Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

EDAR V370A and sympatric speciation

Nick Lane and others like him refuse to reappraise their human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma. All serious scientists know where the energy for recombination comes from. But, in his latest video clip, he touts the same unsubstantiated theoretical pseudoscientific nonsense.

See the: Aeon Video:

Life on earth – from mushrooms to humans and everything in between – seems enormously diverse. At the cellular level, however, almost all complex lifeforms are surprisingly similar. Why life is this way, though, remains mysterious. In this Aeon interview, the UK biochemist and author Nick Lane discusses his research on the connection between energy and genes, which, he hypothesises, made possible the radical transformation from single-celled organisms to complex life about 4 billion years ago.

See for comparison: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

I’ve asked the authors: Are you prepared to address the comments that you might receive from people like Nick Lane in the context of “peer review?” How will you respond to those who do not accept the fact that the creation of ATP synthase and the creation of ATP must be linked to the creation of RNA and biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of SNPs and fixation of amino acid substitutions? What can be done when biologically uninformed theorists continue to link anything except biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity?

I ask because there are still too many examples of human idiocy that are being considered outside the context of facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

See: Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant

See the claims about the selection of the EDAR variant placed back into the context of evolution.

Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13

…we report the rapid (<1 week) design and testing of instrument-free assays to detect clinically relevant viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

The relevant energy-dependent single-nucleotide polymorphisms clearly protect all living genera from the clinically relevant viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via what is known to all serious scientists about the energy-dependent creation of the innate immune system in species from bacteria to humans.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk

The frequency of the human-specific EDAR V370A allele appears to be uniquely elevated in North and East Asian and New World populations due to a bout of positive selection likely to have occurred circa 20,000 y ago.

If any experimental evidence of biophysically constrained viral latency supported the claim about positive selection 20,000 y ago, it could be linked to Nick Lane’s claims about how chimeras and electricity allowed a sterile planet to give way to complex life 4 billion years ago. Since there is no experimental evidence to support his ridiculous theories, intelligent people may want to continue to link environmental selection from food selection to the physiology of reproduction and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions such as V370A that stabilize the organized genomes of all species on Earth.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (1)

Excerpt: ” …long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans…”
She Has Her Mother’s Laugh: The Powers, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity May 29, 2018 | 672 Pages
From the description of the book:

1) We need a new definition of what heredity is…

2) …Zimmer ultimately unpacks urgent bioethical quandaries arising from new biomedical technologies, but also long-standing presumptions about who we really are and what we can pass on to future generations.

The long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For comparison to the long-standing presumptions, see:
Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants May 11, 2012
Evolution and functional impact of rare coding variation from deep sequencing of human exomes May 17, 2012
Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants
Reported as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome November 28, 2012

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. More broadly, the results suggest that humans are carrying around larger numbers of deleterious mutations than they did a few thousand years ago. But this doesn’t mean that humans now are more susceptible to disease, says Akey. Rather, it suggests that most diseases are caused by more than one variant, and that diseases could operate through different genetic pathways and mechanisms in different people.

Akey dismissed everything known about the epigenetic effects of food energy and the metabolism of food to pheromones, which biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See for comparison: A third of Americans don’t believe in evolution January 1, 2014
My comment:

Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals that control the physiology of reproduction.

These facts do not refute evolution; they simply refute the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection that most people here were taught to believe is the theory of evolution.

That theory is far too ridiculous to be anything but a joke in the context of biological-based increasing organismal complexity. But here, we have lots of jokers, don’t we? The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.

When food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy (see: fails to protect organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, organisms pass on mutations to future generations. Clear evidence of that fact was published in the context of this article: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants January, 2013.

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history1, 2 and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery3.

The facts about the age of all mutations have since been placed into the context of:
Sperm epigenetics and influence of environmental factors February, 2018

… epigenetic variation may be genetically selected [41], which is in contradiction with the opposite model in which epigenetic variation is a cause of genetic variation. While both models can cooperate, more experimental evidence, other than computationally-based, should be provided to address the mutagenicity of regions subjected to environmentally-induced epigenetic variation and the evolutionary implications.


Future research efforts may be able to identify a unified epigenetic remodeling response to lifestyle stress across species. Understanding the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes in gametes on the phenotype of the offspring constitutes not only a fascinating biological question on its own but also represents a moral obligation for the health of future generations.

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression December, 2014

MicroRNA present in mature sperm… may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes.

To see how much experimental evidence of biophysically constrained food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biologically-based cause and effect has been ignored during the past two decades, see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior December 1996

…we focus directly on molecular events themselves. Here the “environment” involved can be that within a DNA segment. We also expand the notion of “biologically based sex differences.” Although many, and perhaps most, important sex differences arise from gonadal and hormonal development, also important are sex differences which are neither gonadal nor hormonal. All these factors affect the internal workings of the individual and intervene in structuring how the social environment might or might not modify sexual behavior. This discourse calls attention to features that are central to the so-called nature-nurture discussion.

Our section on molecular epigenetics may have been the first to detail what is now being reported in the context of the cryo-EM technology, which links energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems in all living genera via what is known about pre-mRNAs. Pre-mRNAs are now also referred to as microRNAs in more than 70,000 published works.
See: microRNA and/or pre-mRNA 
Clearly, what is known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity has forced Carl Zimmer to suggest that “We need a new definition of what heredity is…”
See also:
7/31/16 From hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecosystems
7/31/16 RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics
7/30/16 What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy
7/29/16 RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy
4/10/14 Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
8/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution
3/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone–controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation
2/17/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution
Watch for Philip C. Ball’s newest book: Beyond Weird  March 22, 2018

Over the past decade or so, the enigma of quantum mechanics has come into sharper focus. We now realise that quantum mechanics is less about particles and waves, uncertainty and fuzziness, than a theory about information: about what can be known and how.

See: 5/8/17 Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference May 8, 2017
See also: New Giant Viruses Further Blur the Definition of Life

“The gap between cellular organisms and viruses is starting to close,” Deeg said. “Which then brings us back to: What is a virus, and what is life?”

Has anyone else linked biophotonics to the energy-dependent proton motive force via the cryo-EM technology?
See for instance: Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase.
And preview, Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
Nobel Laureates, Linda Buck, Ben Feringa, Michael Rosbash are among other Nobel Laureates who are scheduled to present.
See also: Are Humans “Smeller Underachievers?” Not So Fast…

…they will share their data and experience on the psychological influences on eating and behavior, the chemosensory properties of food and how we experience them, the role of food as medicine, and the history and evolution of flavor and flavor perception.

No experimental evidence of energy-dependent biophysically constrained top-down causation suggests that flavor perception “evolved.”  See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Lethal virus kills 5 billion people?

Reporting new scientific truths is not allowed in the USA

Summary: If we keep training serious scientists in the United States but force them to return to their homeland to report new scientific truths, our Homeland Security will suffer from the ignorance of pseudoscientists who are still touting ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution.

A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.

Every great scientific truth goes through three stages. First, people say it conflicts with the Bible. Next they say it has been discovered before. Lastly they say they always believed it.

Sugar industry withheld evidence of sucrose’s health effects nearly 50 years ago

The results suggest that the current debate on the relative effects of sugar vs. starch may be rooted in more than 60 years of industry manipulation of science. Last year, the Sugar Association criticized a mouse study suggesting a link between sugar and increased tumor growth and metastasis, saying that “no credible link between ingested sugars and cancer has been established.”

First question: Why would they lie about a thing like that?

Second question: Who taught you to believe in them?

See also: Psychiatric Fallout From Toxic Exposure October 21, 2016 Posted to the Psychiatry Research Yahoo Group on November 25, 2017

Face-saving attempts will continue to be made by everyone who taught anyone else to believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense about random mutations and evolution. Clearly, psychiatrists decided it was good for business to ensure a decline in mental health that should have been attributed to the effects of sugar.

I recognized the obvious link from glucose levels to triglycerides before the nonsense about cholesterol and heart disease became a means to support the medical practices of pill prescribing physicians. Only diabetics had levels of triglycerides that left a chalky-white to pink color in their plasma or serum. Ultracentrifugation was sometimes required or chemical “clearing” with mathematical corrections in order to report accurate results.

Study: Autism Linked with Different Reactions to Chemical Signals (senior author Noam Sobel, Israel).

Responses to compounds in human sweat may help explain why people with autism spectrum disorder tend to struggle with social cues.

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (senior author Wen Zhou, China)
If we keep training serious scientists in the United States but force them to return to their homeland to report new scientific truths, our Homeland Security will suffer from the ignorance of pseudoscientists who are still touting ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution.
Sci-fi author Greg Bear tells Jon about the not-so-distant future of technology and helping Homeland Security.
This is not funny anymore:
See also: The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win
Compare the facts to this ridiculous representation of the virus-driven evolution of human heterosexual love: VIRUS EVOLUTION ( AMAZING DOCUMENTARY)
In his science fiction novels from 1999 and 2003, Greg Bear linked what was known about biophysically constrained food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations to the creation of a new more intelligent human subspecies that communicated with pheromones. They adapted to the virus-driven degradation of their messenger RNA, which has been linked from mutations to all pathology in species from archaea to non-human primates. Everything known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency has since been placed into the context of refutations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense.
For a historical approach to the overwhelming ignorance of biologically uninformed theorists, see:

“The Darwin Code: Intelligent Design without God”

Perhaps the most intriguing method of gene swapping in bacteria is the bacteriophage, or bacterial virus. Bacteriophages–phages for short–can either kill large numbers of host bacteria, reproducing rapidly, or lie dormant in the bacterial chromosome until the time is right for expression and release. Lytic phages almost invariably kill their hosts. But these latter types–known as lysogenic phages–can actually transport useful genes between hosts, and not just randomly, but in a targeted fashion.

But remember that the quality of RNA begins with its energy-dependent creation and researchers recently made the claim that they had …revealed a surprising relationship between dementia and decreased quality of RNA—a key player in gene expression—in the more aged brain.
The decreased quality of the RNA has also been linked to the creation of the death gene via what is known about glioblastoma. A Harvard and MIT trained physicist reported that fact to me, and I could hardly believe how easy it was to confirm it that Abcam researchers knew about it ~20 years ago.
See: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
See also: A Concise Review of MicroRNA Exploring the Insights of MicroRNA Regulations in Bacterial, Viral and Metabolic Diseases

I look forward to the day when serious scientists in the United States can report their refutations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense without being ostracized by claims that serious scientists exist on the fringes of what is known to all other serious scientists in the world. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology, not to the evolution of one species from another.


Pheromones biophysically constrain base editing and RNA editing

Summary: …they [Koonin’s group] substitute what they consider to be a plausible hypothesis. It places their observations into the context of a universal trend that is conserved in all life after the trend emerged, which was sometime before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms emerged and began to evolve.

Social behaviour shapes hypothalamic neural ensemble representations of conspecific sex Published online

The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win Published 31 October 2017

Neuronal Representation of Social Information in the Medial Amygdala of Awake Behaving Mice Publication stage: In Press Corrected Proof

Two of the three articles above were reported to the Human Ethology Yahoo Group on November 1, 2017.

89773 Mini-microscopes reveal brain circuitry behind social behavior

See: Mini-microscopes reveal brain circuitry behind social behavior Posted: 31 Oct 2017 12:12 PM PDT

A microscope lens implanted deep inside a mouse’s brain shows different patterns of neural activity when the mouse interacts with males, females, or other stimuli. Now, researchers have discovered that sexual experience can trigger long-term changes in these brain patterns.

Here is the comment I submitted to the Human Ethology Yahoo group, which is moderated by Jay R. Feierman, who (since 1995) I have used as an example of a biologically uninformed science idiot. Feierman, for example, consistently ignores any science news that does not support the pseudoscientific nonsense of his ridiculous theories. For comparison, I wrote:

The creation of quantized energy (i.e., sunlight); the creation of ATP; the creation of RNA; and the physiology of pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency have been placed into the context of the epigenetically effected changes in brain patterns.

See:  The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win

The vibrational theory of olfaction was placed into the context of how Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception via publication of Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

The feedback loops link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality from the sense of smell in bacteria to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera via naturally occurring  base editing, RNA editing, and RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links amino acid substitutions in organized genomes to protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes the mutations that cause all pathology in species from bacteria to humans.

For example: The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

For comparison see: Single rat muscle Na+ channel mutation confers batrachotoxin autoresistance found in poison-dart frog Phyllobates terribilis

Scientists changed the 1,584th amino acid found in most animals (asparagine) to the amino acid that the poison frogs have at that spot (threonine). The link from all vertebrates to mammals was exemplified when rats with the frog’s version of this protein survived exposure to the toxin. Survival of all species has always been placed into the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life.” His conditions are food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction. Only biologically uninformed theorists have claimed that mutation-driven evolution somehow occurs in the context of their mathematical models, which have no explanatory power whatsoever. All extant life is ecologically adapted to ecological variation. Extinctions exemplify the exceptions.

Previously, Feierman’s claims became increasingly more foolish. See for example:
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
I’m not sure if there is any experimental evidence of biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect that supports Feierman’s ridiculous claims, but they may be based on this claim:

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

That claim comes from A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution, which is an example of overwhelming ignorance.
Simply put, they substitute what they consider to be a plausible hypothesis. It places their observations into the context of a universal trend that is conserved in all life after the trend emerged, which was sometime before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms emerged and began to evolve.

Stuart Kauffman refutes theistic evolution

Biodiversity is autocatalytic (Senior author Stuart Kauffman)

…it was recently shown using the RAF algorithm that the metabolic network of Escherichia coli forms a large autocatalytic set of close to 1800 reactions (Sousa et al., 2015). As far as we know, this is the first formal proof that living organisms (or at least essential parts thereof) are indeed autocatalytic sets.

Reported as: “Autocatalytic biodiversity hypothesis aims to supplant Darwin’s ‘war of the species’

A species emerges from this environment and is an expression of those interactions. In other words, species are expressed and maintained by a complex interacting ecological network.

Few people recognize how difficult it is to link experimental evidence across disciplines. It is discouraging to to find that neo-Darwinian theorists have consistently done it with their claims about minimal mutational distances and the magic of evolution. Theorists link the natural selection of surviving organisms to biophysically constrained viral latency via nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair and amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
The theistic evolutionists have made it almost impossible to refute their claims because their claims are not evidence-based. No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has been linked from energy-dependent biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry to all biodiversity. For example, energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which links natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has not been considered by theorists. The start without energy
A sudden drop in outdoor temperature increases the risk of respiratory infections
Sarcasm alert: If this is true, global warming may be the solution to all virus-driven pathology. If it is based on the alternative facts touted by neo-Darwinian theorists, your aging relatives are more likely to die than your children — until the advent of something like the 1918 Spanish flu, which was more deadly to younger populations.
See also: Targeting Parkinson’s-linked protein could neutralize two of the disease’s causes
You cannot target a protein without consideration for energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference (i.e., biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation).
It is not the proteins that cause the diseases. It is the failure of energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair.
Surprise: Femtosecond blasts of UV light have been linked to natural selection for codon optimality and all biodiversity by serious scientists who have linked energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. Keep in mind that the serious scientists are not going to stop laughing about the claims of pseudoscientists.
See for example, this attack on the claims made by Neil deGrasse Tyson. It’s subtle, but that’s how serious scientists have fun. They know that most pseudoscientists won’t get their jokes.
Try to get used to the fact that theistic evolutionists don’t get the jokes, But first, you may need toi get over the fact that you probably were taught to believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theories. Admit it, you probably believed the nonsense even before it was linked to theories about Intelligent Design by alternative facts about evolution across millions of years. Some biologically uninformed theorists still seem to think led to the evolution of birds from dinosaurs.
1. See also: DNA damage is a pervasive cause of sequencing errors, directly confounding variant identification

Can you link their findings to autocatalytic biodiversity?

2. See also: Deficiency of microRNA miR-34a expands cell fate potential in pluripotent stem cells

Can you avoid linking their findings from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology?

3. See also: Circulating Plasma and Exosomal microRNAs as Indicators of Drug-Induced Organ Injury in Rodent Models

Can you avoid linking their findings to drug therapy-induced DNA damage that was not repaired in the context of endogenous RNA interference?

If you can avoid linking the findings from these three articles to biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and biodiversity in all living genera, you might be able to co-author an article on autocatalytic biodiversity and make people think it was possible for everything that emerged to automagically evolve into every species that has ever existed on Earth. But, why would you want to do that?

Biology to a Physicist

From Precis to Proof in 6000 years

Religious texts, such as The Holy Bible appear to be like a Precis of works from God. He seems to be explaining energy-dependent creation in the context of what is currently known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry, healthy longevity and RNA-mediated biodiversity.
God made it perfectly clear, in advance, that all miraculous biodiversity is energy-dependent. Energy as information is the theme that extends to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorscens. Biologically uninformed theorists are beginning to realize the importance of a simplistic version of biologically-based systems complexity.
Energy as information can be understood by non-scientists whether or not they are interested in further examination of top-down causation at every level of subsequent interactions among subatomic particles and macroscopic biodiversity.
See for instance: Protein Folding Using Quantum Topology which is linked to this video as a part of a series from “Serious Science

Matematician Jørgen Andersen on local geometry of hydrogen bonds, quantum states of proteins and future methods of predicting the macromolecules structure.


There are about 2000 local patterns that we’ve seen popping out now and we are trying to understand what is the correlation between the primary sequence of these patterns. Some of them have a clear significance. We’re trying to devise energy contributions for each of such patterns and then trying to see if we can create algorithms that generate all structures with a certain sequence of patterns. And this is a combinatorial problem that we’ve actually solved very recently.

My comment: Does he realize he is giving the bird to all pseudoscientists with both fingers?

See also: Jørgen Ellegaard Andersen publications

See for comparison: Precis: The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality

The book was written for the general readership (as  indicated by the Table of Contents). This precis is  designed to elicit responses from the scientific readership.

This Precis provides an overview of the book “The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality,” which details for a general audience a five-step biological pathway that allows the social environment to influence the genetic nature of mammalian behavior. This pathway is: gene-cell-tissue-organ-organ system. Moreover, though there are many environmental influences on genes, mammalian pheromones are the only known social-environmental stimuli that appear to activate gene expression in neurosecretory cells of tissue in the brain, an organ that is essential to any organ system involved in behavior. Human pheromones appear both to elicit a homologous “neuroendocrine” response and to influence behavior. Thus, human pheromones may fulfill the biological criteria required to link at least one aspect of a sensory-based, nurturing, social environment: olfaction, to the genetic nature of human behavior through a five-step pathway common to all terrestrial mammals and to many other vertebrates.

Full text:

1. This book incorporates both non-human animal and human models of reciprocity among odors, olfaction, neuroendocrinology, and behavior. It details the likely influences both of human chemical communication and of olfaction on genes in neurosecretory neurons. These neurons are found in brain tissue responsible for integrating, coordinating, and directing reproductive endocrine function in organs that comprise the organ systems known to influence mammalian reproductive sexual behavior and human sexuality. Though this book is not written to meet any requirements of a “hard scientific” approach to interdisciplinary topics, it is fully referenced for the knowledgeable scientist and for those interested either in further study or in support for any conclusions. Also included are chapter notes, a glossary, and an index.

2. After a Foreward by William E. Hartman and Marilyn A. Fithian and an Introduction by the co-author, Chapter 1 begins with commentary on previously published works by various scientific authorities who have offered their insights into the importance of human chemical communication. Among these authorities are Havelock Ellis, Irving Bieber, and Lewis Thomas, who offered the following statement: “I should think we might fairly gauge the future of biological science, centuries ahead, by estimating the time it will take to reach a complete, comprehensive understanding of odor. It may not seem a profound enough problem to dominate all the life sciences, but it contains, piece by piece all the mysteries.” (Thomas, 1980)

3. In Chapter 1, there are fourteen examples of the many questions that may be answered when one considers the likelihood of odorous human communication. Most of these questions concern different aspects of human sexuality. Briefly deliberated are concerns about an ineffective “language of olfaction” and errors in the logic that has been used in the past to deny the importance of odor in human sexuality. The introductory focus then turns to biological consistency among species; the common basis for scientific advancements; and the development of the working hypothesis that odors are a primary influence on human sexuality.

4. Chemical communication and its importance in other species from insects to mammals is more fully detailed in Chapter 2. The term pheromone is defined, with added emphasis of one basic causal relationship, namely, that mammalian pheromones appear to influence the secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), a hormone with both short-term and long-term effects on neurotransmission. Distinguishing characteristics of pheromones like species-specificity, and the differences between signalling and releasing pheromones are added to the definition. After a brief discussion of mammalian pheromones, the natural production of human odors is discussed and anecdotal evidence of some of their effects are offered as support for the concept of human pheromones.

5. Chapter 3 alludes to Greek mythology; the story of Ariadne’s thread, which metaphorically addresses the issue of biological consistency among species. The development of the mammalian sense of smell is detailed from its beginnings in single-celled organisms. Olfactory transduction is briefly discussed. Four crucial turning points in the development of mammalian chemical communication systems, which contribute to species survival, are: (1) the release of pheromones to attract another organism, which occurs in single-celled non-motile organisms, (2) the ability to detect and respond to chemical messengers with movement, which occurs in motile single-celled organisms (3) the development of neural networks devoted to processing chemical signals, which occurs in brainless invertebrates, and (4) phylogenetic advances in the development of these neural networks to include development of the vertebrate brain. Species-specific comparisons and contrasts in structure and function are provided.

6. Chapter 4 offers an ontogenetic perspective on development, both of the mammalian olfactory systems and of the GnRH neuronal system. The ontogenetic connection between the structure and function of olfactory sensory systems and brain development ascends in its significance because it allows the odorous social environment to directly and indirectly influence brain function by acting on GnRH, which in turn has short-term effects on neurotransmission and long-term effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis.

7. Kallmann’s syndrome represents a failure of GnRH neuronal migration. Correlates with anosmia and the inability to fall in love are noted, as are correlates with the GnRH neuronal system and brain development in other species. Additional aspects of olfactory transduction and signal processing are discussed. There are differences between the main olfactory system and the accessory olfactory system. The importance of the vomeronasal organ (VNO) for pheromone detection in other species and renewed interest in the recently confirmed presence of the human VNO add to the argument for the influence of odors on human sexuality.

8. Chapter 5 begins with anthropological folklore associated with odor and human behavior and progresses to a discussion of empirical evidence for this link. The metabolism of hormones into pheromones is noted. Specifically addressed are experiments with putative human pheromones and the likelihood of causal physiological and behavioral relationships. Comparisons and contrasts among species again are offered in this regard. The use of mammalian pheromones in fragrances designed to enhance the sexual appeal of humans is examined. The naturally occurring fragrance of musk, present in the secretions of many species, is held in high regard for its universal sex-attractant properties.

9. Chapter 6 reports on experiments with consciously processed human odors, beginning with the classically-conditioned response of infants to their mothers’ naturally-scented or artificially-scented breasts. Olfactory imprinting and the importance of the mother-infant bond are linked through non-human animal models to the development of neural templates and the human “love map”. Aspects of odor hedonics are detailed.

10. Children can determine the genetic sex of adults, and adults can distinguish between different people using their sense of smell. The importance of mammalian odors in aggression and in other contexts besides the mother-infant bond suggests human correlates. Similarly, clinical and anecdotal evidence that humans are culturally aware of odor-associated customs enhances a more scientific approach to the link between sex and the human sense of smell. Odors and fetishism are linked. The natural superiority of women’s olfactory acuity and specificity is linked to estrogen levels and to an important role in female choice: What human beings lack in acuity they make up for in powers of discrimination, which rival those of any other mammal.

11. Chapter 7 is a simplistic overview of prenatal GnRH neuronal system development. Included are genetic predisposition and the importance of GnRH pulsatility in the regulation of the HPG axis. This chapter begins, however, with the importance of chemical communication between ovum and spermatozoa and progresses through basic genetics, neuroanatomy, endocrinology, and endocrine aspects of neurotransmission. Postnatally, odor input is linked to human HPG axis function. Pheromone input appears to be indirectly measurable in assays of luteinizing hormone.

12. Beginning with the “nature” versus “nurture” controversy, Chapter 8 proceeds to the important issue of finding a link between the social environment and genes. The likelihood that genes are involved both in physiological and in behavioral cause and effect relationships is detailed. The influence of pheromones on genes and on concurrent neuroendocrine, reproductive system, and central nervous system development is proposed.

13. Twin studies are discussed, as is recent evidence of master genes that may allow chemical communication at the cellular level to play a primary role in behavioral development and in sexual orientation. Genetic conservation among species, specifically with regard to chemical communication, is addressed. Enzymes and chemical responses are linked with human behavior, as are genes and G protein-coupled receptors through an example of familial precocious puberty. Correlates between adrenal androgen metabolism, pheromone production, sexual dimorphism in the human hypothalamus, and human sexual orientation are offered.

14. Chapter 9 details aspects of human consciousness and of limbic learning and memory. Olfaction plays a key role by providing input to the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus. Comparisons and contrasts among species and among theories of consciousness are offered.

15. The importance of linking specialized research in diverse disciplines is made known, namely, how a “gay gene” might influence both human neuroanatomy and human sexuality. Dean Hamer has proposed the following: “The most simple hypothesis would be that the Xq28 makes a protein that is directly involved in the growth or death of neurons in the INAH-3. Alternatively, the gene could encode a protein that influences the regulation of this region by hormones.” (Hamer & Copeland 1994).

16. Effects of pheromones on other species are favorably compared to the effects of putative human pheromones. A consciously-processed odor stimulus has been used as an adjunct to classically condition the human immune response, thereby adding clinical significance to the effects of odors.

17. Chapter 10 reveals evidence of odor-driven hormonal effects on human behavior and on sexuality, again using cross-species comparisons that link information provided in earlier chapters. Examples supporting a link between pheromones and human sexuality are discussed. The “Law of Propinquity” appears to be invalidated by experience with pheromones that create more of a friendship or kinship bond, perhaps also creating an antibond effect on love. There is evidence that humans mate for genetic diversity on the basis of unconscious odor associations, and that odors may be involved in the Coolidge effect.

18. The sources of human pheromones are detailed in Chapter 11, with a discussion of the role of glandular secretions, fatty acids, bacteria, skin cells, and the relationship between levels or ratios of sex hormones and pheromone production. Important aspects of pheromone distribution are then linked to intimate behavioral associations. Androgenization appears to stimulate secretion of a more masculine pheromone signature. Odors can be used in clinical diagnostics. The inherent difficulties of human pheromone research are briefly discussed.

19. Chapter 12 links human pheromones to various courtship behaviors (e.g., dancing, kissing, et al.,) that appear to become progressively more intimate with increasing exposure to pheromones. Stereotypic attractive qualities (e.g., large breasts or hair color and distribution) with anecdotal evidence of causal relationships between pheromones, attraction, and intimacy are represented both positively and negatively. Culturally, negative representations often appear to correlate well with sexual repression. Racial differences in odor production that may contribute to racial prejudice are briefly addressed.

20. Included in Chapter 13 is a discussion of results from the National Geographic Smell Survey. Data was collected from approximately one and a half million people worldwide. Causes of anosmia and its link both to genetics and to the GnRH neuronal systems are detailed, as are links between damage to the VNO, age-related disorders, olfactory deficits, and behavior.

21. Chapter 14 provides both a historical and a modern-day overview of aromatherapy. Cultural differences in odor hedonics are explained by odor-associated classical conditioning. The roles of chemicals now known to function as human pheromones and of putative human pheromones in fragrances for commercial use is discussed. A brief summation of current research supporting the hypothesis that human pheromones are a primary influence on human sexuality is provided.

22. I believe that “the pheromones of other mammals are the only social-environmental stimuli to influence genes [in GnRH neurons].” Accordingly, human pheromones are the most likely link between the “nature” and the “nurture” of human sexuality. However, a typographical error: insertion of “not” on page 189, in paragraph 2, line 4 (intended to read as above) detracts from the concluding paragraphs.


Thomas, L. (1980) Notes of a biology-watcher: on smell. New England Journal of Medicine 302: 731-733.

Hamer, D. & Copeland, P. (1994) The Science of Desire, Simon & Schuster: 163.

My comment: Claims that my Precis is linked to proof of biophysically constrained energy-dependent causd and effect can be viewed in the context of the video representation by Jorgen Anderson for comparison to this detailed representation of my model and/or this video:

See the discussion attempt here before it is removed via suggestion by an unfriendly administrator who claims he is my friend. I’ve already given him the bird (in the cartoon representation from this blog post).