5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The eternal significance of microRNAs (8)

Use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation and aging has been replaced by the use of model systems of biological processes.  Biological processes can be compared to so-called “evolutionary processes” to show that only biological processes need to be considered in the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life” or answers to the the question  What is Life? Schrödinger (1944).
K. L. Mettinger et al. (eds.), Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1056, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74470-4_6

This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration.

Chapter 2 The Emerging Roles of microRNAs in Stem Cell Aging

involved in many biological processes such as developmental timing, differentiation, cell death, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, immune response, aging and cancer. Accumulating studies in recent years suggest that miRNAs play crucial roles in stem cell division and differentiation. In the present chapter, we present a brief overview of these studies and discuss their contributions toward our understanding of the importance of miRNAs in normal and aged stem cell function in various model systems.

Chapter 6  MicroRNAs, Regulatory Messengers Inside and Outside Cancer Cells

…like hormones, miRNAs can be secreted and regulate gene expression in recipient cells. Altered expression levels of miRNAs in cancer cells determine the acquisition of fundamental biological capabilities (hallmarks of cancer) responsible for the development and progression of the disease.

Model systems link the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs from microRNA biogenesis to the regulation of all cancer hallmarks. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all cancers and all other pathology in species from microbes to humans. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has been linked to healthy longevity.
See: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See for comparison:  The Neutral Theory in Light of Natural Selection May 2, 2018

…50 years after its introduction by Kimura. We argue that the neutral theory was supported by unreliable theoretical and empirical evidence from the beginning, and that in light of modern, genome-scale data, we can firmly reject its universality. The ubiquity of adaptive variation both within and between species means that a more comprehensive theory of molecular evolution must be sought.

The ubiquity of adaptive variation attests to the facts about how the creation of quantized energy is linked to biophysically constrained viral latency. Adaptive variation links energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera  via the physiology of their food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.

For comparison to mRNA stability during the maternal-to-zygotic transition, see: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

The energy-dependent molecular mechanisms of recombination clearly link microRNA biogenesis to the stability of organized genomes during the life histories of all genera. Serious scientists object to the use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

The eternal significance of microRNAs (2)

Summary: What is known for sure, however, is that biological processes called “nature” are not simplistic. Neither is the entity called “the environment.” The two separate worlds overlap and intertwine so only a single interactive one exists. Yes, it may be simpler to look at each singly, but one does so at intellectual peril.
The Immune Landscape of Cancer (2018)

Multiple control modalities of the intracellular and extracellular networks (transcription, microRNAs, copy number, and epigenetic processes) were involved in tumor-immune cell interactions, both across and within immune subtypes.

More than 725 collaborators linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight  from  the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and biophysically constrained viral latency to cell type differentiation via autophagy.
See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

What is known for sure, however, is that biological processes called “nature” are not simplistic. Neither is the entity called “the environment.” The two separate worlds overlap and intertwine so only a single interactive one exists. Yes, it may be simpler to look at each singly, but one does so at intellectual peril.

Richard P. Feynman placed the intellectual peril into the context of food energy and human idiocy.
See:

See also: The Translation Machinery Is Immune from miRNA Perturbations: A Cell-Based Probabilistic Approach

Mature microRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNA that regulate most human genes through base-pairing with their targets.

Base-pairing is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained. See: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the parody: All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14
Others now appear to be following on the heels of the late Eshel Ben-Jacob’s works, which showed that the “stochastic nature of miRNA action” is light energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See: MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal fate determination
MicroRNA-based regulation is obviously the key to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of everything known about the eternal significance of microRNAs.
See also: microRNA 
The quantized energy-dependent differential expression of microRNAs has been linked to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in more than 71,000 indexed published works.
Serious scientists now know that John McCain’s glioblastoma can probably be effectively treated with the microRNA-mediated immunotherapy that led to the remission of Jimmy Carter’s brain cancer.
See: John McCain’s brain cancer prognosis is ‘not very good,’ medical expert says
The reporters touch on the likely link from melanoma to brain cancer via microRNAs, and then dismiss it.
See for comparison: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
Would you like to target the regulation of your cell death genes?
See: The Remarkable Cancer Treatment That Helped Jimmy Carter Combat Brain Tumor

…his doctors have said he no longer needs cancer treatment thanks in part to a groundbreaking new kind of medication that trains the immune system to fight cancer tumors.

Anyone who is interested in learning how to prevent all diseases of the body and the brain (e.g., suicide prevention) may want to select the following link. Broad Anti-tumor Activity of a Small Molecule that Selectively Targets the Warburg Effect and Lipogenesis.
The Warburg Effect links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in the context of sympatric speciation, which is food energy-dependent and controlled by feedback loops that link the food energy to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Unfortunately, the Warburg effect is commonly used to explain mutation-driven evolution outside the context of the food energy that is required for sympatric speciation. Biologically uninformed theorists continue to display what Feynman referred to as human idiocy — as if no one on Earth can stop them.
But see: Cytosis. You could learn that the cure for all pathology is food energy-dependent and microRNA-mediated in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.
See also: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution
Anyone who makes claims about “viral evolution”  should be forced to explain why they have not learned how fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions have been linked to healthy longevity.

Editor’s summary: Five antigenic sites in the virus surface hemagglutinin protein, which together comprise 131 amino acid positions, are thought to determine the full scope of antigenic drift of influenza A virus. Koel et al. (p. 976) show that major antigenic change can be caused by single amino acid substitutions.

See also: Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity

Brain gene expression profiling studies of suicide and depression using oligonucleotide microarrays have often failed to distinguish these two phenotypes. Moreover, next generation sequencing approaches are more accurate in quantifying gene expression and can detect alternative splicing.

Who doesn’t want others to know that our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation included a section on “molecular epigenetics” and alternative splicing? See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (3)

Excerpt: Understanding a “correlational mechanism” is like understanding mutation-driven evolution. You have a mutation. You have evolution. Thus, you understand the simple-minded magic of the correlation. No energy-dependent molecular mechanisms are required.
For comparison: Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity is exemplified in Amish populations in the United States of America. Obviously, interethnic difference in genes matter.
See: Low cancer incidence rates in Ohio Amish (2009) Why Don’t The Amish Get Cancer? (2016)
See also: A null mutation in SERPINE1 protects against biological aging in humans (2017)
Reported as: An Internal Fountain of Youth: Why These Amish Live Longer And Healthier

Amish with this mutation also have significantly less diabetes and lower fasting insulin levels.

“The findings astonished us because of the consistency of the anti-aging benefits across multiple body systems,” said Dr. Douglas Vaughan, the lead author of the paper who has been studying PAI-1 for almost 30 years.

See also: Diabetes and Alzheimer’s correlation mechanism understood!
Understanding a “correlational mechanism” is like understanding mutation-driven evolution. You have a mutation. You have evolution. Thus, you understand the simple-minded magic of the correlation. No energy-dependent molecular mechanisms are required.
For comparison, see: Aerobic Glycolysis in the Human Brain Is Associated with Development and Neotenous Gene Expression
The article links imaging to the required molecular mechanisms of behavioral development. Finally,  all serious scientists can move forward as they should have been doing for more than a decade since Panksepp et al (2002) published Comparative approaches in evolutionary psychology: molecular neuroscience meets the mind. His group won the same award that my group won for publication in 2001 of: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology.
Comparative approaches start with the creation of quantized energy and link it to aerobic glycolysis. Clearly, all serious scientists have been following the experimental evidence that led to publication of: Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course (November 15, 2017) by Bruce McEwen and Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology (November 24, 2017), which was co-authored by Bruce McEwen.
Brain-body communication is food energy-dependent. The obvious link from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology via gene losses has since led to the end of the hunt for drugs to treat some neurodegenerative diseases. See Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (6)
Unfortunately, even though Bruce McEwen set the stage for achieving world peace in the context of interethnic biodiversity, he did not win the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize as I predicted he would.
See: Predicting who wins the 2017 Nobel Prizes

Bruce McEwen has since helped others to link nutrient-stress and social stress from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to amino acid substitutions in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. For example, the substitution of one amino acid in the cell types of mammals protects them from the virus-driven energy theft that links amino acid substitutions in viruses to all pathology. McEwen’s works are the only known works of a serious scientist who has continued to refute the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists since before 1964.

Indeed, most people who are not yet dead, probably do not know how people like Bruce McEwen have linked food energy-dependent “Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences” to world peace.
But see: Living in a Genetic World: How Learning About Interethnic Genetic Similarities and Differences Affects Peace and Conflict
Reported as: For groups in conflict, genes matter 

“In conflict contexts, we often see attempts to emphasize genetic differences between groups. We saw that in Rwanda. We saw that in Bosnia,” Kimel said. “One thing we suggest in the paper is that groups like International Crisis Watch and Genocide Watch should go on heightened alert when they see this kind of rhetoric in conflict contexts.”

The paper also cites popular media reports on the genetic differences between groups with a history of conflict. Such articles are cause for concern, Kimel said, because they often fail to mention just how genetically similar humans are.

The similarities in all humans have been linked to interethnic differences in only two genes via publication of Brief report: Geographic variation in EGFR mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma may be explained by interethnic genetic variation. I reiterate: The full article can be downloaded from here:

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Quantized energy-dependent viral trophism (3)

Summary: If the pathway is ancestral, how and when did it evolve to protect species from microbes to humans from the virus-driven degradation of their messenger RNA?

Peer-Reviewed Science: A “Mathematical Proof of Darwinian Evolution” Is Falsified

The theorem addresses only the effects of natural selection. Fisher did not directly address any other effect (mutation, genetic drift, environmental change, etc.) as he considered them to be insignificant. Later mathematicians took issue with Fisher’s lack of rigor, some at considerable length. But the omission of the effects of mutation got the most attention.

The effects of mutation are revisited in: Role of enhanced receptor engagement in the evolution of a pandemic acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus
The automagical creation of receptors is an important determinant of viral tropism. A comparison of amino acid frequencies is linked to ecological adaptation in the virus without concern for the fact that all ecological adaptations are quantized energy-dependent. The authors seem to know nothing about the energy-dependent creation of enzymes and receptors.
See also: Viral discovery and diversity in trypanosomatid protozoa with a focus on relatives of the human parasite Leishmania
Again, where did the energy come from for the adaptations to viruses by these organisms? Is the diversity caused by mutations and evolution in:

…fungi, green algae, diatoms, slime molds, oomycetes, dinoflagellates, apicomplexans, kinetoplastids, diplomonads, and trichomonads…

The authors cite: The evolution of RNAi as a defence against viruses and transposable elements. (2009) and claim that the RNAi pathway is “believed to be ancestral to all eukaryotes.”
If the pathway is ancestral, how and when did it evolve to protect species from microbes to humans from the virus-driven degradation of their messenger RNA?
See: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Viruses (aka bacteriophages) kill bacteria. That is how they control archaeal dynamics. Viruses steal the quantized energy from bacteria, which causes bacteria to become archaea and cells out walls (L-forms). Bacteria, for comparison, use the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to ecologically adapt. All life on Earth depends on the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology. Theorists may be unable to understand that fact, because they never learned how to link sunlight to error-free RNA-mediated DNA repair via endogenous RNA interference.
See: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (6:46)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes minutes.

Something has gone horribly wrong among pseudoscientists, and that fact  is being exposed.
PNAS Editor-in-Chief Placed on Leave

… I recognize the sensitivities present in this current environment and have far too much esteem for NAS to risk the possibility that events related to Salk would in any way distract from the Academy’s extraordinary work…
 

Let’s put this into perspective of the extraordinary example of pseudoscientific nonsense published by researchers at Johns Hopkins who have a “bad luck” theory of cancer.

 

They published in “Science”. No charges have been filed for discrimination against intelligent serious scientists.

 
 
 

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

A Mathematical Model Links Quantum Physics to Quantum Souls (1)

Historical facts: All energy-dependent cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained by the de novo creation of microRNAs and enzymes that metabolize food and drugs. All food energy-dependent metabolism occurs in the context of microRNA-mediated cause and effect and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. The food energy-dependent pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria links what organisms eat to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of their morphological and behavioral phenotypes. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology in the context of the National Microbiome Initiative, the Precision Medicine Initiative, Alpha Genomix profiling of pathways linked to the creation of CYP enzymes and test results that differentiate the most likely response to some medications based on fixation of  RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of different people and different populations of modern humans.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
The ingestion of sago palm-like leaves linked increased endogenous vitamin C from the stability of the mouse genome to the stability of the organized genome in a modern human population via one base pair change and the fixation of one RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See also: Towards a systemic paradigm in carcinogenesis: linking epigenetics and genetics (2015)

The SMT’s [Somatic mutation theory’s] fundamental assumption is that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm.

See for comparison: Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention
Watch as 2 of 3 co-authors of the article about can prevention tell the world that cancer is caused by “bad luck.”

Now see one of the 3 co-authors admit to his overwhelming ignorance in: Why Is This Bacterium Hiding in Human Tumors?

“The whole idea of bacteria in tumors is fascinating and unexpected,” said Dr. Bert Vogelstein, a colon cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins.

  1. The fundamental assumption that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in bacteria to the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria and healthy longevity via error-free DNA repair.
  2. The fundamental assumption that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm links virus-driven pathology to cell type-specific and species-specific pathology in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera via the failure of microRNA-mediated error-free DNA repair.

There is now a mathematical model of top-down causation that links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy on contact with water to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and all biodiversity via RNA-mediated error-free DNA repair. The mathematical model refutes the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists because it starts with the creation of the sun, which biophysically constrains viral latency. The importance of linking this mathematical model to all models of biologically-based cause and effect cannot be overstated.
See: Quantum Vacuum Dynamics, Coherence, Superluminal Photons and Hypercomputation in Brain Microtubules

After the Schrodinger’s intuition, expressed in his book “What is life?” [12], the first systematic approach to a quantum interpretation of biological process dated back to the model proposed by Frohlich [13] several years ago. He suggested the occurrence, in biological matter, of macroscopic quantum phenomena able to explain the energy transport without loss in the living organisms and signal transfer based on collective coherent oscillations associated to a branch of longitudinal
electric modes in the frequency range [ ] also known as Frohlich frequency. So in living systems, according to Frohlich’s model, energy could be stored in a thin two – dimensional layer placed beneath the cell membrane, that in this way would act as a biological superconducting medium, under dipolar propagating waves without thermal loss [13].

The ridiculous assumptions about thermal loss and evolution were placed into the context of other ridiculous assumptions that failed to start from the creation of the sun and link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun from food energy to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
For comparison see: Reversing the thermodynamic arrow of time using quantum correlations

We observe a spontaneous heat flow from the cold to the hot system. This process is enabled by a trade off between correlations and entropy that we quantify with information-theoretical quantities.

Reported as: Experiment shows that arrow of time is a relative concept, not an absolute one

The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy, or disorder, tends to increase over time, which is why everything in the world around us appears to unfold forward in time. But it also explains why hot tea grows cold rather than hot. In this new effort, the researchers found an exception to this rule that works in a way that doesn’t violate the rules of physics as they have been defined.
The idea of entangled particles has been in the news a lot lately as researchers around the world attempt to use it for various purposes—but there is another lesser-known property of particles that is similar in nature, but slightly different. It is when particles become correlated, which means they become linked in ways that do not happen in the larger world. Like entanglement, correlated particles share information, though it is not as strong of a bond. In this new experiment, the researchers used this property to change the direction of the arrow of time.

Succinctly stated as:

This observation did not violate the second law of thermodynamics, the group explains, because the second law assumes there are no correlations between particles.

The ridiculous assumption that there are no correlations between subatomic particles led to assumptions that energy emerged and that all life evolved in the context of mutations and natural selection, which led to the “bad luck” theory of cancer.
Frohlich’s model was dismissed and so was the the fact that “…energy could be stored in a thin two – dimensional layer placed beneath the cell membrane, that in this way would act as a biological superconducting medium, under dipolar propagating waves without thermal loss [13].
[13.] Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems (1968)

Biological systems are expected to have a branch of longitudinal electric modes in a frequency region between 1011 and 1012 sec−1. They are based on the dipolar properties of cell membranes; of certain bonds recurring in giant molecules (such as H bonds) and possibly on pockets of non-localized electrons. In Section 2 it is shown quit generally that if energy is supplied above a certain mean rate to such a branch, then a steady state will be reached in which a single mode of this branch is very strongly excited. The supplied energy is thus not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. This order expresses itself in long-range phase correlations; the phenomenon has considerable similarity with the low-temperature condensation of a Bose gas. General consequences and proposals of experiments are discussed in section 3.

Four years earlier, McEwen et al., (1964) linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

That same year, Dobzhansky (1964) first asserted this claim:

The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.

In 1973, Dobzhansky again mocked all the pseudoscientists whose mathematical model failed to link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic energy from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to RNA-mediated fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
He assumed that all serious scientists would recognize that the light of evolution linked Schrodinger’s claims about sunlight to all biodiversity via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
He claimed

“…one can calculate the minimum numbers of single mutations needed to change the cytochrome C of one organism into that of another.”

He linked that calculation to this fact:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

The levels of complexity that must be addressed by the calculations have since been addressed and reported in: Quantum Vacuum Dynamics, Coherence, Superluminal Photons and Hypercomputation in Brain Microtubules
Nothing has changed about the facts that all serious scientists have linked from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
For example, see: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

See also Cytosis:A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Agilent technology and energy-dependent autophagy

The first step towards understanding the link from the creation of energy to metabolism-related cellular function is called energy phenotyping. It requires the  technology to measure energy-dependent changes in RNA-mediated metabolic switches via the RNA interference (RNAi) screening strategy. Endogenous RNAi must then be linked  to the prevention of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that causes all pathology.
Scientists discover possible master switch for programming cancer immunotherapy

…they employed an RNA interference screening strategy which can test the actual function of thousands of factors simultaneously.

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (video 6:46 minutes)
Abstract:

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also: Measuring the Metabolic Switch in Cancer Cells – Agilent (pdf)

Yoshida used TRAP1-null cells and transient TRAP1 mutants on an Agilent Seahorse XF96 Analyzer to show that TRAP1 regulates a metabolic switch between oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis in immortalized mouse fibroblasts and in human tumor cells. TRAP1 deficiency promotes increased mitochondrial respiration, fatty acid oxidation, accumulation of TCA intermediates, ATP, and ROS, while suppressing glucose metabolism.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is the only perfectly obvious reason for changes in oxidative phosphorylation and aerobic glycolysis that prevent the metabolism of glucose. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links the creation of energy to the metabolism of glucose via the creation of enzymes that metabolize food energy. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated error-free DNA repair and fixation of amino acid substitutions is required to link the creation of enzymes and the species-specific production of pheromones from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and all morphological and behavioral phenotypes in all living genera.
In that context, energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically-based cause and effect from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity. For contrast, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy links changes in non-coding RNAs to all pathology.
For example, see: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
See also: A Concise Review of MicroRNA Exploring the Insights of MicroRNA Regulations in Bacterial, Viral and Metabolic Diseases
The link from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to glioblastoma may be the best example of how viruses are readily linked to the cell death gene in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera. That fact is more obvious with further examination of details provided for free in book chapters from Codon Publishing.
See: Noncoding RNAs in Glioblastoma  Free book chapter from Codon Publishing

The vast majority of the human genome is transcribed into noncoding RNAs. Among these, microRNAs (miRNA) and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are frequently deregulated in cancer, where they regulate a wide variety of functions.

See also: Epigenetic Mechanisms of Glioblastoma Free book chapter from Codon Publishing

Aberrant DNA methylation is a common event in the genesis and progression of tumors. The application of next-generation sequencing enables the identification and mapping of DNA methylation and its derivatives, 5fC and 5hmC, to base-pair resolution. This chapter describes nine novel hypermethylation genes and six hypomethylation genes, identified by constructing a DNA methylation profile, in glioblastoma. Abnormal promoter methylation and histone modifications were associated with differential expression of miRNAs in glioblastoma: miR-185 reversed global DNA methylation and the methylation level of the hypermethylation genes by targeting DNMT; and miR-101 regulated histone methylation of hypomethylation genes by targeting EED, EZH2, and DNMT3A. The long noncoding RNA CASC2c directly bound to miR-101 via microRNA response elements, and there was a reciprocal repression between CASC2c and miR-101. Despite being competitors they both led to the overexpression of their target hypomethylation genes CPEB1, PRDM16, and LMO3. Taken together, glioblastoma is a complicated pathological process with deregulated methylation and histone modifications. Focal differentially methylated region and differentially methylated site studies will be helpful for the identification of regulatory elements of transcription. Studies of intragenic and distant intergenic alterations in DNA methylation will help elucidate the nature of epigenetic deregulation in glioblastoma.

The Seahorse XF Cell Energy Phenotype Test kit is a simple assay kit that simultaneously measures the two major energy producing pathways in live cells – mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis, allowing rapid determination of energy phenotypes of cells and investigation of metabolic switching.
The simultaneous measurement of two major energy-producing pathways in live cells allows serious scientists to report their findings in the context of what is known about mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis. Glycolysis is epigenetically effected and RNA-mediated. No magic of evolution or nonsense about natural selection for anything except food and reproduction is required to explain how rapid metabolic switching determines whether or not viral latency is biophysically constrained across the time-space continuum.
See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes (Saunders, Chue, Goebl, Craig, Clark, Powers, Eissenberg, Elgin, Rothfield, and Earnshaw, 1993; Singh, Miller, Pearce, Kothary, Burton, Paro, James, and Gaunt, 1991; Trofatter, Long, Murrell, Stotler, Gusella, and Buckler, 1995). Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

See: Epigenetic modifications poster (Abcam)
Also from Abcam: Mechanisms of Recombination conference
The bottom line is The secret to safe DNA repair  (2015)

…if you don’t have this enzyme, then this error-free repair is stopped. You can’t do it. If you can’t do the error-free repair, among other things that happen is that you expect these cells to be cancer prone.

Clearly, the creation of the enzyme is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Pseudoscientists seem to know nothing about that, and most serious scientists are not telling you the facts that link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to the “death gene” via the mechanisms that fail during recombination.
But see: microRNA autophagy  and also see: See:  Agilent Seahorse XF Publications Alert for December 2017
Selected publications
Autophagy maintains the metabolism and function of young and old stem cells
Ho, T. T., Warr, M. R., Adelman, E. R., Lansinger, O. M., Flach, J., Verovskaya, E. V., Figueroa, M. E. and Passegue, E.
Nature. 2017 Mar 9, 543 (7644):205-210.
Involvement of autophagy in the outcome of mitotic catastrophe
Sorokina, I. V., Denisenko, T. V., Imreh, G., Tyurin-Kuzmin, P. A., Kaminskyy, V. O., Gogvadze, V. and Zhivotovsky, B.
Sci Rep. 2017 Nov 6, 7 (1):14571.
Sugar or Fat?-Metabolic Requirements for Immunity to Viral Infections
Shehata, H. M., Murphy, A. J., Lee, M. K. S., Gardiner, C. M., Crowe, S. M., Sanjabi, S., Finlay, D. K. and Palmer, C. S.
Front Immunol. 2017 Oct 16, 8:1311.
System-wide Benefits of Intermeal Fasting by Autophagy
Martinez-Lopez, N., Tarabra, E., Toledo, M., Garcia-Macia, M., Sahu, S., Coletto, L., Batista-Gonzalez, A., Barzilai, N., Pessin, J. E., Schwartz, G. J., Kersten, S. and Singh, R.
Cell Metab. 2017 Dec 5, 26 (6):856-871 e5.
Late-onset Alzheimer’s disease is associated with inherent changes in bioenergetics profiles
Sonntag, K. C., Ryu, W. I., Amirault, K. M., Healy, R. A., Siegel, A. J., McPhie, D. L., Forester, B. and Cohen, B. M.
Sci Rep. 2017 Oct 25, 7 (1):14038.

BAG3 directly stabilizes Hexokinase 2 mRNA and promotes aerobic glycolysis in pancreatic cancer cells
An, M. X., Li, S., Yao, H. B., Li, C., Wang, J. M., Sun, J., Li, X. Y., Meng, X. N. and Wang, H. Q.
J Cell Biol. 2017 Dec 4, 216 (12):4091-4105.
Drug resistance induces the upregulation of H2S-producing enzymes in HCT116 colon cancer cells
Untereiner, A. A., Pavlidou, A., Druzhyna, N., Papapetropoulos, A., Hellmich, M. R. and Szabo, C.
Biochem Pharmacol. 2017 Oct 20, [epub ahead of print]
ISG15 governs mitochondrial function in macrophages following vaccinia virus infection
Baldanta, S., Fernandez-Escobar, M., Acin-Perez, R., Albert, M., Camafeita, E., Jorge, I., Vazquez, J., Enriquez, J. A. and Guerra, S.
PLoS Pathog. 2017 Oct 27, 13 (10):e1006651.
High throughput measurement of metabolism in planarians reveals activation of glycolysis during regeneration
Osuma, E. A., Riggs, D. W., Gibb, A. A. and Hill, B. G.
Regeneration. 2017 Nov 02, [epub ahead of print]
Current technical approaches to brain energy metabolism
Barros, L. F., Bolanos, J. P., Bonvento, G., Bouzier-Sore, A. K., Brown, A., Hirrlinger, J., Kasparov, S., Kirchhoff, F., Murphy, A. N., Pellerin, L., Robinson, M. B. and Weber, B.
Glia. 2017 Nov 7, [epub ahead of print]
Glucose-regulated protein 75 determines ER–mitochondrial coupling and sensitivity to oxidative stress in neuronal cells
Honrath, B., Metz, I., Bendridi, N., Rieusset, J., Culmsee, C. and Dolga, A. M.
Cell Death Discovery. 2017 Nov 06, [epub ahead of print]

Associations Between Microbiota, Mitochondrial Function, and Cognition in Chronic Marijuana Users
Panee, J., Gerschenson, M. and Chang, L.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2017 Nov 4, [epub ahead of print]
RNA cytosine methyltransferase Nsun3 regulates embryonic stem cell differentiation by promoting mitochondrial activity
Trixl, L., Amort, T., Wille, A., Zinni, M., Ebner, S., Hechenberger, C., Eichin, F., Gabriel, H., Schoberleitner, I., Huang, A., Piatti, P., Nat, R., Troppmair, J. and Lusser, A.
Cell Mol Life Sci. 2017 Nov 4, [epub ahead of print]
Deep transcriptome annotation enables the discovery and functional characterization of cryptic small proteins
Samandi, S., Roy, A. V., Delcourt, V., Lucier, J. F., Gagnon, J., Beaudoin, M. C., Vanderperre, B., Breton, M. A., Motard, J., Jacques, J. F., Brunelle, M., Gagnon-Arsenault, I., Fournier, I., Ouangraoua, A., Hunting, D. J., Cohen, A. A., Landry, C. R., Scott, M. S. and Roucou, X.
Elife. 2017 Oct 30, 6.
The Human Knockout Gene CLYBL Connects Itaconate to Vitamin B12
Shen, H., Campanello, G. C., Flicker, D., Grabarek, Z., Hu, J., Luo, C., Banerjee, R. and Mootha, V. K.
Cell. 2017 Nov 2, 171 (4):771-782 e11.

See also: Research areas for this month include:

See for comparison: Autophagy

Autophagy is a process by which cellular material is degraded by lysosomes or vacuoles and recycled. Several autophagy pathways operate within a cell, including macroautophagy, microautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy.

Latest Research and Reviews

For example:

Dual role of autophagy in hallmarks of cancer

Quantitative assessment of cell fate decision between autophagy and apoptosis

The Nature Publications Group has fallen far behind the data and technical expertise of all the serious scientists in the world. It seems likely that they will attempt to portray autophagy as something besides the innate phage defense system and fail miserably.

Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy December 8, 2016

What would you do if your publisher arrived at the “Autophagy Party” more than a year late and you had to introduce them as a supporter of neo-Darwinian nonsense and “Big Bang” cosmology?
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
 

For God and Country

Trump challenges the CDC to remember 9/11

Synopsis: If you do not understand the experimentally established facts… use caution if you attempt to compare the President of the USA to Hitler. If you tell me I am being disrespectful or condescending,  you may be more embarrassed than Nobel Laureate, Jack Szostak, and be subjected to more ridicule than Neil deGrasse Tyson, who was politely called a big ass by the research group that published Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (2015)
Federal Officials and Scientists Respond to Purported CDC Word Ban

…it seems that The Scientist has been highjacked by people that believes that science is fighting Republicans and promoting liberal ideas, right or wrong. For those that were not even born then, most of the advances in medicine and biology occurred during the war of cancer that President Richard Nixon initiated and supported. –dmarciani

Since then, the evolved use of meaningless words, such as evolved, and the use of meaningless phrases by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) has left the citizens of the United States of America (USA) comparatively unprotected from the forthcoming world-wide viral apocalypse. The last one (in 1918) killed ~50 million people.
See: Bill Gates warns that a new kind of terrorism could be coming, and the ‘potential damage is very, very huge’
The biologically uninformed masses know nothing about how viruses kill, or how fast they kill.  Most people know little or nothing about viruses in vaccines, which may be slow killers. That explains why, on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the year of the 1918 viral terror, the Trump administration is being criticized by non-scientists and pseudoscientists. Researchers who are biologically uniformed science idiots have helped to bankrupt the economy of the USA by submitting proposals for research that include meaningless words and phrases. The biologically uninformed masses (who are not idiots) have not learned the difference between pseudoscience and science, because they have been taught to believe in mutation-driven evolution. The difference between a scientific truth about ecological varaiation and ecological adaptation for comparison to pseudoscientific nonsense can be placed into the context of words, such as: “vulnerable,” “entitlement,” “diversity,” “transgender,” “fetus,” “evidence-based” “science-based” “fetus” and “transgender”
With one exception, none of these words or phrases has anything to do with the purpose of the CDC, which is largely to protect the USA from virus-driven pathology. For comparison, the difference between food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions and mutations, which are caused by the virus-driven theft of quantized energy-as-information, clearly shows why USA Patriots for Donald Trump want to change what’s happening at the CDC.
See also: Trump administration forbids CDC officials from using 7 words and phrases

The claims of Trump-haters cut to the heart of the disrespect some people show for the President of the USA — and also the disrespect they show for the serious scientists who support him. As a medical laboratory scientist, I can point out the difference that one letter in one word makes to help other USA Patriots for Donald Trump understand what is known about how to protect us all from the next viral apocaplyse.
 
 
WORD→WORE→GORE→GONE→GENE. Implicit in this analogy is the idea that epistasis constrains evolution—for example, the original parent sequence does not tolerate three of the four eventual changes, as GORD, WERD and WOND are not words.
 
Serious scientists know that proteins do not evolve and that viruses do not automagically mutate! Similarly, the serious scientists known that new words, such as GORD, WERD and WOND are not created outside the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. Simply put, new words are not created, and new genes are not created from changes in base pairs outside the context of biophysically constrained viral latency at the level of energy-dependent base editing of food energy-dependent ACTG-linked changes in amino acid substitutions.
 
 
Trump knows that the CDC has virtually ignored the facts about food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions via the use of these meaningless words: “vulnerable,” “entitlement,” “diversity,” “transgender,” “fetus,” “evidence-based” “science-based” “fetus” and “transgender.”

In the language of serious scientists, these words cannot be linked to what happens when the virus-driven theft of quantized energy causes a change in one base pair that leads to one amino acid substitution in a virus. Simply put, the change in the virus is linked to constraint breaking mutations. And the change in a virus causes all pathology in all cells of all hosts. Eventually, all human hosts die from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Trump knows that. He also knows that viruses cause suicide and glioblastoma in veterans who have served overseas. (SARCASM ALERT: That does not mean he is required to tell John McCain.)  But, the facts have been discussed in the context of articles published in the American Legion Magazine.

It is a wonder that everyone does not know about the virus-driven activation of the death gene, since the death gene was discovered about 20 years ago by researchers at Abcam. Since then the discovery has been linked to this report:  Redox-sensitive alteration of replisome architecture safeguards genome integrity.

See also: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

Whose going to explain how John McCain gets cured — if he is not sacrificed for the sake of the CDC?

If you are easily bored by details but want to learn about what science advisors are telling President Trump, see: Epigenetic modifications poster (Just kidding. If you are bored by the details you won’t look at the details in the poster.) Instead, you are more likely to compare the President of the United States to Hitler, when Trump knows enough about epigenetics to try and help all serious scientists to protect us from the next viral apocalypse, and to protect us from the practice of corporate medicine, which is an assault on our freedom.

Epistasis biophysically constrains viral latency. The constraints are food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled. All serious scientists have known that since this article was published in 1994. [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)]

Two of Eugene Daev’s subsequent works cited my award-winning publications, yet I have been unfriended on Facebook by many who will continue to not face the facts known to Trump and to all serious scientists in the world.

See for example: Chemosignals from isolated females have antimutagenic effect in dividing the cells of bone marrow from male mice of the CBA strain (2014)

Humans also have various pheromone-induced physiological effects, especially those associated with reproduction [46, 47]. This suggests that the human olfactory system is still an effective pathway for influencing environmental factors on the human nervous system.

[46] is Kohl, J.V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., and Grammer, K., Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 2001, vol. 22, pp. 309–321.
See also:  Effect of two pyrazine-containing chemosignals on cells of bone marrow and testes in male house mice (Mus musculus L.)

The induction of genetic instability leading to a higher genetic heterogeneity in cells of vital tissues and organs may differentially change
the fitness of animals and their progeny. Such olfactory effects can affect rates of microevolutionary transformations [5]. With regard to the conservatism and the significant role of the chemical communication in a wide range of mammals, including Homo sapiens [25], we believe extremely promising the study of genetic mechanisms underlying regulation of reproduction and immunity by volatiles that work through the olfactory system.

25 is Kohl, J.V., The Mind’s Eyes, J. Psychol. Human Sexual., 2007, vol. 18, pp. 313–369. (Concurrently published as this award-winning book chapter from the Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences.)
My former FB friends and others have the freedom to claim that I am a crank, because veterans suffered and died to protect your freedom.
See for contrast:  One crank dies, another rises to take his place
I have the freedom to continue to defend the country from the claims of biologically uniformed science idiots (i.e., PZ Myers) and anyone who compares Trump to Hitler.

BANNED: CDC Gets List Of ‘Forbidden Words’ From The Trump Administration

Activists immediately accused the Administration of censorship, even hysterically comparing the Administration’s move to Orwell’s “1984” and Adolf Hitler’s efforts to control information in Nazi Germany.

Despite the CDC’s own director, Dr. Brenda Fitzgerald, insisting the ban did not extend beyond the scope of a handful of budget documents, it was immediately clear to Democrats that the Trump Administration was moving to throttle all scientific research.

Find out who might benefit from a move to throttle all scientific research.
See: Alphagenomix.com and download this sample report. On page 19, the interpretation of results is placed into the context of the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes that are altered by drug therapies. The Trump administration was virtually forced to alter the funding process at CDC by the fact that Jack Szostak’s works with others led to retractions. They thought enzymes could create themselves. Two retractions in 10 years led to the embarrassment of all biologically uninformed theorists.
See “Retraction watch”

  1. A Nobel Laureate has retracted a 2016 paper in Nature Chemistry that explored the origins of life on earth, after discovering the main conclusions were not correct.
  2. In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

The problem with ridiculous complacency-based beliefs has plagued serious scientists for decades. It was recently placed into the context of claims made by the former President of the USA.

Obama warns of complacency, notes rise of Hitler

Despite the democracy of the Weimar Republic, Adolph Hitler rose to power, he continued.

“Sixty million people died. … So, you’ve got to pay attention. And vote.”

While some could see the remark as a veiled jab at President Trump, Obama did not mention Trump by name during the event, according to the newspaper.

Now, the claims others are making link Obama’s claims to complaints about the fact that Trump took actions against the misinformation coming from the CDC. The complaints are predictably linked to Hitler’s censorship via: Godwin’s Law 

(or Godwin’s rule of Hitler analogies)[1][2] is an Internet adage that asserts that “As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Hitler approaches 1”;[2][3] that is, if an online discussion (regardless of topic or scope) goes on long enough, sooner or later someone will compare someone or something to Adolf Hitler or his deeds.

The former President of the USA was caught in a thinly veiled attack on President Trump, and that attack was based on Obama’s ignorance — or based on his motives. What motives? Godwin’s Law existe only the context of pseudoscientific nonsense. That nonsense includes nothing known to the serious scientists who are physicists, chemists, biologists, or polymaths ( e.g., some medical laboratory scientists).
See for comparison: Caught in the act: Papillomaviruses promote non-melanoma skin cancer November 30, 2017

…papillomaviruses associated with UV light promote the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. The investigators provide an explanation why the viruses can be detected in benign human cancer precursors but not in advanced carcinoma.

Everyone is infected with skin-typical (“cutaneous”) human papillomaviruses (HPV) at some point in their lives, usually in early childhood already. In healthy people, the immune system can fight off the viruses, but this often changes in older age.

Those claims about biophysically constrained viral latency were used as the basis for development and use of the HPV vaccine at a time when all serious scientists knew this: “The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.” Did I mention that before more than 60 times? See: Search Results for “The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site”
The anti-entropic effect of virucidal sunlight links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity. That fact was presciently detailed in “What is Life?” (1944).

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

The fact that virucidal light links the food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to epistasis was placed into the context of this 2016 video representation:
What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy (6:37) Published on 30 Mar 2016

Abstract:

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

If you do not understand the experimentally established facts from this presentation, please use caution if you attempt to compare the President of the USA to Hitler. If you tell me I am being disrespectful or condesending,  you may be more embarrassed than Nobel Laureate, Jack Szostak, and be subjected to more ridicule than Neil deGrasse Tyson, who was politely called a big ass by the research group that published Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA.
All structural diversity is energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links feedback loops from biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity in all living genera.

See also:
Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.
The CDC has failed to link light-harvesting in biological systems from excitons to protection of organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in species from bacteria to humans.
That is why Trump is again being compared to Hitler. The biologically uninformed masses failed to perceive the CDC’s censorship. The CDC censorship of works published by serious scientists who have linked physics, chemistry and biology to healthy longevity via the anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of RNA and enzymes has nearly bankrupted the USA due to the costs of health care.
Who will admit that they were fooled by the use of words? Most people think they are more intelligent than that. But most intelligent people can be fooled by pseudoscientists if the pseudoscientists claim to have reached a consensus. But, what other countries base their healthcare policies on the consensus about theories of neo-Darwinists and “Big Bang” cosmologists? What other agencies can be compared to the CDC and our NIH?
See also: Science’s credibility crisis: why it will get worse before it can get better 

Several other instances of bad science have gained attention in the media. The problems in “priming research”, relevant to marketing and advertising, prompted Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman to issue a publicised statement of concern about the wave of failed replication.

And a study on “power poses”, which claimed that body posture influences a person’s hormones level and “feelings of power” went first viral on TED when it was published – then again when its replication failed.

We are observing two new phenomena. On the one hand doubt is shed on the quality of entire scientific fields or sub-fields. On the other this doubt is played out in the open, in the media and blogosphere.

I dedicate this effort from the blogosphere to an attempt to reduce the tensions among those who have offered their overwhelming support for the efforts of the American Legion and the American Legion Riders who ride for God and Country.
See also The American Legion Magazine. The December 2017 issue contains another article about the stress-linked reactivation of viruses. This time its about the virus that causes shingles. When the issue is available online, see “Reactivation” by Beth W. Orenstein, and link biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity via the food you eat and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.  Ask yourself “What would President Trump do?” And remember, your donations to the American Legion don not support corporate medical practices. They are used to help those who served their country and lived to continue protecting your freedom. Remember them, and everyone who has ever died trying to protect others.
 
–by Wade Youmans (Read 9/09/17 before the 9/11 Memorial Ride of the American Legion Riders–pictured above)
Remembrance
It is a moral obligation, yea indeed, a most solemn moral and spiritual duty.
To remember.
To remember is to hold fast to that which is truly important, that which is precious in the wisdom of the heart and mind.
By remembering and reflecting, upon things, objects, individual persons, anything material and physical, Which is no more, that which is no more in the mortal sense is yet sustained and can endure.
Far better to remember and reflect, even if that is painful for the heart and mind.
To forget, to blissfully disregard and discard, is a disservice to that which is gone, and ’tis a disservice to one’s own heart and mind.
For remembrance is a needful, essential endeavor for the vitality of the heart and mind, for the whole of the human spirit.

See also: ‘Whatever it took to save lives’ 

Black chicken wire over the bus windows. The odor, the heat, the tropical humidity.

“All the wounded are in the emergency room. They’re sending these sick guys to my unit. They were dehydrated. They were dirty. There was vomit. Wounds weren’t visible, but their suffering was acute and there wouldn’t be any Purple Hearts passed out for their near-death experience.

Nature’s magic helps veterans in transition

Nature’s magic” was placed into the context of the evolution of differences in H2. See: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-chemists-reveal-mechanism-dihydrogen-production.html

 
Excerpt: “This work is a critical step toward a mechanistic understanding of the nitrogenase enzyme. There is still work to be done to understand the mechanism of the other H2 evolution process that leads to N2 binding, activation, and reduction to NH3.”
 
Please help serious scientists stop those who are still touting the magic of evolution by learning how autophagy helps to protect all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
 

Autophagy is the link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the creation of enzymes and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which has been linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.  For example, food energy links error-free DNA repair to all healthy longevity and the virus-driven theft of quantized energy links mutations to all pathology.

Keep in mind that as a member of the American Legion Riders, I ride for God and Country, not for Nature’s magic. Also, with 40 years experience as a medical laboratory scientist, I learned enough about the potential of hydrogen (pH) to realize that the potential did not “evolve.”

See also: https://aeon.co/essays/science-and-metaphysics-must-work-together-to-answer-lifes-deepest-questions
Metaphysics of metamorphosis

The swarming, ever-changing character of the living world challenges our deepest assumptions about the nature of reality

Excerpt: …‘physiologists in general never trouble themselves about such things because they suppose themselves to be above “metaphysics” when in fact they are only a very little above it – being up to the neck in it’.
Those who have failed to link the metaphysics of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency, have failed to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to the death gene by what is known to serious scientists.
For example, see: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166303/
When a member of the American Legion suffers and prematurely dies from the same virus-caused pathology that has not yet claimed the life of John McCain, ask yourself what is known about the life and death of all veterans who served overseas. Stop letting politics kill more veterans.
Support the Trump administrations efforts to make America great, again. They can do it without your support, but that probably will not end well for you. This is not about Trump’s behavior or about the behavior of anyone else.

An antagonist from Canada complained about Trump’s so-called censorship of the CDC and said his “tactics” didn’t work in Canada. I claim that similar tactics are always effective. The truth hurts but it only hurts those who believed they could keep touting pseudoscientific nonsense. Not only did Canadians get rid of the “transgender” nonsense, they helped to nearly stop James Cantor from promoting pedophilia as another form of sexual orientation.
 

See: Infamous Reparative Therapy Clinic For Transgender Youth Set To Close
Two years ago, I wrote:

The misrepresentations of the issues are out of control.

Excerpt: GIC’s “developmental model” was backwards. It blamed symptoms like depression and anxiety on the gender non-conforming behavior itself, rather than on the stigma attached to it or the conflict of not being able to fulfill one’s gender identity. This philosophy allowed the clinic to claim it was treating these negative mental health outcomes without affirming the trans behavior.”

My comment: They never had a developmental model. At best they had a philosophy based on ridiculous theories that never included anything known to serious scientists about the biological basis of cell type differentiation. These clinicians, like most sex researchers, never learned anything about links from nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events to behavior.

For example, RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link sexual orientation in yeasts to sex differences in the morphological and the behavioral phenotypes of humans via conserved molecular mechanisms. We detailed that fact in the context of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review.

Despite the extension of our molecular epigenetics section and the model of hormone-organized and hormone-activated developmental differences across species from insects to other primates, psychologists and many psychiatrists continued to link their philosophies and theories to damaging practices.

Like the practice of medicine, outcomes are more predictable if they are based on what is known about RNA-mediated cell type differences. Fixation of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in some patient populations compared to others allows clinicians to predict whether a medication will do more harm than good in the context of what is known about pharmacogenomics and precision medicine. Fixation of RNA-amino acid substitutions in individuals of different species is also linked to their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproductive sexual behavior in species from microbes to man.

That fact has been known to serious scientists for several decades. It is the reason that other careers will be ruined until people like Ken Zucker accept the our model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation instead of continuing to ignore details of the biologically-based development of personal preferences published in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996).

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Exome Sequencing Impact in Routine Care

Summary: They placed the pseudoscientific nonsense about selection for beneficial mutations into the context of positive selection for mutations, which are caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. The mutations have been linked to all pathology. It’s as if all theorists want to become known as “biologically uninformed science idiots” via their associations with others who have touted claims about “beneficial mutations.”

US Air Force Studying Impact of Exome Sequencing in Routine Care

Who, among my fellow veterans, and especially among others from The American Legion and The American Legion Riders, did not anticipate that the US Air Force would lead the way forward to prevention of all virus-driven pathology via the use of this technology?

The doctors will receive an educational primer in genomics and on-site genetic counseling support. After exome testing is performed on patients, their doctors will get a report listing the pathogenic and likely pathogenic variants related to dominant and recessive monogenic conditions, risks for complex diseases, and response to drugs. These results will be entered into the service members’ electronic medical records.

I was trained to become a medial laboratory scientist during the last 4 years of my 7 years in the United States Air Force (Dec. 1970-Aug. 1977).  I worked in the laboratory and examined the experimental evidence reported in published works, I learned that all pathogenic variants are caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. I also learned that pharmacogenomic profiles have already been linked to effective treatments for virus-driven energy theft via my model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biodiversity.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

My model refuted every aspect of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense, which may be why some doctors never heard about it, or why some of them don’t want to admit to what they know about effective treatments for all pathology.
During suicide prevention month, the National Commander of the American Legion focused on efforts to help reduce the number of suicides among veterans, which occur at ~ 22 each day. I was surprised to see how little response from the general public there has been since then. It’s as if no one has learned about experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect such as this:
Whole-transcriptome brain expression and exon-usage profiling in major depression and suicide: evidence for altered glial, endothelial and ATPase activity

Differences in miRNA expression or structural gene variants were not detected. Results lend further support for models in which deficits in microglial, endothelial (blood-brain barrier), ATPase activity and astrocytic cell functions contribute to MDD and suicide, and identify putative pathways and mechanisms for further study in these disorders.

The only obvious link from from energy-dependent ATPase activity to cell type function in all cell types of all living genera is the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight, which biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. That fact suggests exome sequencing data must be linked to routine case via the creation of energy, the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

If the role of microRNAs is not examined in the context of virus-driven energy theft, the degradation of messenger RNA cannot be linked to all pathology. The suicide rate may never change, or it may not change until the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to cancer and all other pathology in species from microbes to humans.
See also: exome sequencing microRNA  for examples like this:
Whole exome sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array analyses to identify germline alterations in genes associated with testosterone metabolism in a patient with androgen insensitivity syndrome and early-onset colorectal cancer.
If you do not agree that exome sequencing is the key to understanding the difference between energy-dependent healthy longevity and virus-driven pathology, please explain what you don’t like about the scientific approach to effective treatment and/or prevention of all pathology in the context of Precision Medicine.
See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference from the Labroots: Precision Medicine Virtual Conference February 22-23. 2017
Narrative: The term microRNA has been used in 58,000 indexed works. All the works support claims that link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from endogenous RNA interference to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry and cell type differentiation.

Abstract:

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See for comparison: Evolutionary Analysis Reveals Number, Nature of Mutations Under Positive Selection in Cancer

The research shows that “across cancer types a relatively consistent small number of mutated genes is required to convert a single normal cell into a cancer cell, but that the specific genes chosen differ according to cancer type,” Sanger Institute Director Michael Stratton, a co-author on the study, said in a statement.

…the researchers identified almost 200 mutated genes under positive selection in cancer — a collection that included known cancer contributors and genes not previously implicated as cancer driver candidates.

They placed the pseudoscientific nonsense about selection for beneficial mutations into the context of positive selection for mutations, which are caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. The mutations have been linked to all pathology. It’s as if all theorists want to become known as “biologically uninformed science idiots” via their associations with others who have touted claims about “beneficial mutations.”

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Evolution outside the context of "the light of evolution"

Summary: The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system (2015) with my emphasis. As a service to the community this article is available to view for free.

After 96 hours of incubation of AR2 and Pf0-2x at room temperature on SMM, two breakout mutations were visible, conferring first slow (AR2S and Pf0-2xS) and then fast (AR2F and Pf0-2xF) spreading over the agar surface (Fig. 1A). The AR2F strain produces flagella, but we could not detect flagella in electron microscopy samples for AR2S (Fig. 1B). Genome resequencing revealed a single-nucleotide point mutation in ntrB in strain AR2S, causing an amino acid substitution within the PAS domain of the histidine kinase sensor NtrB [Thr97→Pro97 (T97P)] (13). The fast-spreading strain AR2F had acquired an additional point mutation in the σ54-dependent EBP gene ntrC, which alters an amino acid (R442C) within the DNA binding domain (Table 1 and table S2).

The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model for comparison to: Mutation-Driven Evolution
The cell biology game “Cytosis” will help to end the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense touted in the context of mutation-driven evolution.
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology. Protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled. In Dobzhansky’s example, the alpha chains of hemoglobin differ “… in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” Pseudoscientists must now try to place that fact back into the context of their ridiculous theories without linking a single amino acid substitution in the organized genomes of all other species to all biodiversity on Earth, which is what some Young Earth Creationists (YEC) have done.
Watch as the pseudoscientists try and fail to account for more than 1200 nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled hemoglobin variants in human populations.
The pseudoscientists must ignore the facts about the hemoglobin variants: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations (2014) with my emphasis

Hemoglobinopathies are the commonest single-gene genetic disorders in humans, resulting from pathogenic genome variants in the human α-like and β-like globin gene clusters (reviewed in 1). Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

See for comparison: In the Light of Evolution

In this cross journal series, BMC Biology, BMC Evolutionary Biology and Biology Direct  bring together a collection of articles exploring how evolutionary principles applied across the spectrum of biology can shed light on a diverse range of topics from molecules to ecosystems, and with a particular emphasis on human genetics, interactions with the environment, and health and disease. Selected research articles will be included in addition to invited reviews and comment.

We will consider Research manuscripts of exceptional interest on the following topics (with my emphasis)
•    Evolution of morphological change
•    Understanding and treating disease in the light of evolution
•    Origins of evolutionary complexity
•    Human evolutionary biology in a post-genomic era
•    Anthropogenic effects on evolution
•    Evolutionary insights into genome variation, and vice versa
•    Host-parasite interactions
•    Evolutionary lessons from large-scale genomics
•    Insights from ancient DNA on human origins
•    Molecular mechanisms of evolution
•    Applied microbial evolution 
•    Evolutionary ecology
•    Genomics and the evolution of development

The only consideration of the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links RNA-directed DNA methylation from atoms to ecosystems via fixation of amino acid substitutions in organized genomes may be the articles about  Host-parasite interactions.  The interactions involve energy-dependent ecological adaptations or extinction. Virus-driven energy theft causes the extinctions via the theft oif quantized energy as information. Theft comes after the creation of virucidal light, which is the ultraviolet light that comes from sunlight. That fact, which indicates “agency” in the context of “creation” is not likely to be considered in the context of Insights from ancient DNA on human origins.
Clearly, Dobzhansky (1973) knew that all neo-Darwinian theorists were biologically uninformed science idiots and that they always would be. The fact that he placed the virucidal energy of ultraviolet light into his expressed “Creationist” views with a title that refuted all the pseudoscientific nonsense attests to his sense of humor, and the inability of theorists to “get the joke.”

…organic diversity becomes, however, reasonable and understandable if the Creator has created the living world not by caprice but by evolution propelled by natural selection. It is wrong to hold creation and evolution as mutually exclusive alternatives. I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.

There is no support for the ridiculous claim that Creation is a “process” that began some 10 billion years ago. There is a model that places all human biodiversity into the context of food energy-dependent ecological adaptations that protect all organisms from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in the context of their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Watch as the facts about Creation are removed from consideration because the focus of these articles is on support for ridiculous theories. Remember this:

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

  1. Dosage-sensitive genes in evolution and disease

    For a subset of genes in our genome a change in gene dosage, by duplication or deletion, causes a phenotypic effect. These dosage-sensitive genes may confer an advantage upon copy number change, but more typic…

  2. Q&A: Where did the Neanderthals go?

    Genomic evidence has demonstrated that humans and Neanderthals interbred. Today, the genomes of most individuals outside Africa contain 2–3% Neanderthal DNA. However, it is still hotly debated why the Neandert…
  3. Biological function in the twilight zone of sequence conservation

    Strong DNA conservation among divergent species is an indicator of enduring functionality. With weaker sequence conservation we enter a vast ‘twilight zone’ in which sequence subject to transient or lower cons…
  4. Examining non-LTR retrotransposons in the context of the evolving primate brain

    Researchers have long sought to understand the genetic basis of the cognitive differences between primates, with particular focus on the human brain. Although all mutational types have worked in concert with e…
  5. Q&A: What is human language, when did it evolve and why should we care?

    Human language is unique among all forms of animal communication. It is unlikely that any other species, including our close genetic cousins the Neanderthals, ever had language, and so-called sign ‘language’ i…
  6. Peto’s Paradox: how has evolution solved the problem of cancer prevention?

    The risk of developing cancer should theoretically increase with both the number of cells and the lifespan of an organism. However, gigantic animals do not get more cancer than humans, suggesting that super-hu…
  7. Non-model model organisms

    Model organisms are widely used in research as accessible and convenient systems to study a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally only a handful of organisms have been widely studied, but moder…
  8. Can a biologist fix a smartphone?—Just hack it!

    Biological systems integrate multiscale processes and networks and are, therefore, viewed as difficult to dissect. However, because of the clear-cut separation between the software code (the information encode…
  9. Open questions: Tackling Darwin’s “instincts”: the genetic basis of behavioral evolution

    All of us have marveled at the remarkable diversity of animal behaviors in nature.
Cytosis

Host-derived creation of all pathology (2 of 2)

Summary: All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

See for comparison: Jay R. Feierman: “Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”

A Bacterial Messenger Molecule Extends Healthspan

…indole, a molecule produced by commensal bacteria, extends “healthspan” not only in mice but in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in fruit flies as well. Taking away the bacterial production of the molecule ablated these anti-aging gains.

Does anyone need to repeatedly be reminded that food energy is required for the production of any molecule associated with nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled anti-aging gains? The epigenetically effected gains are consistently manifested in the survival of species via the physiology of reproduction.
The food energy-dependent production of indole is the obvious link from nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops to biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptation in all living genera. Testing for indole is used to determine the ability of an organism to split (deaminate) the amino acid tryptophan.  Indole contributes to fecal odor and it is a chemical messenger that has been indirectly or directly included in detailed representations of biologically-based pheromone-controlled energy-dependent cause and effect like these.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
There is a model for that! See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)
The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans biophysically constrains the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. That fact links constraint-breaking mutations to all pathology in all living genera. A test protocol established that fact in the context of this book chapter, which links the test for indole to differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance in humans.

For example, the test protocol links the creation of energy as information to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology. The complexity of the testing can be reduced via the focus on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs.

See the abstract:

Disease research and treatment development have turned to the impact and utility of microRNA. The dynamic and highly specific expression of these molecular regulators can be used to predict and monitor disease progression as well as therapeutic treatment efficacy and safety…

MicroRNAs are identified and monitored through the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA)™-based detection probes. The LNA™ technology enhances the sensitivity and specificity of target binding for short, highly similar, microRNA sequences, which help to differentiate cell types in the context of everything known to serious scientists about how to link physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to all biodiversity via fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

The availability of this testing was predicted in: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (7-min video)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
See for comparison: Metabolic, Epigenetic, and Transgenerational Effects of Gut Bacterial Choline Consumption (2017)

There is no such thing as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological or behavioral phenotypes outside the context of feedback loops that link food odors from the metabolism to pheromones and biophysically constrained viral latency. The consumption of choline by bacteria links food energy to protection from viral latency via the test for indole. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy can be linked from reduced amount of choline that link viruses in the bacteria to their ability to overwhelm the immune system. The effects of virus-driven energy theft link the CRISPR-Cas9 technology of gene-editing to DNA repair via exogenous RNA-interference because energy-dependent endogenous RNA-interference protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Corporate America is not willing to tell the truth about that. You will probably suffer unnecessarily and die prematurely because the goal of every corporation is to make more money.

See also: Americans Are Dying Younger, Saving Corporations Billions

Absent a war or an epidemic, it’s unusual and alarming for life expectancies in developed countries to stop improving, let alone to worsen. “Mortality is sort of the tip of the iceberg,” says Laudan Aron, a demographer and senior fellow at the Urban Institute. “It really is a reflection of a lot of underlying conditions of life.”

Darwin’s “conditions of life” were food energy-dependent. Serious scientists have since learned that all “conditions of life” also are fixed in the organized genomes of all living genera via the physiology of reproduction. Without the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality would link mutations to evolution instead of linking mutations to all pathology.

Instead, the reality of cell type differentiation was reported as: Microbes compete for nutrients, affect metabolism, development in mice

 …new research that shows mice that harbor high levels of microbes that eat choline are deprived of this essential nutrient.
 

I placed that fact into the context of this excerpt from my 2013 review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Sex-dependent production of a mouse ‘chemosignal’ with incentive salience appears to have arisen de novo via coincident adaptive evolution that involves an obvious two-step synergy between commensal bacteria and a sex-dependent liver enzyme that metabolizes the nutrient chemical choline.

The result of this synergy is (1) a liver enzyme that oxidizes trimethylamine to (2) an odor that causes (3) species-specific behaviors. Thus, the complex systems that biology required to get from nutrient acquisition and nutrient metabolism to species-specific odor-controlled behavior is exemplified by adaptive evolution of an attractive odor to mice that repels rats (see for review Li et al., 2013).

Addendum: Fish odor syndrome is the link from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy. The odor links ecological variation to failed ecological adaptation and all pathology when there is insufficient food energy. Any scientist who does not already know that based on the facts known to every medical laboratory scientist is an example of “human idiocy” (Feynman) or a biologically uninformed science idiot (Kohl).

Serious scientists have begun to effectively use energy-dependent microRNAs to the prevention of all virus-driven pathology. That fact is being reported in the context of gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’  at a time when all serious scientists realize there is no such thing as ‘junk DNA.’

Gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’ could lower risk for heart disease

The LeXis gene belongs to a unique group of genes that until recently were considered “junk DNA” because scientists believed they served little purpose. However, evidence from the human genome project led to the discovery that genes like LeXis are actually active. The study of these genes, now referred to as long noncoding ribonucleic acids, or lncRNAs, is a rapidly evolving area in biology.

Long Noncoding RNA Facilitated Gene Therapy Reduces Atherosclerosis in a Murine Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs form the vast majority of transcriptionally active regions and are arbitrary defined as transcripts >200 bps that biochemically resemble mRNA and yet do not template protein.2

Diet and drug-induced changes in LeXis link energy as information to liver X receptor activation of genes via the “promoter binding of RNA-binding proteins.” That fact supports the claim that a transcriptional coactivator for genetically predisposed cholesterol biosynthesis in the mouse liver links promoters, enhancers, quantitative trait loci, et al., to the transciptional coactivator referred to as “Rally” without mention of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.
If you believe that the long noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are genes, you may be convinced that mutations in RNA are the same as mutations in genes. But mutations are the cause of all pathology. Linking mutations in RNA to pathology outside the  context of energy-dependent healthy longevity allows others with no expertise in laboratory testing to continue to believe that mutation-driven evolution is the link from natural selection to the origin of new species. That belief is probably common among others who believe that the Universe itself may be conscious.

See for comparison: Scientists Now Believe the Universe Itself May Be Conscious

For the behavior of subatomic particles and the systems they constitute promises to be fully explained by physics and the other physical sciences.

 See for comparison: Subatomic

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available atoms. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton Cards, Neutron Cards, Electron Cards and Energy Cards and a beginning hand limit of 5 cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom, in an attempt to construct one of the available Atom Cards, and/or use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful atom building cards for later use, or increase their hand limit. The deck building cards are simple and clean, but offer a number of interesting combinations. Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker, or to offset the cost of more powerful deck building cards.

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking
 

The question arises: “Who needs this kind of nonsense?” Does anyone at any level of examination believe that “the Universe is always looking” is the best representation of what we can expect from a “Conscious Universe?”

See for comparison: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

 Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization Methods for microRNA Biomarker Monitoring of Drug Safety and Efficacy was reported on the Exiqon FB page. Exiqon is a biotechnology company that specializes in RNA products and services. I recommend that they purchase this domain (RNA-mediated.com) in an attempt to promote their products, which obviously link energy-dependent healthy longevity to all biodiversity and also link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

See also: ‘Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling’ The fact that food energy as information must be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera appears to be the focus of this Theme issue.

But wait: Here is one of the articles from  the Theme issue:

Nucleosome remodelling, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation build negative feedback loops in cancer and cellular ageing

Nucleosome remodelling (NR) regulates transcription in an ATP-dependent manner, and influences gene expression required for development and cellular functions, including those involved in anti-cancer and anti-ageing processes. ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF) and Brahma-associated factor (BAF) complexes, belonging to the ISWI and SWI/SNF families, respectively, are involved in various types of DNA repair.

See for comparison, from 1964: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

McEwen et al., knew that “The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.” That statement of fact was the beginning of the abstract from 1964. When he told me my model could not be validated unless I started with energy-dependent gene activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, I had no reason to doubt him. When I learned that Robert L. Moss had already linked pheromones to energy-dependent gene activation in GnRH neurons, I continued to pursue top-down causation as if it was energy-dependent — because it obviously is energy-dependent.

I never considered that my model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained gene activation would not be accepted by theorists. See for comparison:

Induction of FOS immunoreactivity in central accessory olfactory structures of the female rat following exposure to conspecific males (1992)

See also: Gonadotropin releasing hormone and human sexual behavior (1991) in Neuropeptides and Psychiatric Disorders (1991)

Is anyone else interested in linking the facts from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior or from any other works I have published before Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013) to what is known about all biophysically constrained biologically- based cause and effect?
If so, see: Worldwide patterns of human epigenetic variation

We found that population-specific DNA methylation mirrors genetic variation, and has greater local genetic control than mRNA levels. We estimated the rate of epigenetic divergence between populations, which indicates far greater evolutionary stability of DNA methylation in humans than has been observed in plants. This study provides a deeper understanding of worldwide patterns of human epigenetic diversity…

All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See for comparison: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
See for comparison: Quantum Biology: An Introduction (video) by Philip Ball and Quantum common sense

To turn quantum to classical, we don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look; we just need an environment full of stuff. With or without us, the Universe is always looking.

See also these restricted and unrestricted articles: ARTICLES