Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

The eternal significance of microRNAs (5)

Excerpt: Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.
Conclusion: Conserved energy biophysically constrains viral latency.

Ridiculously ignorant objections to my publication in what others claim is a predatory journal can be compared to my objection to publication of this article in PNAS.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
1) They linked environmental selection to the frequency of the EDAR V370A variant in the mouse model via positive selection for modulation of thermoregulatory sweating.
2) They linked environmental selection to similarities in human populations in North Asia, East Asia, and the New World. But they virtually ignored the mouse model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained ecological adaptation.
I linked the same food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled base pair change and microRNA-mediated fixation of the same amino acid substitution to all biodiversity in all living genera via feedback loops. See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Others see what passes peer-review published in journals that support the expense of efforts made by pseudoscientists and other theorists, but they claim that the OMICS journals are predatory. I claim that pseudoscientists and other theorists do not know the difference between predation and sympatric speciation because they place predation into the context of evolved biodiversity.

For comparison see: Whole-genome sequencing of the blue whale and other rorquals finds signatures for introgressive gene flow

Reported as: Baleen Whale Genomes Point to Evolution With Gene Flow

Large baleen whales in the Balaenopteridae family (commonly known as rorqual whales) have undergone sympatric speciation — speciation without clear geographic barriers between them — despite ongoing hybridization, according to new research from investigators in Sweden and Germany.

System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes

Reported as:

“The patterns of synaptic connections perfectly mirror the fundamental differences in the feeding behaviours of P. pacificus and C. elegans”, Ralf Sommer concludes. A clear-cut result like that was not what he had necessarily expected.

Neo-Darwinian theorists and other biologically uniformed pseudoscientists have failed to use any common sense in attempts to link what organisms eat from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained biodiversity.  For comparison, serious scientists have forced the denuclearization of North Korea by reminding others to start with what is known about how food energy-dependent autophagy protects all life on Earth from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…as a reviewer, it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 …appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used.

Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.

See: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptations vs the randomness of evolution (3)

Summary: Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
Serious scientists will meet during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018 to discuss the overwhelming amount of human idiocy exemplified in the works of theorists who failed to learn that life is “All about that base.”
Without the quantized energy-dependent creation of the base pairs, viral latency could not be biophysically constrained and entropy would be used to explain the evolution of biodiversity manifested in sympatric speciation.
See for comparison: The costs of living at the edge: Seasonal stress in wild savanna-dwelling chimpanzees

Adaptations associated with shifting from a predominately forested habitat to a more open environment are considered a crucial step in hominin evolution.

The adaptations are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For example, higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans are an adaptation.
See:  Dehydroepiandrosterone – is the fountain of youth drying out?

…humans are unique in having adrenals that secrete large amounts of the prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEA-S, into the bloodstream of males and females. Even non-human primates produce only ~10% of the DHEA found in humans

Carl Zimmer places everything known about how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptations into the context of human evolution.
See: Hints of Human Evolution in Chimpanzees That Endure a Savanna’s Heat

Millions of years ago, our apelike ancestors gradually moved from woodlands to savannas and began walking upright at some point. The Fongoli chimpanzees demonstrate just how difficult that transition would have been — and how that challenge may have driven some major changes in our evolution, from evolving sweat glands to losing fur and walking upright.

Before she graduated from her medical technologist course (circa 2014), I mentioned to Misty ______ the importance of  β-lactamase testing to understanding how the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs would soon be linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via antibiotic susceptibility testing in the hospital medical laboratory.
Shared strategies for β-lactam catabolism in the soil microbiome

A hydrolase from the put operon was found to degrade in vitro benzylpenicilloic acid, the β-lactamase penicillin product.

This clearly exemplifies how the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in β-lactamase positive organisms is linked to antibiotic resistance via what all serious scientists know about the molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent cell type differentiation.
The findings were reported in the ridiculous context of claims about How Bacteria Eat Penicillin

…some of the bacteria could, in fact, eat the drugs… As it turned out, they were everywhere. He also found examples of the phenomenon in the scientific literature going back to the 1960s.

In 1964, McEwen et al, linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from Schrödinger’s claims in What is Life? (1944) to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA. Now, others like McEwen know that RNA interference biophysically constrains viral latency.
In 1968, Frohlich speculated that the highly ordered storage of quantized energy in species from microbes to humans linked hydrogen-atom transfer to the functional structure of cell membranes via the hydrogen bonds of molecules, or other dipolar constituents, which he linked to the shared energy supply that biophysically constrains life.
Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
See also: UTX-mediated enhancer and chromatin remodeling suppresses myeloid leukemogenesis through noncatalytic inverse regulation of ETS and GATA programs

By integrating proteomic and genomic analyses, we link these changes to UTX regulation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, coordination of the COMPASS complex and enhanced pioneering activity of ETS factors during evolution to AML.

They linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of ATP to chromatin remodeling during the evolution of pathology, which all serious scientists know is biophysically constrained by the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)

A study of the influence of pheromone stressor(s) on proliferating germ and somatic cells was performed on laboratory lines of house mouse in the context of the physiological hypothesis of mutation process, proposed by M.E. Lobashev in 1947. Data from experiments are presented, and results obtained during last 10-15 years are discussed. The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.

The interorganism systems of genetic regulation have since been placed into the context of sympatric speciation by all serious scientists.
See: Direct estimation of mutations in great apes reveals significant recent human slowdown in the yearly mutation rate
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants

Plenty of Room at the Bottom

Environmental selection is natural selection (2)

I believe that if you put enough biologically uniformed theorists in the same room, they will invent more theories to support the pseudoscientific nonsense they have touted in the past. See for example:

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk

Acknowledgments

The synthesis presented here is a product of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s 2017 annual meeting, as the ideas came together in the session entitled “Beringia and the Dispersal of Modern Humans to the Americas.”
 

Every aspect of every level of biophysically constrained food energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect is placed back into the context of a ridiculous theory of human migration and evolution. The theory accurately attests to the link from one food energy-dependent base pair change to biodiversity in human populations via fixation of one amino acid substitution. But then, something goes horribly wrong.

The theory requires the fixation of the amino acid substitution to automagically occur in the context of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy. The theory fails to mention the fact that the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and the microRNA-mediated creation of all cell types in all living genera is required.

See for comparison: Anything published since the time I learned about the importance of microRNAs during the 2012 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in New Orleans, LA.

From 2000/10/15 to 2012/10/15 microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 19910

From 2012/10/15 to 2018/04/26 microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 53458

The number of biologically informed serious scientists who have linked the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria continues to rapidly increase.

This begs the question: When will biologically uninformed science idiots stop attending meetings that facilitate their attempts to invent more ridiculous theories?

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

MicroRNA-mediated denuclearization

Kim Says North Korea Is Stopping Nuclear and Missile Tests

Early today, he said the country was stopping nuclear and missile tests and shuttering its atomic test site, which has “done its job.” Those concessions were long demanded by the U.S., lifting hopes that next Friday’s planned summit between Kim and South Korean President Moon Jae-in will be conducted in good faith.

Added Perspective
Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events
Viruses do not emerge. They adapt in the context of proton gradients and microRNA-mediated changesin energy-dependent protein folding chemistry. The food energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions links interspecies re-assortment events to healthy longevity.
See for comparison: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses
The ability of researchers in South Korea to create genetically modified viruses with increased pathogenicity links quantum physics from virus-driven energy theft to the degradation of messenger RNA and extinctions in many different populations of extinct organisms during the past 6,000 years.
See: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

The population of North Korea could have been the next to be decimated by a genetically engineered virus if Kim Jong Un had not agreed to denuclearization.
See also: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA [mtDNA] recombination dogma

…studies dealing with human variation and evolution have assumed that human mtDNA does not recombine and should be considered as pathological or very infrequent. Using both direct and indirect approaches, we provide consistent evidence of mtDNA recombination in humans.

Food energy-dependent mtDNA recombination in humans appears to protect all organized genomes in all extant human populations. mtDNA recombination may be the best protection from extinction that any species already has.  Given what is known to serious scientists about cell type differentiation, the link from light-activated endogenous substrates and the physiology of reproduction in all living genera causes many people to ridicule the assumptions still touted in the context of theories invented by neo-Darwinian theorists.
See also: Mechanisms of Recombination conference

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

2018 March for Science vs microRNAs

Summary: Only biologically uninformed theorists and other pseudoscientists do not seem to know that all carbon-based life is quantized energy-dependent and that biophotonic energy as information comes from the sun. It is obvious to all serious scientists that proton gradients link photons from quantized energy as information to the proton motive force, which is how the potential of hydrogen (pH) is linked to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution that must be linked to supercoiled DNA.
The Second March for Science a Smaller Affair

…the events are not devoid of politics—either on signs or in rhetoric.

“It is a remarkable outpouring of scientists to talk about the marvelous accomplishments of science, the amazing relevance of science, and a call for defending the conditions under which science can thrive.” — Rush Holt, the CEO of the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Science is not thriving. See for comparison: All in the (bigger) family (2015)

…at a special symposium of the annual meeting of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology, researchers reported new parallels between these two very successful groups of animals and new insights about what it took for an ancient crustacean to give rise to insects.

Energy-dependent microRNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency was required. The scientific facts about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency and microRNA-mediated sympatric speciation probably contributed most to the reduced turnout at the ridiculous Marches for Science. All serious scientists know that science is not thriving, and pseudoscientists are finding out.
This is serious science: miRNA regulation of innate immunity

In this review, we discuss the contributory pathways and mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence the development of innate immunity and fine-tune immune response. Moreover, we discuss the consequence of deregulated miRNAs and their pathogenic implications.

Who needs more proof that neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists are biologically uninformed science idiots?
When George Church reported in this interview that cyanobacteria fix light, he left no room for ridiculous claims about the emergence of energy or claims about mutation-driven evolution. Two months later, most theorists skipped the Marches.
I believe they probably stayed home and attempted to rewrite their grant proposals. But what I believe doesn’t matter. I can’t prove that they’ve been forced by serious scientists to eliminate “evolution” and/or their automagical “evolutionary processes” from the content/context.
But see at 15:10

“…the cyanobacteria turn out that they fix light ah as well or better than land plants…”

See for comparison, from the transcript:

The cyanobacteria fix [carbon via] light as well or better than land plants. Under ideal circumstances, they can be maybe seven to ten times more productive per photon.

Only biologically uninformed theorists and other pseudoscientists do not seem to know that all carbon-based life is quantized energy dependent and that biophotonic energy as information comes from the sun. It is obvious to all serious scientists that proton gradients link photons from quantized energy as information to the proton motive force, which is how the potential of hydrogen (pH) is linked to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution that must be linked to supercoiled DNA.
Theorists have been left behind and anyone who participated in the 2018 March for Science has revealed their overwhelming ignorance. Why didn’t George Church warn them? Richard Feynman did:
See: Food energy  for Feynman’s claim about human idiocy.
Alternatively, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
See also: A 360 degrees view of circular RNAs: From biogenesis to functions

The pre-mRNA splicing machinery generates circRNAs via backsplicing reactions, which are often facilitated by intronic repeat sequences that base pair to one another and bring the intervening splice sites into close proximity.

See also: Dr. Gene Nelson wrote:  “This year, I printed 500 copies of the handout that I wrote regarding CGNP’s battle with the CPUC and the plant’s owner. I returned with about 490 handouts.”
On April 19, 2018 “From Layout to Multi-Physics: Integrating Thermal and Photonics Simulation into the PIC Design Flow” will link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to thermal cycling.
The thermal cycles have been linked to cracks in the Vietnam Memorial Wall. This free Webinar will almost undoubtedly place the eternal significance of “The Wall” into the context of the eternal significance of microRNAs, which repair DNA damage in carbon-based life forms. Damage repair via the food energy-dependent creation of microRNAs is linked to the eternal significance of differences between organic and inorganic chemistry.
For instance, quantum physics can be linked to the biophysically constrained production of uranium isotopes by the physiology of reproduction in bacteria. And, the use of uranium isotopes in therapy attests to the fact that the unconstrained energy causes cracks in the human genome. The “cracks” are manifested in radiation-induced pathologies.
Treating glioblastoma with radiation may be ill-advised. For comparison, microRNA-mediated therapy has emerged as an effective treatment regimen based on naturally occurring prevention of all pathology.

Pseudoscientists are willing to let Vietnam Veterans and others with glioblastoma suffer unnecessarily and die prematurely. The pseudoscientists won’t admit that food energy-dependent changes in microRNAs have been linked to the stability of all organized genomes via sympatric speciation in all living genera.
 
 
 
There is no such thing as a de novo mutation. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked from mutations to all pathology via the death gene, which was discovered during the early 1990s by researchers who worked for Abcam.
See: Epigenetic modifications poster
See for comparison: A Crack in Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution

Why is Jennifer Doudna still touting controlled evolution at a time when other serious scientists have linked every aspect of the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to the epigenetically modified physiology of reproduction and all ecological adaptations? What hasn’t she learned about biophysically constrained microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans?
See: When the Most Potent Combination of Antibiotics Selects for the Greatest Bacterial Load: The Smile-Frown Transition (April 23, 2013)

Finding the most potent combinations of antibiotics in the lab can be a challenge if antibiotic interactions are not robust to evolutionary adaptation.

For nearly 5 years serious scientists have watched theorists try to escape from the traps that were set by their predecessors. All intelligent people now realize that there is no such thing as evolution of a new species. There is only ecological variation and quantized energy-dependent ecological adaptations to the virus-driven theft of quantized energy that comes from sunlight and sustains the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera.
Reported as: The XV Collection: What Happens when the Antibiotic 1-2 Punch Backfires? (April 13, 2018)

Antibiotic-resistant mutants readily arise within almost any population of bacteria. If a population containing both susceptible and resistant mutants is treated with two antibiotics, the susceptible majority is, as expected, rapidly wiped out. But this also removes any competition for the resistant minority, enabling them to quickly grow and proliferate.

The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria biophysically constrains the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links antibiotic resistance from mutations to all pathology.
Reported on June 14, 2013 as: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

That extension of the vertebrate/mammalian model to invertebrates occurred as researchers integrated what was known about human pheromones and their effects on neuroendocrine systems during the development of human behavior (Kohl et al., ). Invertebrate research rapidly progressed to include the epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression and on hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavioral transitions throughout life (Elekonich & Roberts, ), which is consistent with their epigenetic effects throughout the life of vertebrates, including mammals.

The honeybee model organism exemplifies what has been learned from the study of invertebrates (De Loof, Lindemans, Liu, De Groef, & Schoofs, ). This includes what has been learned about the epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on juvenile hormone (JH).

See also: Pursuing Preprints, Preventing Pandemics: How pre-peer review posting can accelerate outbreak science

Preprints are scientific manuscripts posted online prior to or concurrent with submission for peer review and publication in a scientific journal. They offer opportunities to share data and findings sooner and to get broader community feedback before publication. During outbreaks, decisions that can save lives must often be made quickly and with little information. The fast, open nature of preprint posting can help address these needs.

The posting of most preprints on the bioRxiv server obfuscates what is known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent microRNA-mediated sympatric speciation. The consistent focus of most preprints places the findings into the context of evolution because that is what biologically uninformed theorists have been taught to believe in.

Until everyone admits that the creation of microRNAs is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, the ability to respond to urgent and complex health challenges will be placed into the ridiculous context of evolutionary processes.

See for exception:  A transmissible RNA pathway in honey bees

…RNA extracted from worker and royal jellies harbor differential naturally occurring RNA populations. Some of these RNAs corresponded to honey bee protein-coding genes, transposable elements, non-coding RNA and exogenous viruses. These results reveal an inherent property of honey bees to share RNA among individuals and generations. Thus, our findings suggest a transmissible RNA pathway, playing a role in social immunity and epigenetic dynamics among honey bees and potentially other closely interacting organisms.

See for comparison: SLC6A4 binding site and acute prosocial effects of (+/-)-3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are evolutionarily conserved in Octopus bimaculoides

Human and octopus lineages are separated by over 500 million years of evolution, and show divergent anatomical patterns of brain organization.

No experimental evidence of top-down causation or energy-dependent RNA interference suggests separation of the lineages by 500 million years of evolution.

See for comparison: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction

From the concluding paragraph:

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000).

See also: See Diamond et al., 1996: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Elekonich and Robinson (2000) linked our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to the honeybee model of food energy-dependent biophysically constrained biodiversity.

Effects of hormones on brain and behavior occur through three mechanisms: (1) behaviors both organized and activated by hormones, (2) behaviors only organized by hormones, and (3) behaviors only activated by hormones (reviewed in Arnold and Breedlove, 1985; Diamond et al., 1996).”

See also: Honey bees as a model for understanding mechanisms of life history transitions

In this review we discuss the physiological and genetic mechanisms of this behavioral transition, which include large scale changes in hormonal activity, metabolism, flight ability, circadian rhythms, sensory perception and processing, neural architecture, learning ability, memory and gene expression.

See also: IAPV, a bee-affecting virus associated with Colony Collapse Disorder can be silenced by dsRNA ingestion (2009)

Here we report on RNAi-silencing of IAPV infection by feeding bees with double-stranded RNA, as an efficient and feasible way of controlling this viral disease. The association of CCD with IAPV is discussed, as well as the potential of controlling CCD.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Less evolvable RNA-mediated ecological adaptations

No experimental evidence of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation supports the claim about “…the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation…” The overwhelming systems complexity of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cause and effect can no longer be placed into the context of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists. Watch Andrea Wagner’s group try to escape from the claims made by losers.
But first see: Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

RNA-mediated gene regulation is less evolvable than transcriptional regulation

…nucleic acid binding sites of RNA-mediated gene regulation are less evolvable than those of transcriptional regulation. This observation is consistent with the high levels of mRNA target conservation for RBPs (10, 82, 83) and the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation (84⇓–86) as well as their role in the evolution of myriad adaptations and innovations (11, 87, 88).

It is obvious to anyone who has followed the works of Andreas Wagner that his group has reached an impasse.
See: Evolution of Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting (2012)

We found that young de novo genes have a different codon usage from the rest of the genome.

There is no such thing as a de novo gene.
See: From de novo to “de nono”: most novel protein coding genes identified with phylostratigraphy represent old genes or recent duplicates

I collectively refer to the putative de novo genes that failed to pass the validation criteria as the ‘de nono’ genes.

See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations only in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. That fact is now perfectly clear in the context of more than 71,000 indexed published works that link the energy-dependent creation of ATP synthase to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA in the context of McEwen et al., (1964) and Frohlich (1968).
People like Andreas Wagner are stuck with their ridiculous claims about evolution, when all serious scientists know that only the hecatombic evolution of virus-driven pathology is possible. Healthy longevity requires food energy-dependent biophysically constrained polycombic ecological adaptations. The metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones links RNA-mediated autophagy to all biodiversity. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to all pathology.
Andreas Wagner reversed every aspect of what is known in: Arrival of the Fittest: Solving Evolution’s Greatest Puzzle (2014)

…he has found that adaptations are not just driven by chance, but by a set of laws that allow nature to discover new molecules and mechanisms in a fraction of the time that random variation would take.

See for comparison: Kohl’s Laws of Biology in Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)

Life is nutrient-dependent. That is a Biological Law. The ecological origin of all biological laws is apparent 1) in the context of systems biology (P. Kohl, et al., 2010); 2) in the context of the metabolism of nutrients by microbes (K. D. Kohl, 2012); and 3) in the context of how the metabolism of nutrients results in species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction (J. Kohl, Ostrovsky, Frechter, & Jefferis, 2013). Taken together, the systems biology of nutrient metabolism to species-specific pheromones, which control the physiology of reproduction, can be expressed in a summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2012; M. Lynch, 2007). The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2013). In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior (J. V. Kohl, et al., 2001), which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences (J.V. Kohl, 2007).

Andreas Wagner, and others like him, will probably continue to misrepresent what is known about how the creation of sunlight must be linked to food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction by natural selection for codon optimality. But the facts about how energy must be linked to increasing organismal complexity are not going to change.
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
and/or Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

 
 
 

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

The tipping point (revisited): 68,000 publications

MicroRNA  Items: 1 to 20 of 68011 (earlier today, on 12/21/17)

See for example: In Vitro Validation of miRNA-Mediated Gene Expression Linked to Drug Metabolism 12/20/17

The approaches described can be employed broadly for the validation of miRNA-mediated negative regulation of any gene. Determining miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism is a critical step in designing personalized therapy and for understanding the mechanisms responsible for variations in the responses to therapeutic agents.

The “…miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism…” links the National Microbiome Initiative to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to all healthy longevity or to all virus-driven pathology in all living genera via differences in energy as information.
For review, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

For a historical perspective on what is known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated (aka microRNA-mediated) cell type differentiation, see:
The quantum / classical RNA-mediated ‘tipping point’ 3/26/15
The tipping point? 50, 000 publications 5/16/16
The tipping point? 50, 000 publications (2) 5/16/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (3) 5/17/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (4) 5/26/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (5) 7/27/16
The tipping point (revisited): 60,000 4/20/17
By May 16, 2016, the innate antiphage defense strategy was linked from quantum physics to classical physics by 50,000 publications that mentioned microRNAs. Nineteen months later, every aspect of the microRNA-mediated gene expression that had already been linked to drug metabolism attests to the fact that not all scientists have followed the extant literature.
Many scientists are still among the pseudoscientists who who failed to notice the most obvious links from the antiphage defense strategy to healthy longevity. Perhaps they were also too busy to notice the most obvious links from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to the need for drug therapies.
If so, that may explain why the drug therapies have been largely ineffective. The drug therapies may be like vaccinations. They appear to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to more mutations, which clearly link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology.
With more than 18,000 published works in the past 19 months, (8,000 in the past 8 months) it is time to again address the tipping point between quantum physics and classical physics in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation via what is known about autophagy.
In the context of drug metabolism, the energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation of enzymes was linked from the metabolism of food to all biodiversity on Earth via pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See for example page 19 of the sample report from Alpha Genomix that you can download as a pdf here. The food energy-dependent creation of the CYP enzymes protects our organized genome by biophysically constraining viral latency.

See for comparison: Our Top 17 in ’17: The Year in Science at PLOSBLOGS 

…the far-reaching war on science being conducted by the Trump administration, an assault on facts which, as several of our bloggers have noted, constitutes a removal of scientific evidence from the formation and discussion of public policy and an evisceration of funding and communication of vital research in medical research and regulation, public health, climate, energy, agriculture and education.

The only war on science that I know about, is the one in which serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease. To place that claim into the context of what has happened during 2017, see the retraction of this article.
Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living [retracted]
It was retracted because the authors mentioned the creator of the hand. The creation of the hand occurs only in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.

See for comparison: Retraction Watch

In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

Where else besides PLOS have you seen a retraction for the mention of a creator? Where did PLOS report on the retraction for misrepresentations in “Nature Chemistry?” Who still believes that microRNA and messenger RNAs created each other so that they could automagically constrain viral latency?
Who else besides PLOS is waging a far-reaching war on science?
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems 4/10/14

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

Obama Advisers Urge Action Against CRISPR Bioterror Threat 11/17/16

Scientific advisers to President Obama warn that the U.S. urgently needs a new biodefense strategy and should regularly brief President-elect Donald Trump on the dangers posed by new technologies like CRISPR, gene therapy, and synthetic DNA, which they say could be coöpted by terrorists.

See for comparison:  2017 Global Infectious Diseases Threats to the United States 12/22/16

Flu.  Influenza remains one of the greatest threats to the US population killing on average 3,000-49,000 Americans annually.  People at the greatest risk of severe flu and death are pregnant women, residents of long-term care facilities, the very old (adults over the age of 65), the very young (children less than 2), Native American populations, and those with underlying chronic conditions such as asthma, COPD, heart disease, obesity, and other conditions.  Timely vaccination remains the most proven and effective way to avoid serious injury from influenza.

The new Trump Administration will face a formidable array of global and indigenous infectious disease threats in 2017.  A Global Health Security Agenda will help provide a framework for tackling some of these tough issues, but enhanced efforts will be needed to prevent new epidemics, especially from vector-borne and zoonotic neglected tropical diseases, measles, and the ever-constant threats from AMR and flu.

The biggest threat that the Trump administration has faced in the first year is the fake news. The most recent example accused him of censorship at the CDC for his director’s efforts to biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency. The CDC director’s efforts to help others with budget concerns were linked to censorship, and the President of the United States was compared to Hitler. Wake up and “Remember the Alamo.”
SARCASM ALERT: No, that was a different war. Wake up and remember the Manhattan Project, which also linked censorship about energy to the winning of a war.

Difference in the network of hydrogen bonds between high- and low-altitude Hb variants, HH-H and LL-L, respectively

The α1 and β1 subunits of HH-H (light blue) and LL-L (light red) are superimposed, and van der Waals radii are shown for α-chain residues that are in atomic contact with β-chain residues of the opposing α2β2 dimer.

The overwhelming ignorance of sex researchers

Summary: J. Michael Bailey, and others like him, pretend to not know how non-coding variants are epigenetically linked from differences in hydrogen bonds to all energy-dependent biophysically constrained morphological and behavioral phenotypes.

Genome-Wide Association Study of Male Sexual Orientation [Energy-dependent changes in biophysically constrained viral latency]

We identified several [energy-dependent changes in] SNPs with p < 10−5, including regions of multiple supporting SNPs on chromosomes 13 (minimum p = 7.5 × 10−7) and 14 (p = 4.7 × 10−7). The genes nearest to these peaks have functions plausibly relevant to [biophysically constrained viral latency and] the development of  sexual orientation.

Reported as: Gene variants identified that may influence sexual orientation in men and boys

The findings by the team do not settle the argument of whether homosexuality in people is biology-based, but instead offers more evidence that suggests it is likely the case. Prior studies that looked at family histories have also offered some evidence of biology playing a role while other studies have found some differences in chromosomes. In this study, the number of samples tested was too small to offer conclusive evidence—larger studies will have to be undertaken to solidify the evidence.

I was not surprised to see J. Michael Bailey listed as a co-author. He is a biologically uninformed pseudoscientist and a passive/aggressive antagonist.

It’s been more than 4 years since food energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution were linked to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

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Sex researchers like J. Michael Bailey, are still among the majority of those who have paid no attention to the extant literature since the time we published this 1996 review in Hormones and Behavior (with a section on molecular epigenetics.)

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).

All serious scientists know that everyone else must also start with differences in the quantized energy of hydrogen to get from epigenetic modifications to differences in morphological and behavioral phenotypes. Serious scientists also know that social science is pseudoscience and that pseudoscientific nonsense is the cause of all preventable unnecessary suffering and premature death.

See for instance:

1) Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin
2) Mutation-Driven Evolution
and my refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense. All three were published on June 14, 2013.
3) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
Please join the other serious scientists who have been quietly ridiculing people like J. Michael Bailey for more than 20 years.

QuEBS workshop has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has been developed in Lithuania for more than 20 years already. The beginnings could be associated with a series of “Light-harvesting Physics” international conferences, which were held in Lithuania (in Preila, 1992 and 1994, and in Birštonas, 1996). During these conferences, discussion of notable scientists and pioneers of Quantum Biology, such as Graham R. Fleming, Shaul Mukamel, Rienk van Grondelle, Richard Cogdell, Alfred Holzwarth and others, established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.

Light harvesting is the source of energy-dependent changes in hydrogen that link physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics to accurate representations of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. All aspects of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation have been virtually ignored by J. Michael Bailey, who is the proud owner of the Sexnet listserver. It has been a consistent source of misinformation for all participants during the past two decades.
See for comparison my comments on: Evolution of a Vertebrate Social Decision-Making Network
1)

Re: Cause and effect. How could it not be the adaptive evolution from yeasts of the ligand-receptor binding exemplified across species by the conservaton of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and diversification of its receptor? Model organisms like the threespine stickleback make clear the involvement of ecological niche construction. The honeybee invertebrate model organism makes clear the involvement of the nutrient dependent ecological niche in construction of the pheromone-dependent social niche. Invertebrate and vertebrate models collectively attest to the common molecular biology of adaptively evolved social decision-making networks. In mammals, the hypothalamic neurogenenic niche (probably located in the MPOA) responds to nutrients to enable fertility and responds to pheromones to enable sexual reproduction that has adaptively evolved from its origins in brewer’s yeast. Never before has there been such a clear reprentation of cause and effect across species from microbes to man, where nutrient chemicals calibrate the intracellular signaling and their metabolism to pheromones standardizes and controls the stochastic gene expression required for reproduction. Gene expression enables adaptive evolution of the brain and ensures that our ability to acquire nutrient chemicals is the first priority for reproduction via appropriate social behaviors, as it is in every species. For example, microbes eat the DNA of heterospecifics but not conspecifics, which indicate more social sense than what some people today are capable of recognizing in the design of biology (the evolved gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway that directly links sensory input to the mammalian neuroendocrine system and the hormones responsible for our behavior, which activates the same ‘organized’ pathway).

2)
Re: The Intersection of Neurotoxicology and Endocrine Disruption. NeuroToxicology, Bernard Weiss

Abstract excerpts: …hormones help steer the process of brain development.

…sex differences in behavior are primarily the outcomes of differences in how the brain is sexually differentiated during early development by gonadal hormones (the Organizational Hypothesis).

… environmental chemicals are capable of altering these underlying events and processes. Among those chemicals, the group labeled as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) offers the clearest evidence of such selectivity… —————– I have terminally argued to conclusion that the clearest evidence of chemicals that alter the underlying events and processes of brain development and its sexual differentiation are the nutrient chemicals and pheromones responsible for the adaptive evolution of species from microbes to man.

Focus on endocrine disruption establishes what happens when toxic chemicals alter the same events and processes of brain development and its sexual differentiation via epigenetic effects on gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) pulsatility, luteinizing hormone, olfactory bulb neurogenesis, hippocampal neurogenesis, learning, and memory in vertebrates.

For contrast, I’ve modeled the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on homeostasis and species diversification, and for many years, my friend Teresa Binstock and co-author (e.g., with Milton Diamond)stressed the importance of endocrine disruption (specifically due to bisphenol A and phthalates) on J. Michael Bailey’s “Sexnet”. Now that the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization, which link sensory input from the environment directly to behavior via intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression, have been clarified by work with model organisms, I look forward to learning if there are any reasons to avoid the incorporation of current information on endocrine disruption into existing studies of the homeostatic development of human sexual behavior.

Comparing typical and atypical epigenetic effects that appear to extend to those that are transgenerational seems even more important now than in 1996.

Kohl, J.V. (2012) Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2: 17338

See also: Open Chromatin Profiling in hiPSC-Derived Neurons Prioritizes Functional Noncoding Psychiatric Risk Variants and Highlights Neurodevelopmental Loci

Our study shows that noncoding disease variants in OCRs can affect neurodevelopment, and that analysis of open chromatin regions can help prioritize functionally relevant noncoding variants identified by GWAS.

After Alan R. Sanders and others published this, the claims in Genome-Wide Association Study of Male Sexual Orientation can be viewed in the context of two decades of false claims and pleas for more funding.

Conclusion:

In this study, the number of samples tested was too small to offer conclusive evidence—larger studies will have to be undertaken to solidify the evidence.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Who created your virus-driven death gene? (1)

My conclusion: … they know the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy must be linked across the space-time continuum to control of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

The so-called “death gene” is is the most obvious teleological link I have found from Luca Turin’s vibrations theory of olfaction to repair of the damaged DNA of other animals, such as non-human primates.Theology creeps back in and helps to establish the teleological link at every level of examination from electrons to ecosystems. That suggests teleology should not be ignored in the context of its explanatory power.

For example, less than one month after publication of my refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense, “RNA catalyses nuclear pre-mRNA splicing” was reported in the context of “Composition of splicing complex in chloroplasts identified for the first time

See also: One Gene, Two Mutations from November 5, 2013

My comment to The Scientist:

In my model, nutrient stress and thermal stress result in cycles of protein biosynthesis and de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. These seemingly futile thermodynamic cycles enable nutrient uptake and cell survival. If not, the cell dies.
Thermal stress causes what happens in nutrient stress, which exemplifies the innate ability of cells to epigenetically adapt to their sensory environment via nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction sans mutations.
If mutations caused the adaptations, cancer would be an adaptation instead of a disease.  The problem is that most people still think in terms of mutations, not nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptations. Now we have mutations causing mutations sans selection, which is what happens when you don’t consider physics or biology,  and explain what happens as if it fit a theory of mutation-driven evolution, which it does not.
No budget video

Also see: C. elegans discriminate colors without eyes or opsins

“…nematode worms possess a color discrimination system despite lacking any opsin or other known visible light photoreceptor genes. We found that white light guides C. elegans foraging decisions away from harmful bacteria that secrete a blue pigment toxin. Absorption of amber light by this blue pigment toxin alters the color of light sensed by the worm, and thereby triggers an increase in avoidance. By combining narrow-band blue and amber light sources, we demonstrated that detection of the specific blue:amber ratio by the worm guides its foraging decision. These behavioral and psychophysical studies thus establish the existence of a color detection system that is distinct from those of other animals.”

The pseudoscientific nonsense that tries and fails to link mutations to evolution via any conserved molecular mechanisms is left behind by the fact that foraging behavior is required to link what organisms eat to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and behavior. The transgenerational epigenetic inhertance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes links ecological variation to ecological adaptation via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, which must be linked to RNA-mediated DNA repair.

See also: Fast-Paced Evolution in the Andes by Carl Zimmer Nov. 7, 2013

The speed of evolution also refutes mutation-driven evolution and supports my model, which was published on June 14, 2013. Zimmer and others like him are still trying to sneak up from behind.
See also: Mosaic Copy Number Variation in Human Neurons November 1, 2013
Their “straightforward hypothesis” is simple-minded. It links energy-dependent alterations in transcriptional or epigenetic landscapes to neurons with different molecular phenotypes in different genomes.
The mosaic copy number variation arises in humans as if by magic, without any link to the facts detailed in my model.
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model June 14, 2013

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

It is disingenuous to claim that their straightforward hypothesis is anything but a face-saving attempt that will allow them to claim “We knew it all along.” That’s what biologically uninformed science idiots must say after the new scientific truth is established.
See also: International Society for Human Ethology (ISHE) Summer Institute 2013 Presentation Published on 10 Oct 2013

James V. Kohl integrates hard science disciplines. Topics include nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation.

For comparison, in his conclusion to Mutation-Driven Evolution, Masatoshi Nei claimed that constraint-breaking mutations are the source of all biodiversity, which he thinks should eliminate any intelligent inquiry into the teleological facts.

Here are some teleological facts for comparison: A Concise Review of MicroRNA Exploring the Insights of MicroRNA Regulations in Bacterial, Viral and Metabolic Diseases

Dysregulation of the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance has been clearly linked to activation of the cell “death gene.” The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction offers substantial, albeit not unlimited, protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

Clearly, the amount of money wasted on gene therapy can be placed into the context of what would be spent on prevention of disease in the context of MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy

Anyone who does not have enough money or John McCain’s political clout, may want to consider what can be done to prevent or effectively treat glioblastoma. John McCain and others like him may not be interested in the effective treatment of others and can afford the effective treatment of their own pathology. Other veterans of US military service may not be so fortunate.

See for instance: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene

See also: A $475,000 cancer drug: Wall Street sees ‘bargain’; patients see ‘completely broken’ system

…the astonishing figure reflects a “completely broken” drug pricing system in the U.S.

See for comparison: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (4)

Mixing Science and Politics (last year):  When people suddenly find they are among a political party of losers, they must immediately try to explain why they are losers. Some losers will start campaigning for changes that they think might allow them to be something more than they have always been.
 

Electing Trump was a clear signal to the Democrats that they will always be losers — unless they can change the rules. Changing the rules will not make winners out of losers, it will simply make the losers appear to be something they are not.

See: Edward Dostoevsky November 22, 2016

Image may contain: 2 people, text

Serious scientists always knew the number of cards in any deck was limited in the context of the space-time continuum and energy-dependent rules of play. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy and the degradation of messenger RNA establishes the limits to how long the game can be played before the rules are enforced at the level of energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems. See: Cytosis
 
See also this information on the game Subatomic
 
Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available atoms.
Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker…

When the virus-driven theft of quantized energy eliminates any energy you have stored, it’s game over. You cannot simply take another card and you have no more chances to win. Pseudoscientists are the losers. Everyone else on Earth wins.

Interrogating marine virus-host interactions and elemental transfer with BONCAT and nanoSIMS-based methods

Their conclusion attests to the fact that they know the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy must be linked across the space-time continuum to control of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

See also: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Pheromones biophysically constrain RNA-mediated biodiversity (1)

Elaine Morgan on paradigm shifts. Her view of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists is humorous and she accurately represents what’s been happening to me and others like me for the past two decades. It’s what we expect. It’s your choice to keep laughing about it.

See for comparison: Functional screening in human cardiac organoids reveals a metabolic mechanism for cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest
Reported as: Scientists have identified the metabolic pathway associated with heart repair

Scientists identified the pathway using experiments performed on engineered heart tissues grown from stem cells. Following a study that mapped the pathways found in mouse hearts, this new study correlated those pathways to the human heart, identifying the specific pathway in human heart tissues. By profiling and comparing heart with and without regeneration capacity, the specific pathway was isolated.

See also: Metabolism switch signals end for healing hearts

Dr Hudson’s team is now working with a company to identify drugs that could re-activate the heart’s ability to self-repair.

The pathway is food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. That fact is obvious and it attests to the fact that the pathway is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links the fixation of amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity in all living genera. Drug therapies typically do not lead to fixation of amino acid substitutions or to healthy longevity.
For comparison, see: Assessment of Pep, Fndc5, C2c12, Pgc1α Pattern of Genes Expression during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Heart Cells

The mouse embryonic stem cells as a model for cardiac differentiation induced by ascorbic acid used and the pattern of expression of PEP at certain stages of differentiation were analyzed by Real-Time PCR technique.

This suggests ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may be essential for the biophysical constraints on the creation of amino acids that differentiate cell types. But see: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

For contrast to the claim the amino acid compositions evolve see:
Figures 1-3 are examples of what is known about learning and memory in the context of brain waves and everything else known about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Figure 1: The amino acid sequence encoded by the gene FNDC5.
Figure 2: Structure of N-terminal and C-terminal gene FNDC5 the region.
Figure 3: How FNDC5 gene and PGC1a neuron in the human brain functions.
In an invited review of nutritional epigenetics, I linked exogenous vitamin C to levels of endogenous vitamin C and differences in the amino acid sequence to human brain functions via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in a population of modern humans in Central China.
See: Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China
See also: Stability of bioactive compounds in butiá (Butia odorata) fruit pulp and nectar

Pulp pasteurization resulted in a reduction in phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and ascorbic acid contents.

If the ascorbic acid/vitamin C content of “Sago-Type Palms” was not reduced by pasteurization, Vitamin C and phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid would be the most likely link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to plant microRNAs, which helped to stabilize the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance in specific human populations. Vitamin C in one population. Phenolics, flavonoids and or carotenoids et al., in others.
In all cases, all populations must eat to reproduce. Dietary phytochemicals have repeatedly been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency by constraints on cell type differentiation.
See also: Regulation of microRNA using promising dietary phytochemicals: Possible preventive and treatment option of malignant mesothelioma.
I typically do not use “case studies” to explain biologically-based cause and effect. However, there are two probable outcomes linked to the two cases of Cytosis that I purchased:

Pathology: An abnormal increase in the number of undifferentiated cell types

Energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency: (aka biologically-based healthy longevity) in the context of the energy-dependent movement of cells between parts of organisms

The link from the creation of sunlight to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA should be clear to all serious scientists. The link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to biophysically constrained viral latency should be equally clear to anyone who plays the cell biology game “Cytosis” and to anyone who reads this review of nutritional epigenetics.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Conclusion:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations exemplify how sensing nutrients and secreting the metabolites of nutrients accomplishes different tasks. Efficient circuits enable the functional flexibility that is required in ever-changing ecologies that cause species diversity. Biophysical constraints on ecological adaptations are exemplified in physical proof which suggests that Kohl’s Laws of Biology (Kohl’s Laws) represent what Darwin called ‘conditions of life.’

Physical proof of species diversity links ecological variations from nutritional epigenetics to 1) biophysically constrained protein folding via 2) atomic level changes in base pairs (i.e., the nucleotides of DNA); 3) amino acid substitutions; 4) changes in the miRNA/mRNA balance; 5) the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that 6) control the physiology of reproduction, and 7) chromosomal rearrangements that link the reciprocity of these interactions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes manifested in species diversity. Across-species examples of biologically plausible ecologically validated cause and effect link the physical proof from conserved molecular mechanisms of DNA uptake that extends these representations of nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects to differences in pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral human phenotypes.

The plausibility and ecological validity of Kohl’s Laws in the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ can be compared to theories about biologically-based cause and effect in the context of species diversity. In mammals, for example, the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review [30].

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.