Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

EDAR V370A and sympatric speciation

Nick Lane and others like him refuse to reappraise their human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma. All serious scientists know where the energy for recombination comes from. But, in his latest video clip, he touts the same unsubstantiated theoretical pseudoscientific nonsense.

See the: Aeon Video:

Life on earth – from mushrooms to humans and everything in between – seems enormously diverse. At the cellular level, however, almost all complex lifeforms are surprisingly similar. Why life is this way, though, remains mysterious. In this Aeon interview, the UK biochemist and author Nick Lane discusses his research on the connection between energy and genes, which, he hypothesises, made possible the radical transformation from single-celled organisms to complex life about 4 billion years ago.

See for comparison: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

I’ve asked the authors: Are you prepared to address the comments that you might receive from people like Nick Lane in the context of “peer review?” How will you respond to those who do not accept the fact that the creation of ATP synthase and the creation of ATP must be linked to the creation of RNA and biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of SNPs and fixation of amino acid substitutions? What can be done when biologically uninformed theorists continue to link anything except biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity?

I ask because there are still too many examples of human idiocy that are being considered outside the context of facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

See: Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant

See the claims about the selection of the EDAR variant placed back into the context of evolution.

Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13

…we report the rapid (<1 week) design and testing of instrument-free assays to detect clinically relevant viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

The relevant energy-dependent single-nucleotide polymorphisms clearly protect all living genera from the clinically relevant viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via what is known to all serious scientists about the energy-dependent creation of the innate immune system in species from bacteria to humans.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk

The frequency of the human-specific EDAR V370A allele appears to be uniquely elevated in North and East Asian and New World populations due to a bout of positive selection likely to have occurred circa 20,000 y ago.

If any experimental evidence of biophysically constrained viral latency supported the claim about positive selection 20,000 y ago, it could be linked to Nick Lane’s claims about how chimeras and electricity allowed a sterile planet to give way to complex life 4 billion years ago. Since there is no experimental evidence to support his ridiculous theories, intelligent people may want to continue to link environmental selection from food selection to the physiology of reproduction and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions such as V370A that stabilize the organized genomes of all species on Earth.

Watering Young Plant - Vintage Effect

Environmental selection is natural selection (5)

Summary: Atheistic Chinese Communists realize that vaccinations cannot protect them. Their attempts to develop a universal vaccine have failed. Bill Gates promotes vaccinations, which led us to the brink of the next pandemic.

Vaccines prevent ecological adaptations in some cell types. Does Bill Gates, a non-scientist, think that people from God-fearing non-communist countries can do better than the atheistic Communists?

Bill Gates calls on U.S. to lead fight against a pandemic that could kill 33 million

Gates and his wife, Melinda, have repeatedly warned that a pandemic is the greatest immediate threat to humanity. Experts say the risk is high, because new pathogens are constantly emerging and the world is so interconnected.

New pathogens do not emerge. Read Quantico. The viruses that cause all pathology ecologically adapt by stealing the quantized energy that all differentiated cell types need to survive.

Bill Gates thinks a coming disease could kill 30 million people within 6 months — and says we should prepare for it as we do for war

If you were to tell the world’s governments that weapons that could kill 30 million people were under construction right now, there’d be a sense of urgency about preparing for the threat, Gates said.

The one time the military tried a sort of simulated war game against a smallpox pandemic, the final score was “smallpox one, humanity zero,” Gates said.

See also: Nov 17, 2016 Obama Advisers Urge Action Against CRISPR Bioterror Threat

…a strategy was developed in 2009, but it’s carried out by several government agencies in an uncoördinated approach…

Bill Gates has been promoting vaccinations as a strategy. The vaccinations led us to the brink of the pandemic. Vaccines prevent ecological adaptations in some cell types. The atheistic Chinese Communists now realize that vaccinations cannot protect them. Their attempts to develop a universal vaccine have failed, miserably. Does Bill Gates, a non-scientist, think that people from non-communist countries can do better than the atheistic Communists?
Perhaps he doesn’t know how South Korea forced the denuclearization of North Korea, which will probably lead to proclamations of world peace.
See: Engineered virus has artificial amino acid allowing it to serve as a vaccine (2016)

A team of researchers at Peking University has developed a new type of vaccine that they claim may allow for a new approach to generating live virus vaccines which could conceivably be adapted to any type of virus.

Their “new approach” failed. The uncoordinated strategy against the CRISPR bioterror threat has failed to address the established scientific facts. All ecological adaptations are quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. That fact is presented in the context of the Holy Bible, which explains why scientific creationists from South Korea were able to force denuclearization on atheistic communists.
Now Gates accuses the US Government (the Trump Administration?) of failing to protect US citizens.
On April 26, 2018, I discussed factual representations of biologically-based cause and effect that probably led to the death of Timothy J. Cunningham. I told a friend that Cunningham’s publication record clearly reveals his ability to link viruses to the failed differentiation of all cell types in all living genera.
See his publications on

1)”Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality”
2) “Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences”
3) “Associations between antioxidants and all-cause mortality”
and
4) “Health and Safety Issues for Travelers”

What Bill Gates Fears Most may be the revelations of facts about vaccines. Gates seems to be still promoting the live (or dead) virus-containing vaccines that have failed to protect anyone since the time they were supposed to start protecting us all.
Is he aware that An error made in 1925 led to a crisis in modern science?
The error replaced the creation of energy with models of statistical significance as if the answer to the question “What is Life?” was akin to computers that automagically emerged with the energy to run themselves.
See also: Arrowsmith (1925). If Bill Gates had studied US history, he might have learned that the 1925 Scopes Trial in Dayton, Tennessee predicted that teaching neo-Darwinian evolution would cause the next pandemic.
Instead see: Gates Foundation launches $12M Grand Challenge for universal flu vaccine, as Bill Gates urges world to prepare for war on pandemics
When Europeans “invaded” the Americas, indigenous human populations were decimated by the virus-driven degradation of their messenger RNA. Few American Indians had the amino acid substitution that protected them from the virus-driven pathology manifested in the deep sea. The virus-driven pathology has been linked to all physical and mental diseases/disorders on Earth via the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic.
For comparison, everything known to all serious scientists about quantized energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation has been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency.
See: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor and Cytosis.
See for comparison: Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
The V370A adaptation came from populations in what is now Central China, but dietary changes eliminated the need for the adaptation in the Americas, where indigenous populations had adapted to other viruses. When Europeans introduced the viruses to indigenous populations on other continents, the 6,000 year history of ecological adaptations in species from mice to humans became clear.
See: Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant
The EDAR variant is V370A, which is also known as The ectodysplasin receptor variant (EDARV370A) and as rs3827760, which is also known as 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala. It is a SNP in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2. The fact that one food energy-dependent variant in one SNP was linked from the creation of a receptor to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from mice to humans proved that environmental selection links quantized energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from the creation of sunlight to viral latency in all living genera.
See for comparison: Here Are Michelle Wolf’s Boldest Moments At The White House Correspondents’ Dinner
See also the bold moves made by scientific creationists in South Korea, who forced the denuclearization of North Korea (in the same week as the “dinner”) with prior publication of two articles that link viruses to the decimation of populations of atheistic Communists.
Whether or not the US, and/or if South Korea invades, they could decimate the populations of atheists without firing more than one shot to deliver a payload of virus-modified yeasts. The lives of well-nourished troops could be saved for the take-over/occupation.
See:
1) A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses 4/13/18

Several amino acid mutations were identified in PB2, PB1, PA, BM2, and/or NS1 protein coding regions, and one concurrent lysine (K)-to-arginine (R) mutation in PA residue 338 (PA K338R) was found in both maVc_BR60 and maYm_WI01 viruses.

2) Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events 4/18/18

…17-24 amino acid changes, specifically A87T, D96N, S213D, and S242N substitutions in G2 epitopes, were observed.

See also: South Korea: Kim Seeks U.S. Guarantee Against Invasion

If the only thing atheistic Communists want is to not be invaded, they probably know that vaccines and nuclear weapons cannot protect them from the decimation that could be caused by a single amino acid substitution in a virus.

Why tempt our Creator to show them the error of their ways, when atheistic Communists do not believe in Him? Ask also, “Who killed Timothy J. Cunningham?” — and/or anyone else who is killed or goes missing during the transition to Global Peace.
See also:  [evol-psych] Sorry but Yahoo! groups have blocked all my news items — Robert Karl Stonjek 4/30/18
Wait for this to happen with the Human Ethology Yahoo group, where you can still find the atheistic pseudoscientific nonsense touted by the moderator, Jay R. Feierman.
See for example:
Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
See also: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
See for comparison: Tracking niche variation over millennial timescales in sympatric killer whale lineages

  1. Ecological variation is the raw material by which natural selection can drive evolutionary divergence [1–4].
  2. The differences in amino acid composition among different tissues can lead to large differences in trophic discrimination [38].

Many evolutionary theorists and Big Bang cosmologists are among the hate-mongers who would rather combat Christianity than make any efforts towards Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (1)

Excerpt: Summaries of mutation categories: The summaries attest to the fact that human interethnic biodiversity can be linked to all biodiversity via the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which link autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Immune Issue

…the findings are “not a show stopper, but the field needs to know about this…

Investors are stopping the Zhang-Church-Doudna show. Some were prepared to invest in energy-dependent RNA interference, which biophysically constrains viral latency.The way forward was predicted in 1999 with publication of RNA-triggered gene silencing and revisited with publication of Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy

RNAi based drugs have now advanced steps closer towards clinical trials. The powerful in-vivo RNAi machinery and its delicate factors apprehend that RNAi-dependent therapies might create a billion dollar business against the pathogenic organisms and disease for which treatment options are currently restricted conventionally.

Food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated amino acid substitutions biophysically constrain viral latency and all serious scientists know that.
See: The tipping point (revisited): 68,000 publications

The “…miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism…” links the National Microbiome Initiative to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to all healthy longevity or to all virus-driven pathology in all living genera via differences in energy as information.

See for another example: A homozygous founder missense variant in arylsulfatase G abolishes its enzymatic activity causing atypical Usher syndrome in humans

The identified variant affected a fully conserved amino acid that is part of the catalytic site of the enzyme.

Reported as: Biochemists confirm existence of theoretical genetic disorder

Now that the cause of the symptoms is known [i.e., the loss of the conserved amino acid substitution], it is possible to think about an enzyme replacement therapy for the patients [whose symptoms are obviously caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links the missense variation and all other mutations to all pathology via the loss of fixed amino acid substitutions in all living genera].

The enzyme replacement therapy would not be required in the context of what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. See for examples of what is known about the conserved amino acid substitution on page 19 of this sample report. The creation of CYP enzymes clearly links the food that people eat to healthy longevity. Alternatively, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy can be linked to the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology, which traditional medicine has attempted to treat with pharmaceuticals and/or surgery.
Alpha Genomix download a Sample report
See for details of how biophysically constrained viral latency is linked from the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to all biodiversity in the context of a model that links atoms to ecosystems and refutes all theoretical pseudoscientific nonsense.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems 4/10/14

…the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review [30].

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China.

————————-

30) Kohl, J. V., Nutrient–dependent / pheromone–controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2013, 3. doi: 10.3402/snp.v3i0.20553

162) Kamberov, Yana G.; Wang, S.; Tan, J.; Gerbault, P.; Wark, A.; Tan, L.; Yang, Y.; Li, S.; Tang, K.; Chen, H., et al., Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 691-702. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.016

163 Grossman, Sharon R.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Shlyakhter, I.; Tabrizi, S.; Winnicki, S.; Yen, A.; Park, Daniel J.; Griesemer, D.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Wong, Sunny H., et al., Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 703-713. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.035

The naturally selected food energy-dependent EDAR variant and two amino acid substitutions have since been linked to human interethnic biodiversity in the context of other energy-dependent RNA-mediated fixation of all amino acids in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.
See: Brief report: Geographic variation in EGFR mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma may be explained by interethnic genetic variation  The full article can be downloaded from here:
G180A (aka ABCC11, Gly180Ala) and V370A (aka 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala) are established biomarkers of East Asian ancestry. Taken together, the two amino acid substitutions clearly linked rs17822931 and rs3827760 respectively to other food energy-dependent changes in base pairs via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and biophysically constrained interethnic biodiversity in a human population.
Val370Ala is a single nucleotide polynmorphism (SNP) in the ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene on chromosome 2. The adaptive variant links food energy-dependent changes in immunity from the mouse model to human biodiversity via autophagy, the innate antiphage defense mechanism.
Eighteen years ago, Gly180Ala was linked from the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA and all food energy-dependent  hemoglobin variants via the publication of Rotation of F(1)-ATPase and the hinge residues of the beta subunit

The mean work done by a 120 degrees step was approximately 80 pN nm, a value close to the free energy liberated by hydrolysis of one ATP molecule, implying nearly 100% efficiency of energy conversion. The torque is probably generated by the beta subunit, which undergoes large opening-closing domain motion upon binding of AT(D)P. We identified three hinge residues, betaHis179, betaGly180 and betaGly181, whose peptide bond dihedral angles are drastically changed during domain motion. Simultaneous substitution of these residues with alanine resulted in nearly complete loss (99%) of ATPase activity.

Simply put, the Val370Ala and Gly180Ala substitutions exemplify how the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight is biophysically constrained by the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide and the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of other amino acid substitution that differentiate all cell types in all living genera. In humans.
For example, more than 1700 hemoglobin variants have bee linked to interethnic bidiversity and to primate species biodiversity via the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of one or more amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

See for updates: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

The nucleotide substitutions are food energy-dependent. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy causes the deletions. Ecological variation links the ability to find food to ecological adaptations only in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency during the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy morphological and behavioral phenotypes.
See also: HbVar: A Database of Human Hemoglobin Variants and Thalassemias: Summaries of mutation categories
The summaries attest to the fact that food energy-dependent human interethnic biodiversity can be linked to all biodiversity via the creation of enzymes and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which link autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Re: Monetization of these facts: First, consider short-selling the stocks of companies that have built their capitalization on ridiculous claims that link mutations to evolution. Those claims disappeared with release of the cell biology game “Cytosis.”
Next, buy or lease one — or all three — of the following domains from the owner / founder of the only domains that have continued to disseminate the facts about pheromone constrained viral latency, since 1995 (which is when I founded Pheromones.com). Then RNA-mediated.com. Then Autophagy.pro.
If you have any doubts about what your future holds, see:

 
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent alternative splicings 1996 – 2016 (2)

See also: Energy-dependent alternative splicings 1996 – 2016

Re: Rs3827760 is Val370Ala and EDARV370A

No matter what it is called, Val370Ala may be the best example of how nutrient energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled viral latency protects all organisms from virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.
For example, see: Genome recoding by tRNA modifications

The succession of mRNA codons controls the synthesis of polypeptides through the complementarity between each of the 64 possible codon triplets and the tRNA anticodons that decode the 20 amino acids of the cellular proteome. Central to the mRNA decoding process is the backward compatibility of the codon : anticodon recognition that is mediated by tRNA.

See also: In the loop: how chromatin topology links genome structure to function in mechanisms underlying learning and memory

Highlights:

•    Epigenetic regulation represents a key mechanism of learning, memory and cognition.
•    Chromatin topology is emerging as a major regulator of neuronal gene expression.
•    Dynamic chromatin topology changes correlate with activity-dependent transcription.
•    DNA double-strand breaks facilitate induction of immediate early gene transcription.

All their highlights can be placed into the context of this article from 2005.
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
The feedback loops determine whether of not a species survives via links from energy-dependent autophagy to learning, memory, RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and supercoiled DNA.
BDNF Val66Met and COMT Val158Met are also examples that link energy-dependent changes in base pairs from single nucleotide polymorphisms to life history transitions in morphological and behavioral phenotypes.

See also: Spatiotemporal antagonism in mesenchymal-epithelial signaling in sweat versus hair fate decision

Our findings revealed a differential impact of BMP signaling on appendage fate specification that has ancient roots and occurs repeatedly throughout vertebrate evolution.

This was reported by Bob Yirka as: Researchers identify signals during embryonic development that control the fate of skin cells to be sweaty or hairy

The fate of all cell types is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated via natural selection for codon optimality. See for example:
rs3827760, also known as 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala, is a SNP in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2. This SNP links the mouse model of cell type differentiation to humans. That fact has been known for at least 3 years.
See:

  1. Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant
  2. A genetic basis of variation in eccrine sweat gland and hair follicle density
  3. A genome-wide association scan implicates DCHS2, RUNX2, GLI3, PAX1 and EDAR in human facial variation

Other energy-dependent base pair changes link natural selection for codon optimaility from SNPs to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and differences in intelligence and/or unexplained death risk.
A genome-wide analysis of putative functional and exonic variation associated with extremely high intelligence
An insertion/deletion polymorphism within 3’UTR of RYR2 modulates sudden unexplained death risk in Chinese populations
Few people can place the findings on energy-dependent codon optimaility into the proper context of natural information processing. How many do you know who might claim that natural selection links mutations to evolution?

Compare the people who think in terms of mutation-driven evolution to those who know the energy-dependent differences between archaea and bacteria. The greater energy-dependent stability of organized genomes in bacteria can be liked to the stability of eukaryotes. The instability of archaea genomes can be linked from virus-driven energy theft to the degradation of messenger RNA and negative supercoiling of DNA.
All cell type stability link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the creation of all biodiversity to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy, which links mutations to all pathology.
See for instance, (2013) MicroRNA-based regulation of epithelial-hybrid-mesenchymal fate determination

The authors

…address long-standing fundamental questions linked to compelling clinical needs—how to distinguish between the aberrant dynamics of epithelial–hybrid–mesenchymal transitions during tumorigenesis vs. the normal programs of embryonic development and tissue regeneration.

The “normal programs” are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.The senior author should have received the 2016 Nobel Prize for linking energy-dependent autophagy to supercoiled DNA, but the Prize is not awarded posthumously, as I recall.

Politicized “science” often prevents the Prize in Physiology or Medicine from being awarded to anyone whose works challenge the ridiculous theories about mutation-driven evolution. Those who present experimental evidence of how cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained by energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance tend to be virtually ignored.

Even some of the creationists I have encountered want others to keep thinking in terms of evolution rather that energy as information. Peter Berean, for example, decided to invent the term “bio-functional information” when he realized that the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy was the only obvious link from microRNA flanking sequences to all healthy longevity and that virus-driven energy theft was the link to all pathology.If you want to learn how serious scientists are combating evolution to fight disease on two fronts, see any claim made by an old earth creationist, or any claim made by any atheist. The similarities led Peter Berean to substitute “bio-functional information” for de Vries 1902 definition of “mutation.”

See for comparison:

2003 Bacterial self–organization: co–enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment

2006 Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger’s negative entropy to latent information

2009 Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing

See also: CRISPR study reveals unexpected roles of non-coding RNAs

Royal Society’s Sir Venki Ramakrishnan Agrees to Post Public Evo Audio

…the public discussion from the recent “new trends” in evolution conference will be posted shortly online on the Royal Society event webpage.

Suzan Mazur helped force them to do what they claim they would do:

Recorded audio of the presentations are available below.

It’s been six weeks and the recorded audios from the audience are not available.

If the recorded comments become available, the public discussion may help to reveal that the fate of all cell types is energy-dependent and RNA mediated via natural selection for codon optimality and autophagy.

See for other examples: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

These two reports (Grossman et al., 2013; Kamberov et al., 2013) tell a new short story of adaptive evolution. The story begins with what was probably a nutrient-dependent variant allele that arose in central China approximately 30,000 years ago. The effect of the allele is adaptive and it is manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In other mammals, like the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is due to an epigenetic effect of nutrients on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones control the nutrient-dependent hormone-dependent organization and activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates as previously indicated. That means the adaptive evolution of the human population, which is detailed in these two reports, is also likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled, since there is no other model for that.

Each week’s science news brings additional representations of facts that refute all neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense by linking Darwin’s “conditions of life” to all biodiversity. Most science news outlets still report and/or tout pseudoscientific nonsense because the reporters missed the fact that life is nutrient-dependent and the physiology of reproduction is controlled by pheromones is species from microbes to humans.
Can you imagine how embarrassed you would be if you had not learned that all organisms must eat or they cannot reproduce, which means they could never have become an organism of a species? What’s worst is that no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect support claims that one species evolved into another. For comparison, this recent report shows changes in organized genomes that link the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in moths to bacteria and from bactreria to humans via conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated protein folding chemisrty.

Engineers create programmable silk-based materials with embedded, pre-designed functions

… the researchers created a surgical pin that changes color as it nears its mechanical limits and is about to fail, functional screws that can be heated on demand in response to infrared light, and a biocompatible component that enables the sustained release of bioactive agents, such as enzymes.

The news article cites: Directed self-assembly of silk fibroin into bulk materials: with the subtitle: Programming function into mechanical forms from the nano- to macroscale,
I look forward to learning why they are claiming that energy-dependent assembly is “directed self-assembly.”

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Sudden death indel polymorphism

An insertion/deletion polymorphism within 3’UTR of RYR2 modulates sudden unexplained death risk in Chinese populations.

…different alleles of rs10692285 could alter the local structure of RYR2 mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) binding.

See for comparison: Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant

The differences between the 370A knockin mouse phenotypes and those of loss- and gain-of-function models emphasize the advantage of a more accurate mouse model.

In this study an adaptive variant links the mouse model to a modern human population via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. The adaptive variant is referred to as rs3827760, but it is also known as 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala.
It is an energy-dependent single nucleotide polymorphism in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2. Reporting it as the Val370Ala amino acid substitution links the energy-dependent change in the base pair to the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled fixation of the amino acid substitution via the physiology of reproduction, which links autophagy to supercoiled DNA and all energy-dependent biodiversity in all living genera.
Simply put, the supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy. Supercoiled DNA is the “energy as information-dependent” source of all biodiversity. See for details:

What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy

Abstract:

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

Antagonist Peter Berean repeatedly asserts that energy is not information. He has invented the term bio-functional information in an attempt to continue linking mutations to evolution, which is what was done in: Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant.
For contrast, An insertion/deletion polymorphism within 3’UTR of RYR2 modulates sudden unexplained death risk in Chinese populations links virus-driven energy theft to the pathology via loss of function associated with the insertion/deletion (indel) polymorphism. The energy-dependent polymorphism links different alleles of rs10692285 from amino acid substitutions in viruses to sudden unexplained death risk in Chinese populations. There is no mention of the fact that the amino acid substitutions that stabilize viruses would otherwise link an energy-dependent amino acid substitution from a single base pair to cell type differentiation in the sudden death-causing cells.
That fact can be viewed in the context of my model and these two reports:
1) Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (supercoiling)
2) Structural Dynamics and Mechanochemical Coupling in DNA Gyrase (negative supercoiling)
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants
Reported as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report.

On average, 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. “There’s so many of [variants] that exist that some of them have to contribute to disease,” says Akey

Once again, we see that theorists must learn the difference between an energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution and a mutation before they can grasp the levels of complexity that must be integrated into models of biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity.
The problem that most theorists have with the concept of energy as information is due to the fact that they do not know the difference between an energy-dependent amino acid substitution and a mutation, which is caused by virus-driven energy theft.
See: Virus-driven mutation or amino acid substitution

Pseudoscientists invented a theory based on de Vries definition of mutation, and more theories were added in the absence of experimental evidence that could link top-down causation to cell type differentiation in all genera. Instead of energy-dependent cell type differentiation, we got this:

For comparison, see: Mutation-Driven Evolution

Excerpt:

Mutation… includes nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion, segmental gene duplication, genomic duplication, changes in gene regulatory systems, transposition of genes, horizontal gene transfer, etc.

My comment: The definition above links mutations to any change in any genome.

See for comparison: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Excerpt:

Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [insertions/deletions] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects [mutations] in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

My comment: The facts about nutrient energy-dependent amino acid substitutions link hemoglobin variants from ecological adaptation to healthy longevity and the facts also link molecular defects from mutations to the pathology of α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively. It would be difficult to include facts about biophysically constrained energy dependent cell type differentiation in the context of any other model that links amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity and links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.

Unfortunately, some medical laboratory scientists are still not getting the message about the difference between a mutation and fixation of an amino acid substitution.

See also the attacks on my credibility and my model in this discussion attempt, which drew participation and more antagonism from the group’s administrators, John L. Leonard and Peter Berean.

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Light, behavior and autophagy, a gender-specific risk factor

Structure of photosystem II and substrate binding at room temperature

Excerpt:

PS II, a membrane-bound multi-subunit pigment protein complex, couples the one-electron photochemistry at the reaction centre with the four-electron redox chemistry of water oxidation at the Mn4CaO5 cluster in the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC).

New, detailed snapshots capture photosynthesis at room temperature

The living machinery responsible for photosynthesis – while commonplace and essential to life on Earth – is still not fully understood.

It is understood at every level of examination that links quantized energy to healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Thomas Hunt Morgan (Physiology or Medicine) and Schrodinger and Dirac (Physics) won Nobel Prizes in 1933 for linking energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction and chromosomal inheritance. Like Darwin, they did this based on his “conditions of life” without knowing how the experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect would soon begin to fill in the missing links.

Only pseudoscientists would link claims about one-electron photochemistry to thermodynamic cycles and the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) via five intermediate S-states linked to O2 evolution across three billion years. What’s worst is that they think some people are foolish enough to believe them because they are “experts” with academic credentials to prove it. They have proved how foolish all academics can be. Don’t let the fools fool you.

Let’s look at some practical applications of what is known about how to link the sun’s biological energy to life on Earth.

See: Laser used to control mouse’s brain — and speed up milkshake consumption

The ability to control very small groups of neurons could have big implications for brain science.

….conducted their experiments on mice that were genetically engineered to have light-sensitive neurons in a brain region called the orbitofrontal cortex. That area is involved in perceiving, and reacting to, rewards. By shining a laser at specific neurons, the researchers increased the pace at which the mice consumed a high-calorie milkshake.

The link from energy as information via the speed of light on contact with water and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution was placed into the context of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation (i.e., autophagy) and all biodiversity in this brief presentation.

The link from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via mRNA degradation in G protein-coupled receptors and receptor-mediated behavior seems unlikely to be considered. Indeed, researchers only recently decided to consider sex as a biological variable.
2016 Multifaceted origins of sex differences in the brain

The pervasive impact of sex on so many aspects of neural functioning in both the healthy and diseased brain demands that as neuroscientists, we incorporate sex as a biological variable…

2016 Addressing sex as a biological variable

Do we continue the status quo and ignore sex as a biological variable, or do we acknowledge that sex influences the brain at all levels and address the major gaps in knowledge? The National Institutes of Health now mandates the inclusion of sex as a biological variable.

Most of the contributors to articles about sexual differentiation still refuse to consider that the role of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction must extend from microbes to humans via the energy-dependent de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors.

Very few sex researchers can understand the importance of the claims in this published work.: Gender-Specific Association of Galanin Polymorphisms with HPA-Axis Dysregulation, Symptom Severity, and Antidepressant Treatment Response
Excerpt:

Human galanin (GAL) is a 30 amino-acid neuropeptide, proteolytically processed from preprogalanin (PPGAL) (Evans and Shine, 1991; Schmidt et al, 1991). PPGAL is a single-copy gene located on chromosome 11q13.3–13.5, spanning over 6 kb of genomic DNA and organized into six exons (Rokaeus and Brownstein, 1986; Vrontakis et al, 1987).

One energy-dependent base pair change links the single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs948854 in the human galanin gene to sex differences in multiple sclerosis via a single amino acid substitution in the supercoiled DNA of humans, and the base pair change is referred to as a “gender” specific risk factor.
Single-nucleotide polymorphism rs948854 in human galanin gene and multiple sclerosis: a gender-specific risk factor

The associations between rs948854 variants and MS demonstrated in the current study support our hypothesis that polymorphism in the promoter region that are likely to change expression level of the GAL gene affect the cause and the outcome of MS, shifting the balance in favor of either neuroprotection or neurodegeneration.

The microRNA/messenger RNA balance shifts in the context of nutrient energy-dependent base pairs changes and codon optimality that links the base pair changes to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation of all cell types in all living genera via their physiology of reproduction. See what happens when that fact is repeatedly placed into the context of social science and the pseudoscientific nonsense about sex-specific pathology, which is referred to as gender-specific.

rs3827760, also known as 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala, is a SNP in the ectodysplasin A receptor EDAR gene on chromosome 2.

Although all SNPs are biological variables that link base pair changes from RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to energy-dependent cell type variation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera, Val370Ala (aka rs3827760) was used as an example of how a mutation linked nutrient energy-dependent changes in human morphological and behavioral phenotypes via evolution with one caveat.
Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant

Alternatively, another phenotype, such as mammary gland branching or fat pad size could have been adaptive. The increased branching of 370A mouse mammary glands and the importance of mammary tissue in evolutionary fitness (Anderson et al., 1983; Oftedal, 2002) make this organ an interesting candidate. Alterations in gland structure have been reported to disrupt lactation in mice (Ramanathan et al., 2007), suggesting a functional consequence for this change. Unfortunately, it is not possible to assess mammary gland branching in living humans, highlighting the importance of animal models. Reports of smaller breast size in East Asian women (Maskarinec et al., 2001; Chen et al., 2004) are notable in light of the effects of 370A on fat pad size and the importance of breast morphology in human mate preference (Furnham et al., 1998, 2006; Dixson et al., 2011).

See also: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
See also: 23andMe has discovered hundreds of genetic links to traits, and much more is coming
One of 23andMe’s biggest discoveries came this summer with a paper linking 17 genetic tweaks, or SNPs (pronounced “snips”), that appear to be tied to one’s risk of developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD).
See also: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization
See also: Is brain plasticity the key to healing?

There haven’t been many scientists who have paid nearly enough attention to the fact that there is this phenomenon of the noisy dysregulated brain. So one of the themes of this book is the use of energy based interventions to resynchronise the noisy brain.

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Amino acid substitutions are not mutations

DNA data explosion lights up the Bronze Age

Excerpt:

…a mutation linked to thick hair and numerous sweat glands, once thought to have emerged in East Asians, was common in Scandinavians as early as 7,700 years ago — potentially revealing a connection between these groups.

My comment: Serious scientists know that what was reported to be a mutation is a nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution linked to expression of a receptor, which is linked to selection of food.

Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant

Excerpt:

Alternatively, it could be precisely the pleiotropic nature of 370A that allowed multiple distinct selective forces to act on this variant over its long history, when many of the postulated selective pressures such as temperature and humidity changed dramatically.

My comment: The pleiotropic nature of 370A is linked to fixation of the amino acid substitution by the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction.

Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data

Excerpt:

Using structural modeling, we found that the TLR5 L616F variant is predicted to be located in the conserved ectodomain responsible for dimerization and activation of the receptor (Figures 2B and 2C).

My comment: A single base change links a nutrient-dependent valine to alanine substitution to receptor-mediated behavior in mice and humans via the mammalian gene EDAR and the EDAR encoded protein.
The base pair change and amino acid substitution continue to be reported in the context of ridiculous theories about mutations, natural selection, and the automagical evolution of biodiversity.
For comparison to what is known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all genera, see:

Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

My comment: The link to the honeybee model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled life history transitions is obvious.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.

Excerpt:

The honeybee already serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reaction, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, the development of the brain and behavior, mental health, longevity, diseases of the X chromosome, learning and memory, as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli (Kohl, 2012).