite and non-crystalline U(IV) are illustrated.

The nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction of bacteria that live underground was linked from thermodynamic cycles of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to the production of uranium isotopes. The obvious link from the quantized energy of sunlight to the de novo creation of all biodiversity also was reported in the context of 16S rRNA microbial community analysis in fish. Most authors report this in the context of a “DNA-based” analysis. That way, there is no need to differentiate between abiogeneis and biophysically constrained biogenesis. Start with genes and you do not need to explain how DNA was created.

See for comparison: Evaluation of the 16S and 12S rRNA genes as universal markers for the identification of commercial fish species in South Africa

The nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences was suitable for identifying the large majority of the examined fish specimens to at least the level of genus, but was found to be less useful for the explicit differentiation of certain congeneric fish species. It is recommended that one or more faster-evolving DNA regions be analysed to confirm the identities of closely-related fish species in South Africa.

The concept of “faster-evolving DNA” regions in the context of nucleotide variation in both the 16S and 12S sequences is not consistent with any accurate representation of how the functional structure of supercoiled DNA must be linked from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. Conserved molecular mechanisms link the sense of smell in bacteria from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to the physiology of reproduction via the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and Feynman’s claim about the human idiocy of theoretical physicists who use different terms for their measurements of food energy.
The amount of food energy, measured in calories, is linked to whether or not the organism starves to death before it reproduces. That’s how ecological variation in the supply of nutrients may lead to extinction of any species that fails to evolve into another species. So far, no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggests that any species has ever evolved into another species.
Claims about the need for energy-dependent changes in supercoiled DNA to protect all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which is linked to mutations and all pathology may have have peaked with this publication:
Viral MicroRNAs, Host MicroRNAs Regulating Viruses, and Bacterial MicroRNA-Like RNAs (5/25/17)

Over the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that miRNAs have many important roles in the development of disease and cancer. Recently, however, their role in viral and bacterial gene regulation as well as host gene regulation during disease progression has become a field of interest.

More than 61,000 works published peer-reviewed works show why differences in the types of microRNAs are the most important consideration to energy-dependent healthy longevity or to virus-driven pathology.
MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 61426
See for comparison: It’s Time to Start Calling Evangelicals What They Are: The American Taliban

Atheistic hate-mongers like Magnus S. Magnusson continue to disseminate this nonsense and encourage attacks on any views that link Creationism to Americanism. The hate-mongers don’t know who created energy or how energy-dependent ecological adaptation is linked from changes in base pairs to all biodiversity, but they will claim that American evangelicals are like the Taliban.

See for comparison:  The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains

The structure and organization of the cell membrane are central to many biological functions, and although they have been extensively studied, there is still much that we don’t understand. A wealth of detailed information has been obtained from studies of model lipid membranes. However, these systems are often highly simplified in composition and always lack the active processes found in cells. The major obstacle to studying membranes in vivo in living cells has been that high-resolution physical methods used to investigate membrane structure are not compatible with living organisms. To overcome this obstacle, we employed a new in vivo approach that allows membrane structure to be observed directly in the gram-positive bacterium B. subtilis. This approach relies on tuning the isotopic content of hydrogen within the membrane, and other parts of the bacterium, to generate neutron scattering spectra exclusively from the membrane. Using this approach, we confirmed that the structure of the B. subtilis membrane is lamellar and has an average hydrophobic thickness of 23.9 ± 0.9 Ångstroms (Å). We were also able to observe nanoscopic lateral membrane structures, consistent with the notion of lipid rafts. This experimental approach will allow for a wide range of future structural studies of the cell membrane (and possibly other classes of biomolecules) without the need for extrinsic probes or labels. In this way, it fundamentally changes the scope of nanoscale structural questions that can be addressed in vivo.

Reported as: This Is The First Ever Nanoscale Image of a Living Cell Membrane 

They link the energy-dependent de novo creation of the cell wall in Bacillus subtilus, a Gram-positive, catalase-positive bacterium, found in soil and the gastrointestinal tract of ruminants and humans, to all biodiversity on Earth via differences in hydrogen ions, hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

Hydrogen ions are made by the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen. That fact supports the the claims of those who have linked energy-dependent changes from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via what occurs at the level of changes in angstroms. The changes in angstroms are linked to the innate ability of all cell types to signal other cell types via changes in the membrane that biophysically constrains the contents of the cell.
Although it is important that these researchers showed how the role of quantized energy from the sun is linked to biophysically constrained hydrophobicity in supercoiled DNA, anyone who has ever performed a “catalase” test to distinguish between pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of Staphlococcus and Streptococcus before testing for beta-lactamase and resistance to oxacillin/methicillin has observed the release of hydrogen caused by the breakdown of the cell membrane.

Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen.[3]”

Beta-lactamase provides antibiotic resistance by breaking the antibiotics’ structure. These antibiotics all have a common element in their molecular structure: a four-atom ring known as a β-lactam. Through hydrolysis, the lactamase enzyme breaks the β-lactam ring open, deactivating the molecule’s antibacterial properties.”

Congratulate the researchers who have just refuted every aspect of neo-Darwinian theory as was predicted by any intelligent microbiologist who has ever needed to identify and perform susceptibility testing on a pathogen to help a physician keep the pathogen from killing the patient.

And, remember the Hippocratic Oath. First, do no harm. If you are a physician who thinks that people evolved from bacteria, learn something about cell type differentiation via a visit to the microbiology lab at a local hospital. Most medical laboratory scientists will be happy to help you stop killing people with your ignorance.

Serious scientists have forced theorists to change their claims about the gene editing technology called CRISPR Cas9 to reflect the fact that the reason the technology failed miserably. The technology was based on naturally occurring endogenous RNA interference. It is now being reported as CRISPRi in the context of identifying new genes but outside the context of their energy-dependent de novo creation.

See: High-throughput CRISPRi phenotyping identifies new essential genes in Streptococcus pneumoniae

Genome‐wide screens have discovered a large set of essential genes in the opportunistic human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, the functions of many essential genes are still unknown, hampering vaccine development and drug discovery. Based on results from transposon sequencing (Tn‐seq), we refined the list of essential genes in S. pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39. Next, we created a knockdown library targeting 348 potentially essential genes by CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and show a growth phenotype for 254 of them (73%). Using high‐content microscopy screening, we searched for essential genes of unknown function with clear phenotypes in cell morphology upon CRISPRi‐based depletion. We show that SPD_1416 and SPD_1417 (renamed to MurT and GatD, respectively) are essential for peptidoglycan synthesis, and that SPD_1198 and SPD_1197 (renamed to TarP and TarQ, respectively) are responsible for the polymerization of teichoic acid (TA) precursors. This knowledge enabled us to reconstruct the unique pneumococcal TA biosynthetic pathway. CRISPRi was also employed to unravel the role of the essential Clp‐proteolytic system in regulation of competence development, and we show that ClpX is the essential ATPase responsible for ClpP‐dependent repression of competence. The CRISPRi library provides a valuable tool for characterization of pneumococcal genes and pathways and revealed several promising antibiotic targets.

The de novo creation of essential genes has been placed into the context of a problem with antibiotic sensitivity testing.

 
The problem was introduced into susceptibility testing by biologically uninformed theorists who still may not know the difference between energy-dependent ecological adaptation and mutation-driven evolution.

Cell-type-specific genome editing with a microRNA-responsive CRISPR-Cas9 switch

The transient and conditional expression of our system using synthetic RNA could provide genome editing as a potentially ‘one-shot therapy’ to treat numerous genetic diseases. In conclusion, our miR-Cas9 switch combined with a RNA-delivery approach can selectively engineer genomes of target cells by detecting an endogenous miRNA signature, with potential benefits for synthetic biology, genome editing field and future therapeutic applications.

The conditional expression of genes is linked from food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to constraint breaking mutations and all pathology.

People like Jay R. Feierman and Magnus S. Magnusson tout the pseudoscienitific nonsense of theories in books such as this one. The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion
Their atheistic agenda is the antithesis of any factual representation of anything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect.
See for comparison:  Mechanism of transmembrane signaling by sensor histidine kinases reported as:Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

See also: Eros is a novel transmembrane protein that controls the phagocyte respiratory burst and is essential for innate immunity
For a non-technical representation of everything currently known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled biodiversity in all living genera see: The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002)
Could any serious scientist fail to link the novel transmembrane protein “Eros” from what organism eat to innate immunity via the non-technical representations in The Scent of Eros? If you know someone who you think is a serious scientist ask them about the representations made in The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion. If you learn that they think Faith and Religion “evolved,” I will add them to my growing list of pseudoscientists who continue to tout ridiculous theories.
 

amino acid homeostasis

Food for thought: Penrose v Ellis (1)

Food for thought.
 
The most popular ideas of atheists may still include hypothetical biogenic features that arrived from outer space. That’s how pseudoscientific nonsense appears to become a fact of life on Earth.
 

All experimental evidence of energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect must be suppressed or ignored, and that’s what atheists prefer to do. See for instance: Hypothetical biogenic features in the context of the Alan Hills fossil. (Thanks to John Hewitt for reminding me of this.)

On August 6, 1996,[3] ALH84001 became newsworthy when it was claimed that the meteorite may contain evidence of traces of life from Mars, as published in an article in Science by David S. McKay of NASA.[14]

The electron microscope revealed chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001

Under the scanning electron microscope structures were revealed that some scientists interpreted as fossils of bacteria-like lifeforms.

See for comparison: NASA, Jesus & Templeton?

Religion has nothing to do with science and the NASA Astrobiology Program has squandered precious public funds — 5% of its annual budget — for an investigation into how the world’s religions might respond to the discovery of life on other planets. It has handed over $1.108M to a religious think tank, a nonprofit corporation with wealth management professionals on its board that already has in excess of $23M in assets. It is money that could be spent productively on authentic journalism to more effectively expose the politics that drives world disasters, including the use of group mind control, religious and otherwise.

See also: Root microbiota drive direct integration of phosphate stress and immunity

My summary: They claim to provide new insight that links soil bacteria to plant growth in the context of the systems that simultaneously act to coordinate and maintain the assembly of the soil microbiome. The gut microbiome in humans, and the soil microbiome protect humans and plants from virus-driven energy theft. Simply put, the global microbiome protects all natural sources of food energy from genomic entropy.

Reported as: Researchers make discovery that could increase plant yield in wake of looming phosph

“We show precisely how a key ‘switch protein’,PHR1, controls the response to low levels of phosphate, a big stress for the plant, and also controls the plant immune system… “When the plant is stressed for this important nutrient, it turns down its immune system so it can focus on harvesting phosphate from the soil. Essentially, the plant sets its priorities on the cellular level.”

At the cellular level of plant life, the plant appears to automagically control light energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in soil bacteria, which reproduce only in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing.

See also: God or Dirt

Our multi-media presentations enlighten audiences with scientific evidence which refutes the theory of evolution. Topics include: No known naturalistic mechanism for origin of life; Laws of thermodynamics; Irreducible complexity; Law of Biogenesis and Complexity of cellular life.

Everything known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent changes on Earth links angstroms to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft. Everything known can be ignored if theorists start with evidence of life that came from outer space and became part of the record of fossil evidence that has been used to support theories of evolution.

See also: The Genetics of Success: How Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Educational Attainment Relate to Life-Course Development (Thanks to Jay R. Feireman for his continued efforts to sneak articles like this one in through the backdoor after he stopped me from commenting further on RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.)

Abstract conclusion:

Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development.

They focus on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as a factor of interventions. In all living genera, the DNA sequence is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry links SNPs from endogenous RNA interference to the amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Examples of that fact are found in species from microbes to humans.

See, Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

The structure of  COMT Val158Met and its function are altered an SNP.  A G-to-A base-pair substitution leads to a methionine (Met) valine (Val) substitution at codons 108/158 (COMT Val158Met). Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links the Met allele to a fourfold decrease in enzymatic activity, which can be compared to the Val allele in carriers with increased prefrontal dopamine. That is how the A base pair substitution and the Met allele are associated with lower enzymatic activity (due to thermoinstability), and with exploratory behaviour.

See also: Many in Nation Tired of Explaining Things to Idiots

In a result that suggests a dismal future for the practice of explaining things to idiots, an overwhelming number of those polled said that they were considering abandoning such attempts altogether, with a broad majority agreeing with the statement, “This country is exhausting.”

Jay R. Feierman (6/14/14) [MODERATOR NOTE: I’m not going to post more from Kohl until he answers the very direct and simple question posed to him by anon, which is whether he (Kohl) believes that RNA splicing can change DNA.]

I gave up trying to explain any “beliefs” to human ethologists. But see my reply (6/5/16):

Now that Clarence Williams is back and jrf is again editing the responses he allows me to post, I hope everyone will see more than 800 examples of what they have missed.

The examples link energy-dependent epigenetically effected alternative RNA splicing from amino acid substitutions such as BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met to cell type differentiation in all cell types of all living genera via what is known about biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect.

In the context of what is known about animal models, Samir et al (2016) published: MicroRNAs in the Host Response to Viral Infections of Veterinary Importance MicroRNAs in the Host Response to Viral Infections of Veterinary Importance

See also:
James V. Kohl: “Evolution by natural selection cannot be the outcome if something is not first selected. Selection is always for nutrients. It is as simple as that.”
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
7/26/13
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
When historians attempt to determine who was the most irresponsible advocate of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense to ever cause the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions, I hope Jay R. Feierman is given the greatest of all consideration. I can’t think of anyone who has continued to prevent scientific progress for 20 years by ignoring the facts we presented in this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review article.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
See this excerpt from our section on molecular epigenetics.

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA

Chirality Check

Most biological macromolecules are homochiral, and enzymes help to maintain this state of affairs; for example, checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation.

The fixation of the only achiral amino acid, glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide protein links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from yeasts to humans. That fact about RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is missing from the chirality check, It also is missing from representations of the anti-entropic virucidal force that biophysically constrains all biodiversity by protecting all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
That’s why theories of evolution have no explanatory power. An unknown force of nature must be included the theories for comparison to Schrodinger’s claims in What is Life? (pp. 73 and 74)

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

See for comparison: Force of nature gave life its asymmetry

…even demonstrating how a common physical phenomenon would have favoured left-handed amino acids over right-handed ones would not tell us that this was how life evolved…

The fact that there is no explanation for how life evolved outside the context of an unknown force of nature can be placed into the context of the energy-dependent creation of all differentiated cell types in all living genera.
See: RNA G-quadruplexes are globally unfolded in eukaryotic cells and depleted in bacteria (2016) by Junjie U. Guo and David P. Bartel,

Owing to the extensive hydrogen-bonding and base-stacking interactions, RG4 structures can be very stable, with in vitro melting temperatures well exceeding physiological temperatures. This stability typically depends on the presence of K+, which is the optimal size to bind at the center of two stacked G-quartets…

They fail to mention that energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution must be linked to the stability of supercoiled DNA. Instead, the unfolding of the RNA G-quadruplexes was reported as: RNA Sequences Don’t Predict In Vivo Transcript Structure

Interactions between nucleotides can turn sections of transcripts into loops, bends, and knots, some of which have regulatory functions in the cell.

See for comparison: Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water.  K+ is an important electrolyte in the context of interactions in solutions. That fact was reported as:  A single ion impacts a million water molecules. The fact that the interactions between nucleotides are pH-dependent makes it important to consider what happens when slight changes in the cell types of species-specific tissues occur in the context of nutrient stress or social stress.
The stress causes changes in protein folding that predictably links energy-dependent interactions between nucleotides from natural selection for codon optimaility to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and healthy longevity? If pH does not facilitate energy-dependent codon optimality, a change in pH may predict a change in the structure of functional proteins, which can effect biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.
See for instance: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Unfortunately, the nutrient energy-dependent interactions between nucleotides and amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, are typically not considered in the context of virus-driven energy theft, which has been linked from viral latency to all pathology via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in species from archaea to humans.
See for instance: Epigenetics and Genetics of Viral Latency
… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…
My comment to The Scientist on RNA Sequences Don’t Predict In Vivo Transcript Structure :

See also: MicroRNAs: Genomics, Biogenesis, Mechanism, and Function (2004) by David P. Bartel

…about a quarter of the human miRNA genes) are in the introns of pre-mRNAs. These are preferentially in the same orientation as the predicted mRNAs…

For comparison, see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

… epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans…  Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species.

Hydrogen-atom energy-dependent changes in base pairs have since been linked from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all living genera via amino acid substitutions.

The RNA-mediated fixation of amino acids links autophagy from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA. Virus-driven energy theft has been linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. The changes link fertilization to adult sexual behavior.  See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems.
See also, the other publications by David P. Bartel
2016 Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression
Excerpt:

…we assumed that (1) molecular species are well mixed within the cytosol and their concentrations are not influenced by cell growth and division; (2) each mRNA and miRNA is produced at a constant rate, and unbound mRNAs and miRNAs undergo constant first-order decay; (3) upon association with a miRNA, the mRNA degradation rate increases, regardless of the site type; and (4) miRNA binding is reversible, and upon miRNA dissociation the mRNA degradation rate reverts to its original value. We also assumed that the Michaelis constant (KM) describing mRNA degradation with respect to the miRNA-mRNA complex is well approximated by the complex dissociation constant (KD), and that both bound and unbound mRNA are translated.

Simply put, they seem to have assumed that energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance need not be considered in the context of any model of biologically-based cause and effect.
See for comparison: 2014 Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
Abstract excerpt:

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

The clear difference between the assumptions made by Bartel (and others like him) and the facts about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry make it pointless for serious scientists to discuss experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect with anyone who does not agree that it is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of energy-dependent reproduction in all living genera.
See also: How the elite control the masses
Control involves giving the masses partial information, which is what Bartel and others appear to be doing in attempts to promote evolutionary theories.

See for comparison ( December 30, 2016 at 5:37pm):

Peter Berean wrote:

James, I have no problem with “energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions” … however, that does not show that energy = information.

And, neither does the article about “construction of phylogenetic trees”…

My recommendation is DO take the advice of your brothers in Christ… And correct your views and models accordingly.

IF you do so, you could actually have more people believe what you have to say about your models.

The comment about taking advice from my “brothers in Christ” is a classic. It comes from someone who may never understand anything about energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA, or how energy as information must be linked to all biodiversity.

Peter Berean is only one among many who are biologically uninformed. Their masses are not told that virus-driven energy theft can be linked to all pathology in the context of conserved molecular mechanisms, which have been detailed by all serious scientists. Peter Berean may think that his faith in God and/or his brothers in Christ will save him from his ignorance.

That may be true, but it may also not apply to those who have been told the truth and continue to ignore it. People like that encourage others to ignore the truth about energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA. The truth is that if you don’t know where that energy came from, you are no better off than any other theorist or atheist.

That makes this Chirality Check a reality check, and makes this a lie: “…checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation.”

See: Evolution of constrained gonadotropin-releasing hormone ligand conformation and receptor selectivity as cited in Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor

When the chiral amino acid (Ala) in position six of Ciona I GnRH was substituted with the achiral glycine or with d-Ala, which enhances the type II’ β-turn conformation, there was a marked increase in the binding affinity of the peptides at the vertebrate GnRH receptor (Barran et al., 2005).

The substitution of achiral glycine and the increased binding affinity were placed into the following context in the Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor:

The discovery of the fact that one decapeptide molecule, among the GnRHs, was constructed perfectly at the beginning of 400 million years evolution and that it is not possible to improve its physiological potency using the any natural amino acid is, in my opinion, important, fascinating and beautiful.

The claim about 400 million years of evolution has not been substantiated by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect and virus-driven energy theft was not considered in the context of the invention of neo-Darwinian theory.
The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…
[W]hat Haldane, Fisher, Sewell Wright, Hardy, Weinberg et al. did was invent…. Evolution was defined as “changes in gene frequencies in natural populations.” The accumulation of genetic mutations was touted to be enough to change one species to another…. Assumptions, made but not verified, were taught as fact.
See also: Spectrum of Antimatter Observed for First Time

The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today’s Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates physicists to carefully study antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter.

Without the anti-entropic energy of the sun, the laws of physics could not be linked from chemistry to molecular epigenetics, which must link energy-dependent autophagy from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA. If not, you are left with the magic of emergence and evolution instead of the fact that Life is physics and chemistry and communication in the context of energy as information.
In 2016, scientists collectively failed to link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun to autophagy and all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. They also failed to link virus-driven energy theft from the negative supercoiling of DNA to all pathology.
Instead, most scientific successes are examples of politicized science. Congratulations to those who are willing to place politicized science into the context of their theories.  The theories make their World a better place for other theorists to live in. Serious scientists, for comparison, will remember the theorists who failed to make the Chirality Check a reality check.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Phylogenetic similarity sans energy

Phylogenetic Similarity of Popular Rice Varieties from Different Sources (2016)

Cites: Sablok and Shekhawat (2008)

Excerpt:

“Microsatellites, often abbreviated as simple sequence repeats (SSRs), are 1 to 5 bp repeat mutation prone motifs. Due to mutation prone specific and high rate of polymorphism, microsatellites (SSR) have become a modern genetic resource tool for the genetic mapping studies, developing and establishing new patterns of molecular breeding and in inferring the phylogenetic and comparative genome analysis. These repetitive stretches are distributed in the coding and non-coding region with a bias towards the noncoding regions.”

My comment: Six years later Caguiat and Tabana (2016) fail to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal quantized energy as information in ultraviolet light from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the SSRs and SNPs. The SNPs link energy-dependent changes in base pairs to the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. They use the term “motifs” to link what all serious scientists know about autophagy and cell type differentiation, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft.

If they were working with tulips or tobacco plants they might already have examined the extant literature and realized that the varieties of rice exemplify nutrient energy-dependent autophagy in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Unfortunately, most theorists are not botanists who understand virus-driven energy theft in the context of protein folding biochemistry in plants.

For example, see: Tulips broken by viruses.

Excerpt:

…colorful patterns are caused by infection with potyviruses, which are filamentous plant viruses with positive-strand RNA genomes.

See also: The virome, microbiome, replisome and supercoiled DNA (November 3, 2015)

Excerpt:

Eventually, someone will get the Nobel Prize that Rosalind Franklin probably would have received had she lived to link the tobacco mosaic virus and poliovirus from pathology in plants to all pathology in mammals via an atoms to ecosystems model of epigenetically-effected non-static DNA structure and function.

See also: Structural Basis for Receptor-Mediated Selective Autophagy of Aminopeptidase I Aggregates

Co-author Yoshinori Ohsumi won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.

See for comparison: A milestone in small RNA biology—piRNA biogenesis from start to finish

Excerpt:

PIWI-interacting RNAs, or piRNAs for short, are a class of ‘small regulatory RNAs’—tiny pieces of nucleic acid just 22–30 nucleotides in length. They may be small, but with their associated Argonaute proteins, piRNAs have the power to ‘silence’ transposable elements, so called egoistic genes found in the genomes of plants, fungi, and animals. piRNA-guided silencing can act on chromatin to block transposon transcription, or by destroying transposon mRNAs in order to block their translation into proteins.