5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The eternal significance of microRNAs (8)

Use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation and aging has been replaced by the use of model systems of biological processes.  Biological processes can be compared to so-called “evolutionary processes” to show that only biological processes need to be considered in the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life” or answers to the the question  What is Life? Schrödinger (1944).
K. L. Mettinger et al. (eds.), Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1056, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74470-4_6

This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration.

Chapter 2 The Emerging Roles of microRNAs in Stem Cell Aging

involved in many biological processes such as developmental timing, differentiation, cell death, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, immune response, aging and cancer. Accumulating studies in recent years suggest that miRNAs play crucial roles in stem cell division and differentiation. In the present chapter, we present a brief overview of these studies and discuss their contributions toward our understanding of the importance of miRNAs in normal and aged stem cell function in various model systems.

Chapter 6  MicroRNAs, Regulatory Messengers Inside and Outside Cancer Cells

…like hormones, miRNAs can be secreted and regulate gene expression in recipient cells. Altered expression levels of miRNAs in cancer cells determine the acquisition of fundamental biological capabilities (hallmarks of cancer) responsible for the development and progression of the disease.

Model systems link the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs from microRNA biogenesis to the regulation of all cancer hallmarks. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all cancers and all other pathology in species from microbes to humans. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has been linked to healthy longevity.
See: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See for comparison:  The Neutral Theory in Light of Natural Selection May 2, 2018

…50 years after its introduction by Kimura. We argue that the neutral theory was supported by unreliable theoretical and empirical evidence from the beginning, and that in light of modern, genome-scale data, we can firmly reject its universality. The ubiquity of adaptive variation both within and between species means that a more comprehensive theory of molecular evolution must be sought.

The ubiquity of adaptive variation attests to the facts about how the creation of quantized energy is linked to biophysically constrained viral latency. Adaptive variation links energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera  via the physiology of their food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.

For comparison to mRNA stability during the maternal-to-zygotic transition, see: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

The energy-dependent molecular mechanisms of recombination clearly link microRNA biogenesis to the stability of organized genomes during the life histories of all genera. Serious scientists object to the use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 

An evolutionary theory killer

ATP and RNA-mediated chromosomal stability

Cytosis, a cell biology game for ages 10+ links ATP to viral latency and the protection of all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that serious scientists have linked to all pathology.
It is time for a new measure of cell function: Quantifying Cellular ATP Production Rate…(2018)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most common high energy intermediate of living organisms. Cells utilize the energy derived from the breakdown of cellular fuels to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The free energy released from ATP hydrolysis is then used to sustain various cellular functions such as growth, movement, and response to the environment. Mammalian cells tightly regulate production and consumption of ATP – i.e. supply and demand are balanced to maintain intracellular ATP levels quite constant. Therefore, measuring the rate of ATP production enables a view into cellular function that is not provided by simply measuring the amount of ATP in the cell. The Agilent Seahorse XF Real-Time ATP Production Rate Assay quantifies ATP Production Rates from mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in real time with live cells providing a unique insight into cellular phenotype and function.

See also: Ferrick DA Remember that ATP does not create itself. The creation of ATP and the creation of RNA are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight.
For example: Assessment of drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via altered cellular respiration and acidification measured in a 96-well platform

…respiration and acidification changes upon addition of the thiazoldinediones were cell-type specific, with the rank order of mitochondrial impairment in whole cells being in accord with the known adverse effects of these drugs.

Cell-type specific drugs alter the mitochodrial production of ATP, which alters the production of RNA via changes in the potential of hydrogen (pH).
See also:  Analysis and interpretation of microplate-based oxygen consumption and pH data

…this chapter also provides a detailed accounting of proton production during glucose oxidation in the context of plate-based assays.

Difference in proton production link differences in the energy of photons from the proton motive force and proton gradients to energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Pseudoscientists and other theorists complain about so-called predatory publishing and use their complaints to attack anyone who does not “toe the line” of dogmatic consensus. See for example: OMICS Publishing Group
See also: Prominent Cell Biologist Fired After Data Manipulation Investigation

The University of Tokyo confirmed last August that Yoshinori Watanabe tampered with research-related images, and dismissed him in late April.

In 2015, his group stomped on the toes of biologically uninformed theorists. The group published:
The inner centromere–shugoshin network prevents chromosomal instability

Artificial restoration of the ICS network suppresses chromosome segregation errors in a wide range of CIN+ cells, including RB- and BRCA1-deficient cells. Thus, dysfunction of the ICS network might be a key mechanism underlying CIN in human tumorigenesis.

Food energy-dependent RNA-interference has since emerged as an effective treatment for all chromosomal instability, which appears to be caused by the virus-driven theft of quantized energy.
Additional details about energy-dependent healthy longevity will be found in the Science Behind the Game Subatomic which will link biophysically constrained viral latency from Cytosis to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See also: New EU-wide tests to tackle ‘food apartheid’

…recent comparisons of food samples showed that big Western brands use cheaper ingredients in products sold in former communist countries.

The cheaper ingredients could alter the innate immunity of human populations in former Communist countries, where God-less Communism was supported by ridiculous theories.
See: Darwinian Theory Proved by Video Game? Robert J. Marks Begs to Differ (2017)

We’ve begun developing support materials for teachers and students to help them use ‘Darwin’s Demons’ to demonstrate and teach evolutionary concepts.

A National Science Foundation grant for evolution studies helped pay for the project.

Conclusion:

Adaptation, if anything, demonstrates intelligent design, not Darwinism. Of course they won’t tell you that at the University of Idaho, or most anywhere else. Instead they’ll stick you in front of a video game and tell you the stale, old fable.

Ecological models of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained adaptations have replaced evolutionary concepts except within the school system of the US and other backward countries.
See: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution

…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.

All serious scientist know the difference between evolution and adaptation.
See:  Are Evolution and Adaptation the Same? (2018)
The energy-dependent de novo creation of the cell links ATP to RNA biosynthesis and the physiology of reproduction via food odors and pheromones in the context of this board game.

Cytosis is a worker placement game that takes place inside a Human Cell! Players utilize the organelles within a cell to collect cellular resources such as mRNA from the Nucleus, Lipids from the Smooth E.R., ATP from the Mitochondria, etc. and score points when they use these resources to complete Hormones, Receptors or Enzymes!

It refutes neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense by starting with Darwin’s energy-dependent “conditions of life.”

Conditions of life are mediated by RNA interference. See also: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering 

For God and Country

Abiogenesis vs microRNA biogenesis (2)

All serious scientists learned about Schrödinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944).  All serious scientists have since linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to “negentropy” and healthy longevity.

See also: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

…paving the way for the definitive rejection of the non-recombination dogma for human mtDNA.
 

Recombination is quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.

See the works of those who are scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Duane Gish never published anything that is indexed on the PubMed database. If you claim that he or anyone else like him, including Henry M. Morris (1918–2006)  is a bonafide scientist, please try to support your ridiculous claims in the context of the historical record of more than 72,000 published works that mention “microRNA.”

If you do not start with the creation of microRNAs (microRNA biogenesis), do not try to explain how natural selection for beneficial mutations links evolution to biodiversity. All serious scientists will make fun of you.

See:

Some will continue to use you as an example of human idiocy.

See why: Signatures of negative selection in the genetic architecture of human complex traits

Reported as: Natural selection still at work in humans

“In natural selection, or ‘survival of the fittest’, characteristics that improve survival are more likely to be passed on to the next generation,” Professor Yang said.

“The opposite also occurs, when DNA mutations with a detrimental effect on fitness are less likely to be passed on, by a process called negative selection.

Mutations link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, not from negative selection to evolution.
Case report: detection of the identical virus in a patient presenting with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome encephalopathy and the tick that bit her (April 17, 2018)

Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the SFTSV from the patient and the tick was identical. The patient gradually recovered with treatments of corticosteroids and immunoglobulin.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide further evidence of SFTS viral transmission from H. longicornis to human.

Researchers in South Korea may already know how to protect human populations from the transmission of viruses, which has been linked from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of pathology to the viral hecatomb in the deep sea.
See also: virus south korea
After the USA fought two land-wars in Asia, the uselessness of vaccine in South Korea and the senseless loss of life has been linked from the “creationist capital of the world” to denuclearization via seemingly futile cycles of protein biosynthesis and the virus-driven driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair extend across species in the context of hearing loss and all other pathology via the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+

Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Science, state, and spirituality: Stories of four creationists in South Korea

Supposedly, Duane Gish and Henry M. Morris (1918–2006) were responsible for making South Korea the “creationist capital of the world.”

Hashem Al-Ghaili pits all creationsts claims against his pseudoscientific nonsense in Memories can pass between generations through DNA (video)

If you wish to pit the claims about evolved instincts against my claims about microRNA biogenesis and biophysically constrained viral latency against the the claims of serious scientists from South Korea, start by explaining how Duane Gish linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biodiversity. 

All serious scientists learned about Schrödinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944).  All serious scientists have since linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to “negentropy” and healthy longevity.

See also: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

…paving the way for the definitive rejection of the non-recombination dogma for human mtDNA.
 

Recombination is quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.

See the works of those who are scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Duane Gish never published anything that is indexed on the PubMed database. If you claim that he or anyone else like him, including Henry M. Morris (1918–2006)  is a bonafide scientist, please try to support your ridiculous claims in the context of the historical record of more than 72,000 published works that mention “microRNA.”

If you do not start with the creation of microRNAs (microRNA biogenesis), do not try to explain how natural selection for beneficial mutations links evolution to biodiversity. All serious scientists will make fun of you.

See:

Some will continue to use you as an example of human idiocy.

See why: Signatures of negative selection in the genetic architecture of human complex traits

Reported as: Natural selection still at work in humans

“In natural selection, or ‘survival of the fittest’, characteristics that improve survival are more likely to be passed on to the next generation,” Professor Yang said.

“The opposite also occurs, when DNA mutations with a detrimental effect on fitness are less likely to be passed on, by a process called negative selection.

Mutations link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, not from negative selection to evolution.
Case report: detection of the identical virus in a patient presenting with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome encephalopathy and the tick that bit her (April 17, 2018)

Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the SFTSV from the patient and the tick was identical. The patient gradually recovered with treatments of corticosteroids and immunoglobulin.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide further evidence of SFTS viral transmission from H. longicornis to human.

Researchers in South Korea may already know how to protect human populations from the transmission of viruses, which has been linked from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of pathology to the viral hecatomb in the deep sea.
See also: virus south korea
After the USA fought two land-wars in Asia, the uselessness of vaccine in South Korea and the senseless loss of life has been linked from the “creationist capital of the world” to denuclearization via seemingly futile cycles of protein biosynthesis and the virus-driven driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair extend across species in the context of hearing loss and all other pathology via the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+

Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Indeed, the role of quantized energy as information in information-dependent naturally occurring RNA interference may soon be linked to denuclearization in North Korea (and everywhere else) by the factual representations of researchers from the Republic of South Korea.

See: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses (2018)
The looming threat of the next viral apocolypse is far greater than the nuclear threat, and researchers in South Korea are probably prepared to defend their population of modern humans.
Bill Gates, for comparison, is still touting the use of relatively useless vaccines.
See: Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events (April 16, 2018)

Compared to the G2 RotaTeq vaccine strain, 17-24 amino acid changes, specifically A87T, D96N, S213D, and S242N substitutions in G2 epitopes, were observed. These results suggest that multiple interspecies re-assortment events might have contributed to the emergence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in the post-vaccination era in South Korea.

If researchers in the so-called “creationist capital of the world” decide to genetically engineer a virus and wipe out the less-well ecologically adapted population of modern humans in North Korea, there would be virtually no loss of physical resources. The population of Seoul would benefit most by expanding into more rural areas.
Although this could lead to the futility of another land-war in Asia, it has become clear that everything ends badly. If that was not true, nothing would end. The current threat to anything that might otherwise be considered eternally significant was predicted in the science fiction novel “Quantico” by Greg Bear. It’s not funny any more, but see: Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear
See also: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution (2013) This author’s comment was recently removed:

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

But see the editor’s summary:  Koel et al. (p. 976) show that major antigenic change can be caused by single amino acid substitutions.
The energy-dependent fixation of single amino acid substitutions in viruses has since been linked to all pathology in all living genera via the failure of virus-infected cell types to repair their damaged supercoiled DNA. The late Timothy J. Cunningham knew that as well as anyone. Sadly, he vanished without a trace and was found dead a river near his home several weeks later.

Since then, I was asked to comment on the eternal significance of the Vietnam Memorial Wall. I did not yet mention that thermal cycles have been linked to cracks in the Vietnam Memorial Wall because the article was about the American Veterans Traveling Tribute’s Wall.

I wrote:

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall (The Wall) was built with private contributions from the American people. It stands as a symbol of America’s honor, and to recognize the men and women who served and sacrificed their lives in the Vietnam War. The Wall was designed by the daughter of Chinese intellectuals who fled their homeland before the 1949 Communist takeover. She lives in Athens, Ohio.

The Wall is made up of two panels 246 feet 9 inches long. At it’s highest point the wall is over 10 feet tall. The names of more than 58,000 men and women who gave their lives or remain missing are inscribed on the black granite walls. Names are added when more remains are found.

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall stirs emotion. It can even be somewhat overwhelming to visit. When people looks into the polished volcanic rock of the wall, it reportedly “looks back:” It envelops its visitors in the names of those who lost their lives in a war which lasted nearly two decades.

For the hundreds of thousands of Vietnam veterans who are still alive, it is a place of eternal significance.

The Traveling Vietnam Veterans wall is a 80% sized replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C.

Whether or not you have visited The Wall in Washington, D.C. and/or visited other places of ‘eternal significance,’ you may want to take advantage of the opportunity to see the American Veterans Traveling Tribute’s Traveling Vietnam Wall from May 16-20, 2018 at the Lions Club Fairgrounds 1729 S. Main Street, Ellijay, Georgia 30540.

American Legion Post 82 and the Ellijay Lions Club are the sponsors. American Legion Post 82 will have guides, counselors, and security 24 hrs a day and a computer list to locate where the veterans names are inscribed.

There is no cost to see The Traveling Vietnam Veterans wall. Pencil rubbing of the names can be made just as it can be with the Wall in D.C.

Donations to the American Legion Post 82 Ellijay will be used to help our Veterans and our community.

Biologically uninformed theorists do not understand how researchers in the “creationist capital of the world” have linked the Laws of Thermodynamics to biophysically constrained viral latency. Virus-driven constraint-breaking mutations or nuclear war will almost undoubtedly lead to the death of us all.

Who do you think might save you in a “worst case” scenario? If not for the American Legion, you probably would not have been warned.

Biology to a Physicist

Abiogenesis vs microRNA biogenesis

Summary: The pseudoscientific nonsense about abiogenesis that has been touted by Karo Michaelian and others like him has caused the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions to billions of people by placing the pathogenic consequences of deregulated miRNAs into the context of ridiculous theories.
See for comparison: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the parody from the same research group:
——————————-
Abiogenesis (2017)
Microscopic dissipative structuring and proliferation at the origin of life (Oct 13, 2017)

Some fundamental molecules of life are suggested to have been formed, proliferated, and evolved through photochemical microscopic dissipative structuring and autocatalytic proliferation under the UV-C/UV-B solar environment prevalent at Earth’s surface throughout the Archean. Evidence is given in the numerous salient characteristics of these, including their strong absorption in this spectral region and their rapid non-radiative excited state decay through inherent conical intersections. The examples of the dissipative structuring and dissipative proliferation of the purines and of single strand DNA are given. UV-C and UV-B-induced stationary state isomerizations and tautomerizations are shown to be crucial to the formation of the purines from hydrogen cyanide in an aqueous environment under UV-C light, while UV-C induced phosphorylation of nucleosides and denaturing of double helix RNA and DNA are similarly important to the production and proliferation of single strand DNA. This thermodynamic dissipation perspective provides a physical-chemical foundation for understanding the origin and evolution of life.

The suggestion is ridiculous. No serious scientist would claim that some fundamental molecules of life formed, proliferated, and evolved in the context of thermodynamic dissipation after the UV-C induced phosphorylation of nucleosides and denaturing of double helix RNA and DNA.
The functional structure of supercoiled DNA is energy-dependent.
All serious scientists start with the link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy on contact with water to the creation of ATP synthase; the creation of microRNAs; the creation of all other enzymes; the creation of all receptors; the creation of all hormones. That’s how serious scientists link microRNA biogenesis to all biophysically constrained food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral diversity on Earth.
MicroRNA biogenesis (2018)

The tipping point of 72,000 indexed published works that mention microRNAs was reached on 4/18/18
See: microRNA
Example: Arthropod viruses and small RNAs (2013)

Understanding the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus molecular interactions will facilitate manipulation of these pathways for both management of arthropod pests of agricultural and medical importance, and for protection of beneficial arthropods such as honey bees and shrimp. This review highlights recent research on the role of small RNAs in arthropod host-virus interactions with reference to other host-pathogen systems.

Example: MicroRNAs as mediators of insect host-pathogen interactions and immunity (2014)

In this review, we will discuss the latest developments in regards to the role of microRNA in insect host-pathogen interactions and provide some insights into this rapidly developing area of research.

Example: miRNA regulation of innate immunity (2018)

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNA and are pivotal posttranscriptional regulators of both innate and adaptive immunity. They act by regulating the expression of multiple immune genes, thus, are the important elements to the complex immune regulatory network. Deregulated expression of specific miRNAs can lead to potential autoimmunity, immune tolerance, hyper-inflammatory phenotype, and cancer initiation and progression. In this review, we discuss the contributory pathways and mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence the development of innate immunity and fine-tune immune response. Moreover, we discuss the consequence of deregulated miRNAs and their pathogenic implications.

The pseudoscientific nonsense touted by Karo Michaelian and others like him has caused the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions to billions of people by placing the pathogenic consequences of deregulated miRNAs into the context of ridiculous theories.
See for comparison: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the parody from the same research group:

See also: Michaelian K
and Retraction: Oligoarginine peptides slow strand annealing and assist non-enzymatic RNA replication (Nov 23, 2017)
The life’s works of all those who have ever touted their ridiculous claims about abiogenesis can now be placed into the context of the eternal significance of microRNAs. The energy dependent de novo creation of microRNA flanking sequences has repeatedly been linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation in all living genera.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

See also: Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems (1968)
See also: Cytosis (for ages 10+)

Players take turns placing workers on available organelles within a human cell in order to collect resources (such as Carbohydrates or ATP!) or take actions (such as purchasing Cell Component cards or translating mRNA into Proteins!)

Players use their resources to build Enzymes, Hormones, and Hormone Receptors and also to help detoxify the cell – all of which score health points. The player with the most health points at the end of the game wins!

See for comparison: DNA Denaturing through UV-C Photon Dissipation: A Possible Route to Archean Non-enzymatic Replication (2014)

Many of the fundamental molecules of life, those common to all three domains; bacteria, eukaryote, and archea, including RNA and DNA, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, cofactors, and protoporphyrins, absorb photons in the UV-C 1. RNA or DNA in complexes with these molecules act as acceptor quenchers, providing the electronically excited pigment donor molecule with an extremely rapid (sub picosecond) non-radiative dexcitation channel, through internal conversion into vibrational energy of the nucleic acid and surrounding water molecules2.

On January 15, 2016 John Hewitt commented:  You have just described the founding principle and thermodynamic function of life
On April 17, 2018, I commented on the ridiculous claim this so-called science journalist made because he blocked me from seeing his tweets a few months ago.

achiral-glycine

Energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis

Published May 3, 2017 Genetic variation and RNA structure regulate microRNA biogenesis

…primary sequence determinants and RNA structure are key regulators of miRNA biogenesis.

Genetic variation aka primary sequence determinants are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Energy-dependent RNA methylation is an experience-dependent link from natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links ATP-dependent microRNA biogenesis to RNA biosynthesis.
Ridiculous attempts to portray energy-dependent top-down causation as if genetic variation came first may continue for another 52 years. But see this report from 1964 to help you recognize how much pseudoscientific nonsense has been touted since then.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

If any experimental evidence of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation was not linked from an anti-entropic energy source to nuclear ATP synthesis that experimental evidence might support the claims of pseudoscientists who think that mutations link natural selection to evolution of different species.
See for comparison: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The bias between codons or amino acids, and mRNA expression levels has been previously recognized across species and is thought to result from selection for efficient, accurate translation, and folding of highly expressed genes…

My translation: Natural selection for energy-dependent and energy-efficient protein folding chemistry links what organisms eat to the energy that they require for reproduction via the accurate translation and folding of highly expressed genes.
Alternatively, virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via conserved molecular mechanisms in all living genera. Simply put, the molecular mechanisms of healthy longevity and biodiversity are nutrient energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

The fact that population geneticists have ignored what us known to all serious scientists about the controlled molecular mechanisms that link metabolic networks to genetic networks has led to the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions to billions of people. If you are not willing to join those who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, you probably will be asked why you decide to ignore everything known about the energy-dependent de novo creation of genes. If you did not recognize your ignorance, try to find experimental evidence in the works of evolutionary theorists who did not start after the energy-dependent de novo creation of genes.

So far as I know, all pseudoscientists still consistently place the facts about de novo gene creation, which refute their nonsense about mutation-driven evolution, into the context of their published works. Those works will continue to cause the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions to billions of people.

The fact that experience-dependent genetic variation does not create itself is a thorn in the side of all theorists who now recognize and must ignore the facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. The facts link the energy-dependent RNA-mediated fixation of amino acid substitutions to all biodiversity.

The facts also link mutations to all pathology, which means the facts have always been evolutionary theory killers. The facts haven’t changed since Thomas Hunt Morgan presciently linked them to chromosomal inheritance and Schrodinger presciently linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to RNA-mediated DNA repair.

See also: Exiqon “Genome Web” This link opens the pdf for microRNA target identification by RNA pull down with biotinylated microRNA mimics

Approximately one in five microRNA interactions with mRNAs occur through non-canonical binding sites. Although of functional relevance these microRNA targets are not predicted by bioinformatics tools. Improved RNA pull-down techniques with biotinylated microRNA mimics open new possibilities to identify microRNA targets experimentally.

Download the tech note

My  comment: Although I have repeatedly mentioned works that link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to cell type differentiation and healthy longevity, I had not seen any mention of biotinylation, until today.

In biochemistry, biotinylation is the process of covalently attaching biotin to a protein, nucleic acid or other molecule. Biotinylation is rapid, specific and is unlikely to perturb the natural function of the molecule…

I do not know any theorists who are biochemists and suspect that all the ridiculous theories of pseudoscientists include nothing that is known about biotinylation. That may be why I did not hear the term mentioned, until today. What would happen if I heard it and failed to learn what it meant? God forbid, I might still be a biologically uninformed theorist
See for example: The landscape of sex-differential transcriptome and its consequent selection in human adults

This work provides a comprehensive overview of the sex-differential transcriptome and its importance to human evolution and human physiology in health and in disease.

Reported as: Researchers identify 6,500 genes that are expressed differently in men and women

The detailed map of these genes, reported in BMC Biology, provides evidence that males and females undergo a sort of separate, but interconnected evolution.

I thank God, for not allowing me to believe that males and females are different mutants of the same species.
See for comparison: We are all mutants

Darwin is a god in evolution, so you can’t criticize Darwin. If you do, you’re branded as arrogant.

But any time a scientific theory is treated like dogma, you have to question it. The dogma of natural selection has existed a long time. Most people have not questioned it. Most textbooks still state this is so. Most students are educated with these books.

You have to question dogma. Use common sense. You have to think for yourself, without preconceptions. That is what’s important in science.

Common sense? Masatoshi Nei’s textbook Mutation-Driven Evolution was published on the same day as my 2013 review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, which is a refutation of mutation-driven evolution.

Excerpt:

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution.

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

See for comparison: John Deely, from the Point of View of Biosemiotics

Conclusion:

….his unlimited but judiciously applied enthusiasm, his sterling example as  a scholar, and his inspirational support of semiotic colleagues, institutions, and the ongoing investigation into the reality of sign process at every level of life have been and will remain a force that both inspires and that sets the standard by which our colleagues continue with their important work.

My comment: The reality of sign process at every level of life is that it is energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in species from archaea to humans.

May the anti-entropic force of sunlight be with you

I added a video track to the audio track that already accompanies this presentation.

See also: High-Power Actuation from Molecular Photoswitches in Enantiomerically Paired Soft Springs
Reported as: Molecular switch drives powerful movement by opposing twisting helices

Inspired by the evolutionary strategies that support the movement of plants, the team headed by Stephen P. Fletcher at the University of Oxford (UK) and Nathalie Katsonis at the University of Twente (Enschede, Netherlands) joined together two strips of liquid-crystal elastomers into a pod-like casing. Light-triggered re-arrangement (isomerization) of a “molecular switch” incorporated in the material drives the twisting of the two valves in opposing directions…

There is no such thing as an evolutionary strategy. Movement is energy-dependent. Can you guess where the energy of plants comes from or where it goes if a plant is infected by a virus like the tobacco mosaic virus, or the virus that caused “breaking” in tulips before people learned that the bulbs eventually became worthless?
See also: May the Force Be with You

Such work could pave the way for a deeper understanding of how physical forces influence biological functions in embryonic development, normal physiology, and complex diseases.

My comment to The Scientist:
I just recorded the audio that will accompany this poster session at the forthcoming Labroots virtual conference on Precision Medicine.
Title: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
Summary/abstract of poster:
Sunlight-induces energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Changes in the potential of hydrogen (pH) link quantum physics to classical physics via chirality (manifested in chemistry). Energy-dependent biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry links what is known about molecular epigenetics to what is known about autophagy. For instance, energy-dependent changes in pH link ecological variation from angstroms to ecosystems via base pair changes and RNA-directed DNA methylation (endogenous RNA interference). That is how the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy is linked from the physiology of reproduction to all life on Earth.
The National Microbiome Initiative links base pair changes to microbial quorum sensing from the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) links the base pair changes from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA and chromosomal inheritance. Sunlight can then be linked to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection for nutrients and the pheromone-controlled energy-dependent fixation of amino acid substitutions in all organized genomes.
This presentation helps to explain how natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links biologically-based cause and effect from the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. Metabolic networks and genetic networks link the substitutions to the differentiation of all cell types in all individuals of all species.
Ecological variation is linked to energy-dependent metabolic networks and genetic networks, which link alternative RNA splicings from supercoiled DNA to polycombic ecological adaptations. Ecological adaptations, which are manifested in morphology, are linked from supercoiled DNA and chromosomal inheritance to healthy longevity via energy-dependent differences in behavior.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft links messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling and constraint-breaking mutations. Virus-driven hecatombic evolution links energy theft from biophysical constraint-breaking mutations to all pathology. For example, the viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA in human infants, which typically is repaired by energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

After the fact, I remembered that a senior editor at the Scientist warned me to not post any more lengthy comments. I revised the comment to this:

I just recorded the audio that will accompany this poster session at the forthcoming Labroots virtual conference on Precision Medicine.

Title: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

May the anti-entropic force of sunlight be with you!
If it is not, may you not need any excuse for not knowing what was missing in your life. Indeed, a brainless vegetable doesn’t know it needs sunlight and nutrients from the soil to prevent the death of its lineage. The vegetable is without excuse. Are you?

See also: Adipose-derived circulating miRNAs regulate gene expression in other tissues

Reported as: A form of RNA released from fat cells into the blood may help to regulate other tissues
This previously appeared in the context of: Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability
Reported as: Discovery of a brain sugar switch

According to the scientists, numerous new studies will now be necessary to adjust the old model of purely neural control of food intake and metabolism with a concept where astrocytes and possibly even immune cells in the brain also play a crucial role. Once there is a better understanding of the interaction between these various cells, the idea is to find ways and substances that modulate pathways on multiple cell types…

The modulation of all pathways in all cell types of all living genera is nutrient energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of alternative splicings of pre-messenger RNA that must be linked to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation or virus-driven pathology.
See for instance our section on molecular epigenetics in this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

See also: Systemic delivery of factor IX messenger RNA for protein replacement therapy
Reported as: Don’t kill the messenger RNA
These researchers must be waiting for those who are combating evolution to fight disease to die so that they can continue to fight against healthy longevity with their misrepresentations of everything known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated top-down causation and how virus-driven energy theft is linked to all pathology.
See for comparison: Using ‘real life’ analogies to get past scientific uncertainty on climate change

Analogies that fail to link pH-taxis, chemotaxis, thermotaxis and phototaxis from microRNA biogenesis and microRNA flanking sequences to hydrogen energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and autophagy do not link everything currently known about nutritional epigenetics from alternative splicings of pre-messenger RNA to nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions.

For contrast, feedback loops link odors and pheromones to the physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates via substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide. The feedback loops link viral latency to healthy longevity in all living genera

The failure to restore RNA-mediated viral latency can now be placed into the context of three recent additions to the Merriam-Webster dictionary:

Phytoremediation,
Microbiome,
and
CRISPR.

Taken together, the dictionary definition of these terms replaces analogies and ideas about evolved biodiversity that were based on de Vries 1902 definition of mutation. That definition led to the assumptions of population geneticists who never linked energy-dependent metabolic networks to genetic networks via endogenous RNA interference and the physiology of reproduction.