5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptations vs the randomness of evolution (3)

Summary: Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
Serious scientists will meet during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018 to discuss the overwhelming amount of human idiocy exemplified in the works of theorists who failed to learn that life is “All about that base.”
Without the quantized energy-dependent creation of the base pairs, viral latency could not be biophysically constrained and entropy would be used to explain the evolution of biodiversity manifested in sympatric speciation.
See for comparison: The costs of living at the edge: Seasonal stress in wild savanna-dwelling chimpanzees

Adaptations associated with shifting from a predominately forested habitat to a more open environment are considered a crucial step in hominin evolution.

The adaptations are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For example, higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans are an adaptation.
See:  Dehydroepiandrosterone – is the fountain of youth drying out?

…humans are unique in having adrenals that secrete large amounts of the prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEA-S, into the bloodstream of males and females. Even non-human primates produce only ~10% of the DHEA found in humans

Carl Zimmer places everything known about how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptations into the context of human evolution.
See: Hints of Human Evolution in Chimpanzees That Endure a Savanna’s Heat

Millions of years ago, our apelike ancestors gradually moved from woodlands to savannas and began walking upright at some point. The Fongoli chimpanzees demonstrate just how difficult that transition would have been — and how that challenge may have driven some major changes in our evolution, from evolving sweat glands to losing fur and walking upright.

Before she graduated from her medical technologist course (circa 2014), I mentioned to Misty ______ the importance of  β-lactamase testing to understanding how the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs would soon be linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via antibiotic susceptibility testing in the hospital medical laboratory.
Shared strategies for β-lactam catabolism in the soil microbiome

A hydrolase from the put operon was found to degrade in vitro benzylpenicilloic acid, the β-lactamase penicillin product.

This clearly exemplifies how the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in β-lactamase positive organisms is linked to antibiotic resistance via what all serious scientists know about the molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent cell type differentiation.
The findings were reported in the ridiculous context of claims about How Bacteria Eat Penicillin

…some of the bacteria could, in fact, eat the drugs… As it turned out, they were everywhere. He also found examples of the phenomenon in the scientific literature going back to the 1960s.

In 1964, McEwen et al, linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from Schrödinger’s claims in What is Life? (1944) to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA. Now, others like McEwen know that RNA interference biophysically constrains viral latency.
In 1968, Frohlich speculated that the highly ordered storage of quantized energy in species from microbes to humans linked hydrogen-atom transfer to the functional structure of cell membranes via the hydrogen bonds of molecules, or other dipolar constituents, which he linked to the shared energy supply that biophysically constrains life.
Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
See also: UTX-mediated enhancer and chromatin remodeling suppresses myeloid leukemogenesis through noncatalytic inverse regulation of ETS and GATA programs

By integrating proteomic and genomic analyses, we link these changes to UTX regulation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, coordination of the COMPASS complex and enhanced pioneering activity of ETS factors during evolution to AML.

They linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of ATP to chromatin remodeling during the evolution of pathology, which all serious scientists know is biophysically constrained by the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)

A study of the influence of pheromone stressor(s) on proliferating germ and somatic cells was performed on laboratory lines of house mouse in the context of the physiological hypothesis of mutation process, proposed by M.E. Lobashev in 1947. Data from experiments are presented, and results obtained during last 10-15 years are discussed. The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.

The interorganism systems of genetic regulation have since been placed into the context of sympatric speciation by all serious scientists.
See: Direct estimation of mutations in great apes reveals significant recent human slowdown in the yearly mutation rate
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

The eternal significance of microRNAs (2)

Summary: What is known for sure, however, is that biological processes called “nature” are not simplistic. Neither is the entity called “the environment.” The two separate worlds overlap and intertwine so only a single interactive one exists. Yes, it may be simpler to look at each singly, but one does so at intellectual peril.
The Immune Landscape of Cancer (2018)

Multiple control modalities of the intracellular and extracellular networks (transcription, microRNAs, copy number, and epigenetic processes) were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes.

More than 725 collaborators linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight  from  the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and biophysically constrained viral latency to cell type differentiation via autophagy.
See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

What is known for sure, however, is that biological processes called “nature” are not simplistic. Neither is the entity called “the environment.” The two separate worlds overlap and intertwine so only a single interactive one exists. Yes, it may be simpler to look at each singly, but one does so at intellectual peril.

Richard P. Feynman placed the intellectual peril into the context of food energy and human idiocy.
See:

See also: The Translation Machinery Is Immune from miRNA Perturbations: A Cell-Based Probabilistic Approach

Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA that regulate most human genes through base-pairing with their targets.

Base-pairing is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained. See: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the parody: All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14
Others now appear to be following on the heels of the late Eshel Ben-Jacob’s works, which showed that the “stochastic nature of miRNA action” is light energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination
MicroRNA-based regulation is obviously the key to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of everything known about the eternal significance of microRNAs.
See also: microRNA 
The quantized energy-dependent differential expression of microRNAs has been linked to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in more than 71,000 indexed published works.
Serious scientists now know that John McCain’s glioblastoma can probably be effectively treated with the microRNA-mediated immunotherapy that led to the remission of Jimmy Carter’s brain cancer.
See: John McCain’s brain cancer prognosis is ‘not very good,’ medical expert says
The reporters touch on the likely link from melanoma to brain cancer via microRNAs, and then dismiss it.
See for comparison: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
Would you like to target the regulation of your cell death genes?
See: The Remarkable Cancer Treatment That Helped Jimmy Carter Combat Brain Tumor

…his doctors have said he no longer needs cancer treatment thanks in part to a groundbreaking new kind of medication that trains the immune system to fight cancer tumors.

Anyone who is interested in learning how to prevent all diseases of the body and the brain (e.g., suicide prevention) may want to select the following link. Broad Anti-tumor Activity of a Small Molecule that Selectively Targets the Warburg Effect and Lipogenesis.
The Warburg Effect links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in the context of sympatric speciation, which is food energy-dependent and controlled by feedback loops that link the food energy to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Unfortunately, the Warburg effect is commonly used to explain mutation-driven evolution outside the context of the food energy that is required for sympatric speciation. Biologically uninformed theorists continue to display what Feynman referred to as human idiocy — as if no one on Earth can stop them.
But see: Cytosis. You could learn that the cure for all pathology is food energy-dependent and microRNA-mediated in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.
See also: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution
Anyone who makes claims about “viral evolution”  should be forced to explain why they have not learned how fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions have been linked to healthy longevity.

Editor’s summary: Five antigenic sites in the virus surface hemagglutinin protein, which together comprise 131 amino acid positions, are thought to determine the full scope of antigenic drift of influenza A virus. Koel et al. (p. 976) show that major antigenic change can be caused by single amino acid substitutions.

See also: Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity

Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing.

Who doesn’t want others to know that our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation included a section on “molecular epigenetics” and alternative splicing? See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The eternal significance of microRNAs (1) – revisited

I have never been forced to revisit a blog post on the day after it was posted, until now. The Scientist has misrepresented everything known to all serious scientists about the eternal significance of microRNAs in:
Sweet Tooth Gene Tied to Less Body Fat

“These results suggest that FGF21 has pleiotropic effects, with separate effects on macronutrient intake to those on body shape and blood pressure,” the authors write in their report.

My comment to The Scientist

See All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14 from the Zechiedrich lab and their 2015 published work: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

A Common Allele in FGF21 Associated with Sugar Intake Is Associated with Body Shape, Lower Total Body-Fat Percentage, and Higher Blood Pressure is an open access publication.

The authors link one food energy-dependent change in a base pair from rs838133, which is an A/G/T single-nucleotide variation on human chromosome 19, to biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity in the mouse-primate-human model of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

In that model, and in all model organisms feedback loops link what organisms eat to all morphological and behavioral diversity. See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

The atoms to ecosystems model of sympatric speciation refutes neo-Darwinian pseudoscentific nonsense by linking rs3827760, also known as 1540T/C, 370A, V370A, or Val370Ala, from a SNP in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2 to conserved morphological and behavioral phenotypes in mice and humans.

My past comments to The Scientist may be removed before others can see how my 500+ comments have continued to attest to the facts about sympatric speciation since the time that Eugene Garfield posted his comment about “The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality. See “Scent of a Book Deal” (1995)
We made a deal with the editor at Continuum Publishing  to include an attestation to mutations and evolution. I mentioned that to the late Eugene Garfield at the time I met with him in Minot, ND during a conference he funded in its entirety. His friend William Turner and I were among the few people who knew that Gene was present. He kept a low profile so that he could listen and learn.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Part 3: Light-controlled cell biology (revisited)

Your cells are constantly being shed and replaced—so is your body ever completely refreshed? Does anything remain of the body that existed on Jan. 1, 2017? 2007? The day you were born? (video)

Out of Order: Undaunted 

…as I prepared for this issue’s Special Report on Microbiomics (starting on page 19), I am stunned by what I am only starting to understand. That our individual existence as humans may only be 10 percent of what we see in the mirror—and that perhaps only 1 percent of our personal ecological genome is a human genome…

When you understand the concept of biophysically constrained energy-dependent ecology (Frohlich, 1968), you may begin to understand the difference between ecological adaptation and evolution. Each cell type represents biophysically constrained viral latency, not mutation-driven evolution.

Outside the context of energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair (aka autophagy), no cell types exist. Bacteria become archaea and archaea become L-forms and the L-forms become non-cells. The energy for cell type differentiation comes from sunlight or from food. It is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

See also: This Compound Can Reverse Aging in Mice. Will It Work in People? and Mitotic progression, arrest, exit or death is determined by centromere integrity and independent of de novo transcription

Theorists used the term “de novo” in the context of de novo transcription and other aspects of energy-dependent cell type differentiation that they cannot explain with their ridiculous theories. For instance, David Sinclair has touted pseudoscientific nonsense until now.

He knows that the cell biology game, “Cytosis” for ages 10+ has exposed him to ridicule, and obviously won’t go away without a fight to maintain some scientific credibility.

See also: PhD title: Fibrillation of proteins involved in neurodegenerative diseases: influence of mRNA

State of art:
TDP-43 and FUS, two RNA-binding proteins (RBPs), have been recently the subject of increased attention due to their role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and FrontoTemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD). In non-pathological conditions, these proteins are mostly found in the nucleus where they participate to mRNA biogenesis and regulation of alternative splicing. However, TDP-43 and FUS are also present in the cytoplasm and they are able to shuttle from one compartment to another. TDP-43 and FUS notably participate in cytoplasmic functions such as mRNA transport and localized translation, which are of critical importance for neuron physiology. In neurons of ALS and FTLD patients, TDP-43 and FUS form insoluble cytoplasmic aggregates with fibrillar structure that can further spread the disease to other areas of the brain.

If this is the state of the art, was the information used to treat the late Stephen Hawking, or was he left to suffer unnecessarily until he died?

See also:

 More germane to DDNews, the most recent pattern I cannot seem to shake is discussion of the microbiome.

Neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists seem to have no sense of pattern recognition in the context of Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

See for comparison: What Stephen Hawking’s Final Paper Says (And Doesn’t Say)

The claims in “Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception” link the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space time continuum and biophysically constrained viral latency. Everything known to Hawking’s co-authors Roger Penrose and George FR Ellis has since been linked from what organisms eat to the physiology of reproduction via the creation of sunlight and biomolecules.

The difference between Hawking’s ridiculous theories and biologically-based facts will place the claims about his intelligence and insight into the historical context of how celebrity scientists have led to our unnecessary suffering and premature death. It’s ironic that Hawking could have been effectively treated with food energy-dependent microRNAs, but instead got stuck with a useless theoretical approach to life. I would not want that to happen to my children or grandchildren (if I had any). What are your children being taught to believe in: theories or experimentally established facts?.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (3)

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (2)

Teilhardism And The New Religion: A Thorough Analysis of the Teachings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin”, p.18, TAN Books

The evolutionist thesis has become more stringently unthinkable than ever before. — Dr. Wolfgang Smith (2015).

A Chat with Information Scientist Pedro Marijuán (2017)

I’ve based my informational scheme of the cell on this thinking of “distinction on the adjacent” — where molecular recognition is the essential phenomenon over which biological complexity has been developed.

Biological complexity develops in the context of the olfactory code. Molecular recognition of food odors and pheromones biophysically constrains viral latency.

See: Fundamental principles of the olfactory code  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 94-101 open access

Sensory coding represents a basic principle of all phyla in nature: species attempt to perceive their natural surroundings and to make sense of them. Ultimately, sensory coding is the only way to allow a species to make the kinds of crucial decisions that lead to a behavioral response.

Alternative splicing of microRNAs (aka pre-mRNAs) are required for a behavior response.

The splicing code  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 39-48

…the splicing code depends on a myriad of different factors that in part are influenced by the background in which they are read such as different cells, tissues or developmental stages. Given the complexity of the splicing process, the construction of an algorithm that can define exons or their fate with certainty has not yet been achieved.

Algorithms define nothing. The availability of quantized energy as information must be linked to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biologically based cause and effect.

What is code biology?  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 1-10

The great discontinuities of the history of life, in other words, can be explained as the result of the appearance of new codes.

New codes do not automagically occur. The new codes are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of the fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.

On universal coding events in protein biogenesis  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 16-25

The complete ribosomal protein synthesis cycle and codon-amino acids associations are universally preserved in all life taxa on Earth. This process is accompanied by a set of hierarchically organized recognition and controlling events at different complexity levels. It starts with amino acid activation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases…

The energy-dependent creation of the tRNA synthetases links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all energy-dependent biodiversity.

How prokaryotes ‘encode’ their environment: Systemic tools for organizing the information flow  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 26-38

An important issue related to code biology concerns the cell’s informational relationships with the environment. As an open self-producing system, a great variety of inputs and outputs are necessary for the living cell, not only consisting of matter and energy but also involving information flows.

Quantized energy is the information that flows through every cell type in all prokaryotes.

Causation, constructors and codes  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 121-127

A formal definition of codes in general, and organic codes in particular, allows the relational diagram to be extended so as to capture this translation of formal cause into process. The extended relational diagram is used to exemplify causal entailment in a diverse range of processes, such as enzyme action, construction of automata, communication through the Morse code, and ribosomal polypeptide synthesis through the genetic code.

The diverse range of processes starts with the creation of energy-dependent enzyme action. The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight was first linked to the creation of all biodiversity on Earth in 1944: What is Life?

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

If you think you can link anything except sunlight to all biodiversity on Earth, see: Evolution – Genetic Novelty/Genomic Variations by RNA Networks and Viruses
If you know that serious scientists do not link viruses to the evolution of anything except pathology, see:
Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The future of biology will not be left in the hands of biologically uninformed theorists.

APS 2018

From photons to the proton motive force (2)

If you know someone who has linked differences in the energy of photons from the proton motive force to the physiology of reproduction and all biophysically constrained biodiversity, ask if they will attend Schrödinger at 75-The Future of Biology
For contrast, touting genetic evolution is not the future of biology.
See: Abstract: K06.00013 : A Path Integral Method for Analytically Tractable Inference of Evolutionary Dynamics

Understanding the forces that shape genetic evolution is a subject of fundamental importance in biology and one with numerous practical applications. Modern experimental techniques give insight into these questions, but inferring evolutionary parameters from sequence data, such as how an organism’s genotype affects its fitness, remains challenging. Here we present a method to infer selection from genetic time-series data using a path integral approach based in statistical physics. Through extensive numerical tests we find that our method exceeds the current state of the art in the successful classification of mutations as beneficial or deleterious in a variety of scenarios, while also yielding orders of magnitude improvements in run time. Our approach can also be extended to jointly infer other evolutionary parameters such as the effective population size and mutation rates.

Serious scientists do not infer evolutionary parameters using sequence data. They link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to biophysically constrained viral latency. Virus-driven energy theft is linked from mutations to all pathology. There is no such thing as a beneficial mutation.
See also: Abstract: K06.00001 : Coarse-grained models coupling cell cycle and gene expression*

During a cell cycle, cells grow and divide. Recent single-cell experiments show that gene expression levels depend on the cell cycle. Particularly important is the proportion of the number of mRNA and protein to the cell volume. It is not clear how cells maintain a constant mRNA and protein concentration as the cells grow. Here we propose a coarse-grained gene expression model incorporating ribosomes and RNA polymerases, which captures the exponential growth of mRNA and protein number. We show that the homeostasis of mRNA and protein concentrations during the cell cycle can be achieved in a robust manner independent of cell shape. Furthermore, we show that the fluctuations in ribosome and polymerase numbers do not propagate to protein concentrations while the fluctuation in cell density does. Furthermore, our model reconciles the discrepancy between the experimentally observed negligible correlations between mRNA and protein levels, and the predicted positive correlations from previous models

Energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance have been linked from RNA-mediated cell cycles to gene expression in more than 70,000 published works. See: microRNA
See also: Applications of ligation-mediated PCR

A nick in a strand is any place where there’s a missing covalent bond between a sugar and the next adjacent phosphate. Nicks can arise from DNA damage, during normal DNA replication, or from the action of nuclease enzymes. Since a nick breaks the continuity of the backbone of one strand, it must be repaired by re-forming the missing covalent bond in order to make the DNA molecule intact again. This job of sealing nicks (specifically, nicks that occur between a sugar 3′ -OH group and the adjacent phosphate attached to the preceding sugar’s 5′ -OH group) is the function of DNA ligase. Using a molecular energy source (which differs depending on the enzyme source organism), DNA ligase reforms the missing covalent bond and the strand is whole again. Two aspects of this are critical:

The nick to be repaired occurs on a single strand but in the context of a double-stranded molecule.

The bases of the nicked strand, and particularly those directly flanking the nick site, must be properly base-paired to the opposite (un-nicked) strand.

It’s not hard to imagine why this is: the base pairing is required to hold the two parts (sugar 3′ -OH and the next phosphate) in place for the ligase enzyme active site to catalyze joining them. If either one of these isn’t base-paired down and is flopping about with thermal motion, the reaction geometry doesn’t occur, and no new bond can be made.

Simply put: It’s all about that base and energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair.
If you are still trying to put what is known about DNA repair and cell type differentiation back into the context of neo-Darwinian evolution, you are not a winner.
See: Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

See also: The spread of true and false news online
Reported as: Researchers call for large-scale scientific investigation into fake news

Additionally, the article’s authors point out that false information affects not only the political sphere but also areas not previously regarded as political, such as public health topics like nutrition and vaccinations, as well as the stock market.

Do you know someone who has consistently touted the use of vaccinations compared to nutrition? Are they paid to do that or are they biologically uninformed?

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Ecological adaptation: a new definition of heredity (4)

Experimentally Induced Metamorphosis in Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Under Constant Diet Restructures Microbiota Accompanied by Reduced Limb Regenerative Capacity (2018)

Our results show that distinct bacterial communities inhabit individual organs of Axolotl and undergo substantial restructuring through metamorphosis.

The restructuring during metamorphosis is biophysically constrained by feedback loops that link olfaction from food odors and pheromones to the creation of enzymes in bacteria and the secretion of the vertebrate decapeptide hormone GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone).
See: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist binding in tiger salamander nasal cavity (1993)
The authors presciently linked food odors and pheromones from epigenetic effects on feedback loops to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and microRNA-mediated morphological and behavioral diversity, and also to differences in the behavior of monogamous and polygamous prairie voles.
See: The prairie vole vomeronasal organ is a target for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (2001)
For comparison, Larry Young claimed that the evolution of viruses caused the differences in prairie vole behavior. He linked the virus-driven differences from three other hormones to the evolution of heterosexual love. See: Virus Evolution Amazing Documentary Full HD National Geographic Documentary 2015
Others, who are like Larry Young, have failed to link anything known to serious scientists from sensory input to energy-dependent changes in the creation of enzymes, receptors and hormones. The anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of enzymes by bacteria links the creation of receptors and hormones in vertebrates to protection of organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
See for comparison: 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing

Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”

Originally a zoology major, Asimov switched to chemistry and earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in biochemistry in 1948. In 1977, he contracted HIV from a blood transfusion. He was president of the American Humanist Association, which suggests that his atheism led to his death via his ignorance.
For example, in 1964, Dobzhansky wrote:

“The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.”

If Isaac Asimov was the last polymath of our civilization, we are doomed. Clearly his ridiculous beliefs have led to the teaching of pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution despite the claims of Schrödinger (1944) and those who will link the anti-entopic virucidal energy of sunlight from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
See for comparison: How One Child’s Sickle Cell Mutation Helped Protect the World From Malaria
Once again, so-called science journalist Carl Zimmer shows that he does not know the difference between a mutation and an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Single nucleotide substitutions or indels can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

Hemoglobin variants alter the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. They are clear indicators of how ecological variation must be linked to ecological adaptation via food energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
There are more than 1700 human variants. Anyone who claims that the variants are mutations should be required to link them from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes in all living genera to ecologically adapted human populations.
The alternative is sexist and racist. Much more is needed than a new definition of heredity. All intelligent people must dismiss the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution. Then, we can start over with accurate representations of top-down causation and biophysically constrained viral latency.
But first see: EPA’s Scott Pruitt Doesn’t Buy Evolution

Andrew Rosenberg, director of the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, counters that Pruitt should not act as “the nation’s pastor.”

Andrew Rosenberg should become familiar with the extant literature or play the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+. There is no excuse for his level of ignorance.
Cytosis is a board game that details what takes place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses! In the context of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, a new tool is now available to help theorists link cause and effect via a mathematical model.
See: VarQ: a tool for the structural analysis of Human Protein Variants. The mathematical model has replaced neo-Darwinian theories with facts about how the energy-dependent structure of functional supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains viral latency.
See also: Inhibition of the Host Translation Shutoff Response by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Triggers Nuclear Envelope-Derived Autophagy (2013)
and Role of bacterial efflux pumps in biofilm formation
Only a few people I know would link antibiotic resistance from Escherichia coli to Acinetobacter baumannii via the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Until they are willing to do it in a public forum, see: Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system.
Pseudoscientists and most other theorists are still focused on mutation-driven evolution. Isaac Asimov’s “humanist” influence has prevailed across more than one generation of students who learned how to link nothing to everything from people like Neil deGrasse Tyson, Lawrence Krauss, and Carl Zimmer.

Witzhany2018

Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (2)

The 1902 definition of mutation by Hugo de vries can again be placed into the context of facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and healthy longevity before anyone else attempts to redefine heredity. Hopefully, that will be done before anyone else from the CDC goes missing. The threat to thos who understands how top-down causation is linked to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance by cell survival is severe because they have linked virus-driven energy theft from mutations to the death gene. For comparison, mathematical models link mutations to evolution.
Historical perspective:

De Vries’s theory was one of the chief contenders for the explanation of how evolution worked, leading, for example, Thomas Hunt Morgan to study mutations in the fruit fly, until the modern evolutionary synthesis became the dominant model in the 1930s. Somewhat ironically, the large-scale primrose variations turned out to be the result of chromosomal duplications (polyploidy), while the term mutation now generally is restricted to discrete changes in the DNA sequence.

Thomas Hunt Morgan won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1933 for discoveries elucidating the role that the chromosome plays in heredity.[2]
See also: Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels (1990), which was co-authored by Michael Rosbash who shared the 2017 Nobel Prize in Medicine for development of the cryo-EM technology. Cryo-EM links energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements that biophysically constrain viral latency in all living genera.
See for comparison, this attack on my scientific credibility by P.Z. Myers: One crank dies, another rises to take his place
I wrote:

The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.

Since December 25, 2017 I have been using my twitter account to reach a larger target audience at a pace of about 100,000 impressions each month.  For example, my top tweet in February got 12,500 impressions. I wrote:

I think the problem is why theorists placed their claims into the context of the emergence of energy and mutation-driven evolution. Sure that exemplifies idiocy, but it’s easy to understand without the metaphors. Complexity “just happens” — scientificamerican.com/article/the-su

See also:


See also: Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (3)

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (1)

Excerpt: ” …long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans…”
She Has Her Mother’s Laugh: The Powers, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity May 29, 2018 | 672 Pages
From the description of the book:

1) We need a new definition of what heredity is…

2) …Zimmer ultimately unpacks urgent bioethical quandaries arising from new biomedical technologies, but also long-standing presumptions about who we really are and what we can pass on to future generations.

The long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For comparison to the long-standing presumptions, see:
Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants May 11, 2012
Evolution and functional impact of rare coding variation from deep sequencing of human exomes May 17, 2012
Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants
Reported as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome November 28, 2012

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. More broadly, the results suggest that humans are carrying around larger numbers of deleterious mutations than they did a few thousand years ago. But this doesn’t mean that humans now are more susceptible to disease, says Akey. Rather, it suggests that most diseases are caused by more than one variant, and that diseases could operate through different genetic pathways and mechanisms in different people.

Akey dismissed everything known about the epigenetic effects of food energy and the metabolism of food to pheromones, which biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See for comparison: A third of Americans don’t believe in evolution January 1, 2014
My comment:

Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals that control the physiology of reproduction.

These facts do not refute evolution; they simply refute the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection that most people here were taught to believe is the theory of evolution.

That theory is far too ridiculous to be anything but a joke in the context of biological-based increasing organismal complexity. But here, we have lots of jokers, don’t we? The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.

When food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy (see: Autophagy.pro) fails to protect organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, organisms pass on mutations to future generations. Clear evidence of that fact was published in the context of this article: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants January, 2013.

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history1, 2 and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery3.

The facts about the age of all mutations have since been placed into the context of:
Sperm epigenetics and influence of environmental factors February, 2018

… epigenetic variation may be genetically selected [41], which is in contradiction with the opposite model in which epigenetic variation is a cause of genetic variation. While both models can cooperate, more experimental evidence, other than computationally-based, should be provided to address the mutagenicity of regions subjected to environmentally-induced epigenetic variation and the evolutionary implications.

Conclusion:

Future research efforts may be able to identify a unified epigenetic remodeling response to lifestyle stress across species. Understanding the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes in gametes on the phenotype of the offspring constitutes not only a fascinating biological question on its own but also represents a moral obligation for the health of future generations.

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression December, 2014

MicroRNA present in mature sperm… may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes.

To see how much experimental evidence of biophysically constrained food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biologically-based cause and effect has been ignored during the past two decades, see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior December 1996

…we focus directly on molecular events themselves. Here the “environment” involved can be that within a DNA segment. We also expand the notion of “biologically based sex differences.” Although many, and perhaps most, important sex differences arise from gonadal and hormonal development, also important are sex differences which are neither gonadal nor hormonal. All these factors affect the internal workings of the individual and intervene in structuring how the social environment might or might not modify sexual behavior. This discourse calls attention to features that are central to the so-called nature-nurture discussion.

Our section on molecular epigenetics may have been the first to detail what is now being reported in the context of the cryo-EM technology, which links energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems in all living genera via what is known about pre-mRNAs. Pre-mRNAs are now also referred to as microRNAs in more than 70,000 published works.
See: microRNA and/or pre-mRNA 
Clearly, what is known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity has forced Carl Zimmer to suggest that “We need a new definition of what heredity is…”
See also:
7/31/16 From hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecosystems
7/31/16 RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics
7/30/16 What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy
7/29/16 RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy
4/10/14 Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
8/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution
3/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone–controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation
2/17/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution
Watch for Philip C. Ball’s newest book: Beyond Weird  March 22, 2018

Over the past decade or so, the enigma of quantum mechanics has come into sharper focus. We now realise that quantum mechanics is less about particles and waves, uncertainty and fuzziness, than a theory about information: about what can be known and how.

See: 5/8/17 Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference May 8, 2017
See also: New Giant Viruses Further Blur the Definition of Life

“The gap between cellular organisms and viruses is starting to close,” Deeg said. “Which then brings us back to: What is a virus, and what is life?”

Has anyone else linked biophotonics to the energy-dependent proton motive force via the cryo-EM technology?
See for instance: Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase.
And preview, Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
Nobel Laureates, Linda Buck, Ben Feringa, Michael Rosbash are among other Nobel Laureates who are scheduled to present.
See also: Are Humans “Smeller Underachievers?” Not So Fast…

…they will share their data and experience on the psychological influences on eating and behavior, the chemosensory properties of food and how we experience them, the role of food as medicine, and the history and evolution of flavor and flavor perception.

No experimental evidence of energy-dependent biophysically constrained top-down causation suggests that flavor perception “evolved.”  See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

Creating biophysically constrained viral latency (1)

When a theorist or so-called science journalist claims that not enough is known about how quantum physics must be linked from energy-dependent top-down causation to quantum chemistry or how energy-dependent bottom-up quantum chemistry is linked to biophysically constrained viral latency, ask if they have seen this.

Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites.

For an example of the anti-entropic energy-dependent RNA-mediated complexity of cell metabolism and cell type differentiation, see: Sulforaphane mobilizes cellular defenses that protect skin against damage by UV radiation

Topical application of sulforaphane-rich extracts of 3-day-old broccoli sprouts up-regulated phase 2 enzymes in the mouse and human skin, protected against UVR-induced inflammation and edema in mice, and reduced susceptibility to erythema arising from narrow-band 311-nm UVR in humans.

See also: Skin microbiota–host interactions

The skin is a complex and dynamic ecosystem that is inhabited by bacteria, archaea, fungi and viruses. These microbes—collectively referred to as the skin microbiota—are fundamental to skin physiology and immunity. Interactions between skin microbes and the host can fall anywhere along the continuum between mutualism and pathogenicity. In this Review, we highlight how host–microbe interactions depend heavily on context, including the state of immune activation, host genetic predisposition, barrier status, microbe localization, and microbe–microbe interactions. We focus on how context shapes the complex dialogue between skin microbes and the host, and the consequences of this dialogue for health and disease.‏

Study: Vitamin B3 might help against skin cancer

Nicotinamide, an amide form of vitamin B3, boosts cellular energy and regulates poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1, an enzyme with important roles in DNA repair and the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Nicotinamide shows promise for the treatment of a wide range of dermatological conditions, including autoimmune blistering disorders, acne, rosacea, ageing skin and atopic dermatitis. In particular, recent studies have also shown it to be a potential agent for reducing actinic keratoses and preventing skin cancers.

Nicotinamide: Mechanism of action and indications in dermatology

The existing clinical data and literature on nicotinamide suggests that it is an inexpensive, safe drug with beneficial effects as an adjunct in many dermatological diseases because of its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, barrier repair and protective effects. It can be used both as a topical and oral drug without any major adverse effects.

For the link from topical application that protects human skin from excess UVR-induced inflammation to diet-driven protection from cancer, see also: Engineered commensal microbes for diet-mediated colorectal-cancer chemoprevention

The engineered commensal Escherichia coli bound specifically to the heparan sulphate proteoglycan on colorectal cancer cells and secreted the enzyme myrosinase to transform host-ingested glucosinolates—natural components of cruciferous vegetables—to sulphoraphane, an organic small molecule with known anticancer activity. The engineered microbes coupled with glucosinolates resulted in >95% proliferation inhibition of murine, human and colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines in vitro. We also show that murine models of colorectal carcinoma fed with the engineered microbes and the cruciferous vegetable diet displayed significant tumour regression and reduced tumour occurrence.

Reported as: With these special bacteria, a broccoli a day can keep the cancer doctor away

For comparison, see: Sulforaphane-Induced Cell Cycle Arrest and Senescence are accompanied by DNA Hypomethylation and Changes in microRNA Profile in Breast Cancer Cells

Rarely does anyone see an example of how conserved across-kingdom molecular mechanisms protect all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

So far as I know, evolutionary biologists still claim that energy-dependent protection emerged so that species could evolve their increasing organismal complexity over-the-weekend.

See for comparison: Tuning the dynamic range of bacterial promoters regulated by ligand-inducible transcription factors

This work enables predictable control over the dynamic range of regulatory components.

Article excerpt:

1) Because the lac and tet systems evolved separately, the promoters that respond to LacI and TetR are tuned to transcribe downstream genes at rates appropriate to their original setting.

2) We also developed a thermodynamic model that predicted the contribution of free energy of binding to the overall transcriptional initiation rate, which we measured in a fluorescence-based plate reader experiment.

The two excerpts can be linked to the overwhelming amount of pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists via the example of the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens, which fluoresces with exposure to UV light.

Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system

The energy-dependent fixation of two RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions was reported in the context of how evolution “rewired” the nitrogen regulation system over-the-weekend via two mutations.

From the Editor’s Summary
Losing and then regaining flagella

The ability to adapt to changes in the function of gene regulators, as opposed to structural genes, is a crucial aspect of evolutionary change. Taylor et al. mutated a central regulator for the formation of flagella in the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens. They then put the mutated flagella-free bacteria under strong selection pressure to regain mobility. The mutated bacteria regained the lost flagella, and motility, within 4 days. Two stereotypical mutations diverted an evolutionarily related regulator that normally controls nitrogen uptake to control flagella biosynthesis. The mutations increased the levels of the co-opted regulator, then altered its specificity for the flagella pathway.

The ability to adapt to ecological variation via the de novo creation of amino acids should not be placed back into the context of neo-Darwinian nonsense about mutations and evolution. The neo-Darwinists have failed to link mutations to beneficial changes in behavior. In bacteria and in humans the behavior is biophysically constrained in the context of viral latency via energy-dependent changes in microRNAs and autophagy.