5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The eternal significance of microRNAs (8)

Use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation and aging has been replaced by the use of model systems of biological processes.  Biological processes can be compared to so-called “evolutionary processes” to show that only biological processes need to be considered in the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life” or answers to the the question  What is Life? Schrödinger (1944).
K. L. Mettinger et al. (eds.), Exosomes, Stem Cells and MicroRNA, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 1056, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74470-4_6

This volume provides insight into the pivotal roles of stem cells, exosomes and other microvesicles in biofunction and molecular mechanisms and their therapeutic potential in translational nanomedicine. It further highlights evidence from recent studies as to how stem cell derived exosomes and microRNAs may restore and maintain tissue homeostasis, enable cells to recover critical cellular functions and begin repair regeneration.

Chapter 2 The Emerging Roles of microRNAs in Stem Cell Aging

involved in many biological processes such as developmental timing, differentiation, cell death, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, immune response, aging and cancer. Accumulating studies in recent years suggest that miRNAs play crucial roles in stem cell division and differentiation. In the present chapter, we present a brief overview of these studies and discuss their contributions toward our understanding of the importance of miRNAs in normal and aged stem cell function in various model systems.

Chapter 6  MicroRNAs, Regulatory Messengers Inside and Outside Cancer Cells

…like hormones, miRNAs can be secreted and regulate gene expression in recipient cells. Altered expression levels of miRNAs in cancer cells determine the acquisition of fundamental biological capabilities (hallmarks of cancer) responsible for the development and progression of the disease.

Model systems link the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs from microRNA biogenesis to the regulation of all cancer hallmarks. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all cancers and all other pathology in species from microbes to humans. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has been linked to healthy longevity.
See: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See for comparison:  The Neutral Theory in Light of Natural Selection May 2, 2018

…50 years after its introduction by Kimura. We argue that the neutral theory was supported by unreliable theoretical and empirical evidence from the beginning, and that in light of modern, genome-scale data, we can firmly reject its universality. The ubiquity of adaptive variation both within and between species means that a more comprehensive theory of molecular evolution must be sought.

The ubiquity of adaptive variation attests to the facts about how the creation of quantized energy is linked to biophysically constrained viral latency. Adaptive variation links energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera  via the physiology of their food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.

For comparison to mRNA stability during the maternal-to-zygotic transition, see: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults

The energy-dependent molecular mechanisms of recombination clearly link microRNA biogenesis to the stability of organized genomes during the life histories of all genera. Serious scientists object to the use of definitions in attempts to explain any aspect of species-specific biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Do not refute cherished theories

Synopsis:
All serious scientist know that pre-mRNAs (now known as microRNAs in more than 70,000 published works) do not create themselves.
For comparison, Ricki Lewis fails to mention how fertility is biophysically constrained by by the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy, the creation of enzymes (e.g, ATP synthase), the creation of ATP, the creation of microRNAs, and the RNA-mediated creation of hormones and receptors that link achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide to all experience-dependent receptor mediated structures and function in all vertebrates with jaws.

8 Simple mistakes that can delay peer review (and how to avoid them) (2018)

Add: Do not refute neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense or Big Bang cosmology. If we publish your work, we will retract it.
See for instance: Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living (2016) [retracted]

Following publication, readers raised concerns about language in the article that makes references to a ‘Creator’, and about the overall rationale and findings of the study.

For comparison, there was no need to mention a “Creator’ in  From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

All serious scientist know that pre-mRNAs (now known as microRNAs in more than 70,000 published works) do not create themselves.
For comparison, Ricki Lewis fails to mention how fertility is biophysically constrained by by the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy, the creation of enzymes (e.g, ATP synthase), the creation of ATP, the creation of microRNAs, and the RNA-mediated creation of hormones and receptors that link achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide to all experience-dependent receptor mediated structures and function in all vertebrates with jaws.
See: The Biology Behind the Fertility Clinic Meltdown

The spindle apparatus is among the most elegant structures in a cell, quickly self-assembling from microtubules and grabbing and aligning chromosomes so that equal sets separate into the two daughter cells that result from a division.

Self-assembling is a term often used by biologically uninformed theorists who do not understand what is known to serious scientists about cell type differentiation. See for an accurate representation of how fertility in all mammals is naturally biophysically constrained by FSH.
Regulation of FSH expression by differentially expressed miR-186-5p in rat anterior adenohypophyseal cells

Our results demonstrate that miR-186-5p regulates FSH secretion by directly targeting the FSHb 3′ UTR, providing additional functional evidence for the importance of miRNAs in the regulation of animal reproduction.

For more information about the virus-driven fertility meltdown that alters the structure and function of all mammalian genomes in every generation, see:
The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
and
Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
 

"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Natural selection for racism and all pathology

Why is natural selection hard to grasp? It is not what you think….

…human cognitive tendencies interfere more with deep understanding of how natural selection works.

Simply put, our intelligence and teleological reasoning interferes with the teaching of pseudoscientific nonsense. The nonsense does not place Darwin’s “conditions of life” before natural selection for reproductive fitness. Natural selection is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.
See for comparison: The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win

Darwin’s energy-dependent conditions of life link biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity. Luca Turin’s works are among those that exposed the fraudulent claims of neo-Darwinian theorists.

See for example: Molecular recognition in olfaction

For physicists, maybe the single most important development that can be envisaged is the production of a high quality X-ray structure of a one or more olfactory receptors. This would open the door to large scale computer simulations that would help shed light on both the mechanical and electrical responses of olfactory receptors.

The X-ray structure of the virus that destroys olfactory receptors is more important. It can be viewed in the context of everything know to serious scientists who have linked quantum physics to quantum souls.
For example, see: Rosalind Franklin: The Hero Denied Her Due 

Franklin was also a brilliant chemist and a master of X-ray crystallography, an imaging technique that reveals the molecular structure of matter based on the pattern of scattered X-ray beams. Her early research into the microstructures of carbon and graphite are still cited, but her work with DNA was the most significant — and it may have won three men a Nobel.
Franklin left King’s in 1953 in a long-planned move to join J.D. Bernal’s lab at Birkbeck College, where she discovered the structure of the tobacco mosaic virus. But in 1956, in the prime of her career, she developed ovarian cancer — perhaps due to her extensive X-ray work. Franklin continued working in the lab until her death in 1958 at age 37.
“As a scientist, Miss Franklin was distinguished by extreme clarity and perfection in everything she undertook,” Bernal wrote in her obituary, published in Nature. Though it’s her achievements that close colleagues admired, most remember Franklin for how she was forgotten. — C.E.

For comparison, these authors take the ball that Nesse and other theorists put into play, and these theorists run with it. They even pretend to be “biologically informed,” in response to my oft repeated claim that people like them are biologically uninformed science idiots.
The Future of Secularism: a Biologically Informed Theory Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence

…earlier trends toward secularization (due to science education surrounding advancements in science) are currently being counter-balanced by genetic and reproductive forces. The authors also propose that the inverse association between intelligence and religiosity, and the inverse correlation between intelligence and fertility lead to predictions of a decline in secularism in the foreseeable future.

The agenda of at least two co-authors: Nyborg and Ellis, is clear. See: Race and Sex Differences in Intelligence and Personality: A Tribute to Richard Lynn at Eighty 

Nyborg and Lee Ellis promote the works of J. Phillipe Rushton who was reported to be among the top racists of the 20th century.

See: Do pigmentation and the melanocortin system modulate aggression and sexuality in humans as they do in other animals?

Pigmentation of the hair, skin, cuticle, feather and eye is one of the most salient and variable attributes of vertebrates. In many species, melanin-based coloration is found to be pleiotropically linked to behavior. We review animal studies that have found darker pigmented individuals average higher amounts of aggression and sexual activity than lighter pigmented individuals. We hypothesize that similar relationships between pigmentation, aggression, and sexuality occur in humans. We first review the literature on non-human animals and then review some of the correlates of melanin in people, including aggression and sexual activity. Both within human populations (e.g., siblings), and between populations (e.g., races, nations, states), studies find that darker pigmented people average higher levels of aggression and sexual activity (and also lower IQ). We conceptualize skin color as a multigenerational adaptation to differences in climate over the last 70,000 years as a result of “cold winters theory” and the “Out-of-Africa” model of human origins. We propose life history theory to explain the covariation found between human (and non-human) pigmentation and variables such as birth rate, infant mortality, longevity, rate of HIV/AIDS, and violent crime.

Pigmentation is food energy-dependent and RNA-directed DNA methylation links food odors to pheromones and the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. It would be interesting to hear what Jay R. Feierman thinks about this since I met him at a 1995 conference that Lee Ellis organized and J. Phillipe Rushton also attended (by invitation only).

All (~90) attendees should be familiar with works that extended the social science theories to “hate-mongering.” I have tried to stop the hate-mongering, but history may repeat itself with Feierman’s help, of course.
See for comparison: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has been linked via olfaction from quantum physics to all biologically based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions in organized genomes. But Nesse and others like him want to keep their teaching positions and that requires them to deny everything known to serious scientists about physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics.
See for comparison: A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (New York, 1914): pp. 193-196, 253-254, 261-263.
Social scientists ignored Darwin’s “conditions of life.” Most of them don’t seem to understand why I claim that their ignorance has caused the deaths of millions.
See for comparison:  The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…
Will history repeat itself? Will most of us return to the racism of Hunter (1914)?

In the review The Future of Secularism: a Biologically Informed Theory Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence, they obfuscate the claim that Muslims are less intelligent and more fertile than Jews or Buddhists. What will happen when their claim is linked to this claim from Hunter: “A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems” pp. 195-196 

Evolution of Man. – Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants. If we follow the early history of man upon the earth, we find that at first he must have been little better than one of the lower animals.
Any and all links from intelligence to fertility are claims that attempt to support the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists. Their ridiculous theories are the cause of all pathology.

The Root Cause Of Cancer and Why it Has Been Kept a Secret!

…the root cause of cancer is too much acidity in the body, meaning that the pH in the body is below the normal level of 7.365, which constitutes an “acidic” state. Warburg investigated the metabolism of tumors and the respiration of cells and discovered that cancer cells maintain and thrive in a lower pH, as low as 6.0, due to lactic acid production and elevated CO2. He firmly believed that there was a direct relationship between pH and oxygen.
Anyone who ever performed a blood gas analysis could have helped to establish the fact that the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is the cause of all pathology. See for instance: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”
 
The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

That fact made it obvious to all serious scientists that energy-dependent RNA mediated DNA repair was required for healthy longevity. The anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun was linked to the creation of ATP by Schrodinger (1944) in “What is Life?” The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans now links the creation of RNA to all biodiversity, and that links pheromones to biophysically constrained transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity via viral latency.

Nothing has been hidden. There was no reason to hide the facts after theorists made it possible to teach their pseudoscientific nonsense to students in high school via the Scopes Trial in Dayton, TN (1925). Sinclair Lewis published “Arrowsmith” in 1925 and since then, ATP-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has been detailed in the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis” with its “Virus Expansion.”
 

Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Proteins "evolve" (revisited)

Complex evolutionary footprints revealed in an analysis of reused protein segments of diverse lengths

Reported by Jay R. Feierman to the evolutionary psychology Yahoo Group as: Recycling at the molecular level: Protein evolution

Reuse patterns in protein space reflect 3.7 billion y of evolution (58), restrained by the underlying physicochemical qualities of covalently linked amino acids.

Autophagy links chirality from energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems. For comparison, their claim is consistent with ridiculous misrepresentations of food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation. The truth about energy-dependent cell type differentiation is missing from this claim from Jordan et al., (2005) A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution.

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

But wait, what happened to the claims about restraints by the underlying physicochemical qualities of covalently linked amino acids? Covalent bonds are energy-dependent. If you accept the claim that proteins “evolve,” you will probably accept whatever pseudoscientific nonsense is touted by any theorist. If you are a serious scientist, you already know that the physicochemical qualities of covalently linked amino acids have been detailed in the context of links from energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems via the 2017 Nobel Prize winning technology referred to as cryo-EM.

See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

Figure 6 “Codon optimality code” in vertebrates provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

“The bias between codons or amino acids, and mRNA expression levels has been previously recognized across species and is thought to result from selection for efficient, accurate translation, and folding of highly expressed genes…”

Simply put, natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency via protein folding chemisty. That fact has never been addressed by neo-Darwinian theorists and probably never will be.

The fact that proteins have an energy-dependent atomic structure may never have occurred to an evolutionary theorist. If it had, a “Big Bang” cosmologist may have told the evolutionary theorist that the energy “emerged” from nothing, and that fact seems to be acceptable to all theorists.

See for comparison: Subatomic

Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton Cards, Neutron Cards, Electron Cards and Energy Cards and a beginning hand limit of 5 cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom, in an attempt to construct one of the available Atom Cards, and/or use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful atom building cards for later use, or increase their hand limit. The deck building cards are simple and clean, but offer a number of interesting combinations. Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker, or to offset the cost of more powerful deck building cards.

If you do not ask where the protons, neutrons and electrons come from, you can link atoms to ecosystems in all living genera outside the context of the energy[-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

See also: Atomic structure reveals how cells translate environmental signals

Translation is energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft.

For God and Country

Sci-Hub vs limits on the dissemination of information

The ideology of “Americanism” is not consistent with the tactics of academics and politicians that constrain release of accurate information about  biologically-based cause and effect.

Americanism is an ideology, or belief in devotion, loyalty, or allegiance to the United States of America, or to its flag, traditions, customs, culture, symbols, institutions, or form of government.[2] In the words of Theodore Roosevelt, “Americanism is a question of spirit, conviction, and purpose, not of creed or birthplace.”[3]

Americanism has two different meanings. It can refer to the defining characteristics of the United States and can also signify loyalty to the United States and a defense of American political ideals. These ideals include, but are not limited to self-government, equal opportunity, freedom of speech, and a belief in progress.

Scientific progress has been hindered by publishing companies whose corporate purpose is financial gain for stockholders, not the dissemination of freecinformation that is required to make scientific progress by serious scientists who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
Rarely do the efforts of serious scientists get noticed because there is too much pseudoscientific nonsense that gets published in peer-reviewed journals. The nonsense overwhelms the ability to discern between facts and story-telling. Evolutionary theorists, for example, are story-tellers.
For an attempt to resolve the problem with theorists, see: Publishers’ Legal Action Advances Against Sci-Hub

Based on data from Google Trends, researchers found that the suits against Sci-Hub led to brief spikes in visits to the site.

The publishers contribute to the theft of information because most people do not care how they acquire it. People want the information on biologically based cause and effect for free, and many of them will use it to make scientific advances such as those that have linked energy-dependent changes in microRNAs to all pathology.
A PubMed search for “microRNA” reveals that nearly 65,000 indexed published works have already established facts that link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Most the publications are behind “pay walls.”
That means most researchers will be unable to access all of them. Anyone outside the specific discipline that is the focus of the article will not be likely to integrate the information across disciplines and accurately represent what is known about biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect.
For an example of the level of integration that is required, request a copy from the corresponding author and wait to see the information in this “pay-walled” publication: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception.
By the time you get it, there will probably be several hundred more publications that link the food energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See also:

Alternatively, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
Cited works:
1) ATP hydrolysis by UPF1 is required for efficient translation termination at premature stop codons
2)  Evolutionary drivers of thermoadaptation in enzyme catalysis
3). Endogenous RNAi Pathways Are Required in Neurons for Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
4) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
5) Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
6) Metabolic theory predicts whole-ecosystem properties
7) The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
8) Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression
9) MicroRNA analysis in mouse neuro-2a cells after pseudorabies virus infection
10) microRNA-binding proteins: specificity and function
11) RNA in extracellular vesicles
12) Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
13)  Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions
14) The human initiator is a distinct and abundant element that is precisely positioned in focused core promoters
15) Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders
16) All about the base
17) Chemists know.
18) Dynamic control of chirality and self-assembly of double-stranded helicates with light
19) The Intrinsically Disordered Protein Atg13 Mediates Supramolecular Assembly of Autophagy Initiation Complexes
20) RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering
21) What is Life?
22) Arginine 66 Controls Dark-State Formation in Green-to-Red Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins
23) Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor
24) A Big Bang in spliceosome structural biology
The works cited above have been placed into the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis.”

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See for comparison: 2017 Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize

The perfect science book marries scientific breakthrough with elegant, engaging communication. Reading these books side-by-side, we were struck by how creative and unique each voice was, and the varied ways these writers tackle their subjects, using metaphors and personal stories as much as scientific facts.

The perfect science book marries what is known about the creation of energy as information with the biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which prevents the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Biophysically constrained viral latency prevents all pathology. This year’s Prize winner linked testosterone to “gender” differences in behavior.

For comparison, see: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences

Excerpt:

…this model incorporates a logical pathway that directly links sensory input from the social environmental to the development of sexual preferences and to the development of sexual behavior.

The five-step logical pathway that directly links sensory input from the social environment to the development of sexual preferences and sexual behavior is gene→cell→tissue→organ→organ system. Failure to incorporate any of the steps in this pathway makes it impossible to directly connect to sexual preferences and sexual behavior, a logical sequence of events that must somehow and somewhere begin with the effect of sensory input from the social environment.

See also: Intelligent Design – Science & Philosophy: discussion thread

Antagonist, Timothy Kershner wrote:

I have a PhD in Psychology and a minor degree in Microbiology and personally funded many Bacterial Consciousness studies between 2008 and 2012 and mentored directly under James Shapiro from 2009 to 2011.

Shapiro already is laughing at you and others as he tries to recover from teaching you to become biologically uninformed science idiots who believe in evolution outside the context of energy-dependent ecological adaptations that are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

See: Biological action in Read-Write genome evolution

Coincidentally, ‘non-coding’ RNAs rich in repetitive mobile DNA sequences function as key regulators of complex adaptive phenotypes, such as stem cell pluripotency. The intersections of cell fusion activities, horizontal DNA transfers and natural genetic engineering of Read-Write genomes provide a rich molecular and biological foundation for understanding how ecological disruptions can stimulate productive, often abrupt, evolutionary transformations.

Shapiro’s latest is part of a Theme issue ‘New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives’ organized by Denis Noble, Nancy Cartwright, Patrick Bateson, John Dupré and Kevin Laland.

See for comparison: How life changes itself: The Read-Write (RW) genome

Research dating back to the 1930s has shown that genetic change is the result of cell-mediated processes, not simply accidents or damage to the DNA.

See also: Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution

and UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair

All cell-mediated processes are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

Energy dependent life does not change itself. RNA-mediated events must be linked to the stability of organized genomes. The organized genomes cannot come first. The details of energy-dependent cell-mediated RNA-directed DNA methylation clearly link the virucidal energy of sunlight from microRNAs in plants to the microRNAome of all mammals. All humans are included.

RNA interference occurs in plants, animals, and humans. It is of great importance for the regulation of gene expression, participates in defense against viral infections, and keeps jumping genes under control. RNA interference is already being widely used in basic science as a method to study the function of genes and it may lead to novel therapies in the future.

Naturally occurring endogenous RNA interference links what organisms eat from their physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to all energy-dependent biodiversity on Earth via biophysically constrained viral latency. For example, see:

The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental changes may impact the expression of specific miRNA.

The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

See for comparison: Alnylam’s rare disease drug shines in trial, paving way for a brand-new class of medicines

RNA interference, or RNAi, a technology that uses snippets of genetic code to shut down disease-causing genes. The scientists who invented RNAi were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2006. Many years and more than $1 billion in research later, Alnylam is finally on the cusp of proving that RNAi can be transformed into a medicine that helps patients.

Scientists did not invent RNAi. They discovered that it links what organisms eat to their biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. That fact links RNAi to all biodiversity without the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by evolutionary theorists. The cost of any RNAi drug that is approved will almost assuredly bankrupt the person who needs the drug and the cost will probably destroy the economy of the United States of America via the impact on the costs of Medicare and/or other insurance.
This is not Amercanism: Alnylam Data Puts a Nobel Discovery One Step Closer to Approved Drug

Shares of Alnylam soared more than 51 percent and closed at $113.84 apiece on Wednesday.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Methylation and the Innate Immune System

Free Webinar Training:

Methylation and the Innate Immune System

Please send your questions, comments and feedback to: support@qahomestudy.com

I sent these two questions in advance:

1) Does what organisms eat link food energy to RNA-directed DNA methylation and all healthy longevity via fixation of amino acid substitutions and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans?

2) Does the virus-driven theft of quantized energy link the loss of information from impaired methylation to all pathology?

——————————

See why I asked: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

The potential for sperm miRNA affecting zygote development has recently been reported in the literature [18] and has interesting implications for the use of sperm miRNA profiles as indicators of potential male fertility.

See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception



Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

The Origin of Information (4)

Summary: Others have learned that the energy in a hydrogen atom must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth.
The question is: “Where did the energy in the hydrogen atom come from?
See: The Origin of Information (3)
Finally, someone is asking questions that can be summarized in one question (see below). Until now, on the International Society for Human Ethology’s Yahoo group, and elsewhere, the moderator: Jay R. Feierman has prevented the dissemination of accurate information on this topic. Now others have learned that the energy in a hydrogen atom must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth.
The question is: “Where did the energy in the hydrogen atom come from?
See the discussion attempt at: 88233 Re: DNA Begins As a Quantum Wave, According to New Science

Excerpt: Much of the information in this article came from The Synchronicity Key: The Hidden Intelligence Guiding The Universe and You

Conclusion: Clearly though, our view of the universe and life itself is changing as these concepts are understood by more people each day.

The fact that DNA begins as a quantum wave linked to biophysically constrained amino acid substitutions was addressed in the context of: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
Natural selection for quantized energy-dependent codon optimality and the stability of messenger RNA during transgenerational epigenetic inheritance has since been placed into the context of experimental evidence reported as Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception.
See also the series of presentations at virtual conferences that began with: The Origin of Information: How to Solve It.
When I realized that people might not understand that the origin of information must be linked from quantum waves to RNA-mediated healthy longevity and from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, I split the original presentation submission into two parts. The revised title was RNA mediated molecular epigenetics and virus driven entropy.
From hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecosystems was presented during the same virtual conference.
Several more presentations added information about top-down energy-dependent RNA-mediated biologically-based biodiversity. For example, this may be my final presentation at Labroots virtual conferences Energy as Information and Constrained Endogenous RNA Interference
The journalists from Labroots have ignored my presentations despite a series of my comments on their attempt to continue touting pseudoscientific nonsense about neo-Darwinian theories.  It seems unlikely that any science journalist will admit to their overwhelming ignorance.
See for comparison:168949 From the evolutionary psychology Yahoo group. Re: DNA Begins As a Quantum Wave, According to New Science
Jay R. Feierman admits:

This claim is above my level of expertise to refute. It comes from a peer reviewed article in The American Chemical Society’s Journal of Physical Chemistry B. See below, which is taken from https://phys.org/news/2008-01-genetic-telepathy-bizarre-property-dna.html.
“Scientists are reporting evidence that intact, double-stranded DNA has the “amazing” ability to recognize similarities in other DNA strands from a distance. And then like friends with similar interests, the bits of genetic material hangout or congregate together. The recognition — of similar sequences in DNA’s chemical subunits — occurs in a way once regarded as impossible, the researchers suggest in a study scheduled for the Jan. 31 issue of ACS’ Journal of Physical Chemistry B”.
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2008-01-genetic-telepathy-bizarre-property-dna.html#jCp

There are many things in physics and physical chemistry that seem incredulous to me. That includes some of the claims of quantum mechanics. What about the Penrose Hameroff Theory of Quantum Consciousness. See http://www.quantumconsciousness.org/sites/default/files/1998%20Hameroff%20Quantum%20Computation%20in%20Brain%20Microtubules%20The%20Penrose%20Hameroff%20Orch%20OR%20model%20of%20consciousness%20-%20Royal%20Society_0.pdf.

On several occasions, Feierman has threatened to ban me from the Human Ethology Yahoo Group. Then, he simply fails to post my comments when they do not support his nonsense.
I’ve added some comments to this discussion because it seems to be progressing nicely at a time after Feierman has admitted he knows virtually nothing about biophysically constrained biologically based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
See: Discus for discussion of

How to teach evolution when students hold creationist views


Feierman, and others like him, have been teaching neo-Darwinian theories either directly or indirectly. But Feierman’s nonsense has consistently been the most offensive to me personally. After publication of my 2013 review, I attempted to discuss the refutation of neo-Darwinian nonsense he had been touting since I first met him at a conference in 1995.
His responses to Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model include:
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
7/26/13
Jay R. Feierman: I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement.
Now, he admits, albeit elsewhere, that he knows nothing about how food energy as quantized information must be linked to healthy longevity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, or be linked from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology.
See also this example of a false dichotomy: Scholars who believe nurture trumps nature also tend to doubt the scientific method

One group, made up of psychologists, economists, philosophers and political scientists believes more strongly in the genetic influences on behaviour, beliefs and culture. The other group, consisting sociologists, non-evolutionary anthropologists, women’s and gender studies scholars and all humanities scholars (except philosophy), believes in the primacy of environmental influences.

No Genetics without Epigenetics? No Biology without Systems Biology?

…there has never been a genetics without an epigenetics.

Energy-dependent changes link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that all serious scientists have linked from mutations to all pathology in all living genera.
See: microRNA  for more than 63,000 examples of that fact.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (6)

Conclusion: Like Richard Dawkins, Magnus S. Magnusson is a pseudoscientist.

A light-induced change in an endogenous substrate found in all cell types of all living genera links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the de novo creation of the innate immune system to RNA-mediated DNA repair in species from microbes to humans. The theft of quantized energy by viruses has been linked to all pathology.

The speed at which quantum decoherence occurs makes it difficult for virus-driven energy theft to be carried from one generation to the next via chromosomal inheritance, which is the only way that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance occurs — if it does not occur automagically in the small minds of theorists.

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (5)
See next: Design of a synthetic yeast genome
They use what occurs in the context of natural selection for quantized energy-dependent changes in base pairs and link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions from changes in enzymes and feedback loops. The feedback loops link the pheromone-controlled de novo creation of more receptors via the physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency in all organized genomes.
Their work was reported today, July 26, 2017 in the context of Scientists build DNA from scratch to alter life’s blueprint with my emphasis

Boeke, a researcher at New York University, directs an international team of 11 labs on four continents working to “rewrite” the yeast genome, following a detailed plan they published in March.

The research may reveal basic, hidden rules that govern the structure and functioning of genomes.

All serious scientists known that the structure and function of all organized genomes is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. For example, in all animals the functional structure of supercoiled DNA is controlled by food odors and pheromones in the context of the physiology of energy-dependent reproduction that links food energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity. Alternatively, virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology.

See: Viral MicroRNAs, Host MicroRNAs Regulating Viruses, and Bacterial MicroRNA-Like RNAs

The question arises: Does Boeke or anyone like him know that the organized genome of yeast is rewritten only in the context of the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysical constraints on viral latency? I ask because he may be hiding something. Anyone who does not know how chirality and autophagy biophysically constrain viral latency is not likely to have written a book chapter like this, which was co-authored by J.D. Boeke in 1988.

See: Yeast Ty Elements as Retroviruses in  Viruses of Fungi and Simple Eukaryotes

The title of J.D. Boeke’s latest effort: Design of a synthetic yeast genome, would make any young earth creationist proud of his Boeke’s accomplishment. It attests to facts about “design” that atheistic hate mongers like Richard Dawkins and other pseudoscientists have linked from mutations and natural selection to evolution.

See: Mutation-Driven Evolution

See also for example: Magnus S. Magnusson’s comments on Richard Dawkins event cancelled over his ‘abusive speech against Islam’ Magunsson started removing my responses a few hours ago.

I attempted to discuss the fact that Boeke and others use base substitutions within ORFs to introduce or remove enzyme recognition sites. That is how they facilitate the energy-dependent assembly of synthetic chromosomes.

But there’s more! Boeke’s history of publications links nearly 30 years of pseudoscientific nonsense to an impressive refutation of neo-Darwinian theory. The design of the synthetic yeast genome via the energy-dependent assembly of synthetic chromosomes attests to the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the link to the design of all biophysically constrained biodiversity.

See for instance: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

Some people might think that pseudoscientists can recover from refutation linked to the stability of messenger RNA (mRNA), but the recovery time ended two decades ago with publication of From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

See our section on molecular epigenetics.

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes…

The proteins do not automagically create themselves. Energy-dependent changes in chirality must be linked from autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency. In that context, this report is another clear refutation of mutation-driven evolution.

See: Lipophilic siRNA targets albumin in situ and promotes bioavailability, tumor penetration, and carrier-free gene silencing

These data reveal the immense promise of in situ albumin targeting for development of translational, carrier-free RNAi-based cancer therapies.

The increased amount of information on naturally occurring energy-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) linked to cancer treatment was reported as: Molecular hitchhiker on human protein signals tumors to self-destruct

“What fascinates and excites me most about this approach, in addition to improved tumor penetration, is lack of toxicity at a relatively high dose,” she said. “We could potentially use our siRNA delivery system to target several genes simultaneously or sequentially. Most cancers are driven by multiple abnormal genes, so targeting one often leads to activation of others as the tumor adapts.”

Tumors do not adapt. Viruses quickly adapt via energy theft and the substitutions of amino acids in their genomes. The amino acid substitutions in the tumors cause the tumors to adapt to the lack of energy-dependent microRNAs carried by albumin. That is how virus-driven energy theft is linked to the proliferation of undifferentiated cell types in all tissues of all organisms.

See: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

As detailed here, the clear identity and easy alignment of these sequences makes them good candidates for estimating phylogeny, and they can reliably be found and identified across all members of a clade of interest. Their relatively slow evolution [3] also means that they can easily be identified in de novo assemblies of genomes.

The energy-dependent microRNA flanking sequences do not evolve and genes do not assemble themselves.  Quantized energy as information biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft, which would otherwise link mutations to all pathology.

Young earth creationists recently placed the virus-driven theft of quantized energy into the context of Cancer Research Confirms the Curse.

…the cancer-suppressing molecule NAD+ diminishes with age appeared in the same Science issue.3Harvard Medical School News summarized the findings. As NAD+ lessens, “DNA breaks go unrepaired and, as these breaks accumulate over time, precipitate cell damage, cell mutations, cell death and loss of organ function.”4 It seems the only way to cure cancer would be to somehow reach into and constantly correct every cell’s mutations.

Carrier-free gene silencing links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the anti-entropic virucidal effects of sunlight on contact with water to everything serious scientists know about food energy-dependent top-down causation and changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which have been linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction.

See: UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair

The sequences have been selected according special charge distributions and lifetimes of excimer states previously characterized by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy.(3a, 3c, 3d) With these selected sequences we demonstrate that repair occurs when the intrastrand charge transfer leads to a suitably charged nucleotide adjacent to the lesion.

A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.[1] For context, a femtosecond is to a second as a second is to about 31.71 million years; a ray of light travels approximately 0.3 µm (micrometers) in 1 femtosecond, a distance comparable to the diameter of a virus.[2]

For comparison: One picosecond is equal to 1000 femtoseconds (fs). Theoretical physicists who thought they knew something about the nature of quantum coherence based their theories on measurements of timescales up to 1.5 picoseconds (ps), but they have since learned that decoherence occurs within 60 fs. The transfer of energy in the context of photosynthesis clearly links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of UV light to RNA-mediated DNA repair in much less time than theorists realized.

See: Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer

Given the relatively well-defined structure of the FMO protein, and comparative couplings between chlorophylls to other photosynthetic systems, the observed extremely fast decoherence should be viewed as general, bringing to question any significant quantum coherent transport contributions to photosynthesis.

See also: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…unlike the theoretical predictions, analysis of the OLYMPUS measurements suggests that, most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

The differences in the energy of photons and the amount of time it takes for energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair link displays of ignorance by Magnus S. Magnusson and other atheistic hate-mongers that can be compared to any display by anyone who has ever been involved in linking pattern recognition to biophysically constrained life on Earth.

For comparison, that is what young earth creationists have done with the information about energy as information from Biblical Genesis.

See also: One billion suns: World’s brightest laser sparks new behavior in light

The light’s coming off at different angles, with different colors, depending on how bright it is.

That phenomenon stemmed partly from a change in the electron, which abandoned its usual up-and-down motion in favor of a figure-8 flight pattern. As it would under normal conditions, the electron also ejected its own photon, which was jarred loose by the energy of the incoming photons. But the researchers found that the ejected photon absorbed the collective energy of all the scattered photons, granting it the energy and wavelength of an X-ray.

See: The Reality of Color Is Perception

Color is one of the longstanding puzzles in philosophy, raising doubts about the truthfulness of our sensory grasp on things, and provoking concerns as to the metaphysical compatibility of scientific, perceptual, and common sense representations of the world. Most philosophers have argued that colors are either real or not real, physical or psychological. The greater challenge is to theorize the subtle way that color stands between our understanding of the physical and the psychological.

See for comparison: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

The fact that olfaction warps visual time perception links the speed of light on contact with water from the visual appeal of a rainbow to the integration of all sensory input and our appreciation of how energy and mass are linked across the time-space continuum via what is known about the sense of smell in bacteria and the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

For comparison, Magnus S. Magnusson co-authored “Complex spike patterns in olfactory bulb neuronal networks”  He and his colleagues failed to link fast decoherence from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and RNA-mediated DNA repair.

In the world of those who have consistently linked olfaction to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum, Magnusson can be referred to as a biologically uninformed science idiot — if only because he has no expertise in any scientific discipline.

Conclusion: Like Richard Dawkins, Magnus S. Magnusson is a pseudoscientist.

A light-induced change in an endogenous substrate found in all cell types of all living genera links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the de novo creation of the innate immune system to RNA-mediated DNA repair in species from microbes to humans. The theft of quantized energy by viruses has been linked to all pathology via the difference between “Nature” and God’s perfect “Creation.”

The speed at which quantum decoherence occurs makes it difficult for virus-driven energy theft to be carried from one generation to the next via chromosomal inheritance, which is the only way that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance occurs — if it does not occur automagically in the small minds of theorists.

Although that fact has been repeatedly revealed in the extant scientific literature, which includes texts like the Holy Bible, atheistic hate-mongers refuse to read anything that challenges their beliefs at the same time they either claim to believe in nothing or attack the beliefs of intelligent scientists.

See for examples of what pseudoscientists are likely to believe.

This New Equation Could Unite The Two Biggest Theories in Physics

Quantum entanglement… describes the way that two particles can interact in such a way that they become inexorably linked, and essentially ‘share’ an existence.

The Universe According to Emmy Noethe

…energy may not be conserved “locally” — that is, in an arbitrarily small patch of space — but everything works out when the space is sufficiently large.

That claim forced others to make their ridiculous theories fit into the context of “…the idea that the Universe expanded just like a balloon shortly after the Big Bang.”

Stephen Hawking And 32 Top Physicists Just Signed a Heated Letter on The Universe’s Origin

…three physicists heavily criticised inflation theory – the idea that the Universe expanded just like a balloon shortly after the Big Bang. The article went as far as claiming that the model “cannot be evaluated using the scientific method” – the academic equivalent of saying it isn’t even real science.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (3)

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (2)
Emily Balskus Pins Down the Chemistry and Metabolism of Human Microbiomes
Summary: The chemistry and metabolism of all microbiomes is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled via the physiology of reproduction.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

My comment to The Scientist:

…trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (Hyp) dehydratase, a newly discovered member of an abundant family of proteins, produced by gut bacteria, known as the glycyl radical enzymes, helps in metabolizing trans-Hyp, an amino acid that is rare in bacteria but is common in eukaryotes.

The de novo creation of energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA protects the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked from mutations to all pathology via the claims Schrodinger made in “What is Life?” (1944).

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality links the sense of smell in bacteria to the biophysically constrained viral latency that links ecological variation to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

Sunlight has since been placed into the context of quantized energy as information, which links our visual perception of mass and energy from the space-time continuum to the concept of the energy-dependent creation of quantum souls.
See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (2016) and From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
 

Cytosis

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (1)

Summary: The hitchhiking, the epistasis, and the dynamics of adapting populations are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.

An upper limit on the functional fraction of the human genome

For the human population to maintain a constant size from generation to generation, an increase in fertility must compensate for the reduction in the mean fitness of the population caused, among others, by deleterious mutations. The required increase in fertility due to this mutational load depends on the number of sites in the genome that are functional, the mutation rate, and the fraction of deleterious mutations among all mutations in functional regions. These dependencies and the fact that there exists a maximum tolerable replacement level fertility can be used to put an upper limit on the fraction of the human genome that can be functional. Mutational load considerations lead to the conclusion that the functional fraction within the human genome cannot exceed 25%, and is probably considerably lower.

Reported as: Most of Human Genome Nonfunctional: Study

If only a small bit of the genome is functional, then the odds of a mutation taking out an important sequence are smaller, and therefore fertility rates can be lower.

That conclusion makes sense in the context of natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality, which biophysically constrains RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.  Feedback loops link the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
Simply put, the structure of functional DNA is food energy-dependent because what organisms eat prevents virus-driven entropy of their organized genomes in the context of reproduction.

I would like to think that most knowledgeable biologists who properly appreciate evolutionary theory and genomic diversity are well aware of the many problems with ENCODE’s claim.

Anyone who is not aware of the problems should search PubMed for the term “microRNA” before release of the cell biology game “Cytosis” forces them to learn what anyone more than ten years old can learn from playing the game.
Energy-dependent viral latency is biophysically constrained in organized genomes. Nutrient stress and social stress break the constraints and the stress-linked degradation of messenger RNA links viruses to all pathology.
All life on Earth is energy-dependent, which means that the energy must be biophysically “trapped” at least twice.
See also: Gamma-ray telescopes reveal a high-energy trap in our galaxy’s center

…suggests the center of our Milky Way contains a “trap” that concentrates some of the highest-energy cosmic rays, among the fastest particles in the galaxy.

“Our results suggest that most of the cosmic rays populating the innermost region of our galaxy, and especially the most energetic ones, are produced in active regions beyond the galactic center and later slowed there through interactions with gas clouds…”

This appears to be another example of how ultraviolet light constrains the formation of new galaxies. Constraints on energy might be linked to quantum entanglement, which is something that theoretical physicists have not linked from quantum physics to quantum souls.
Should theoretical physicists be asked to include this new information in their theories so that their theories could be used to design experiments that link facts about sunlight as quantized energy to all energy dependent biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction?
Should theorists be asked about the facts included in these published works?
See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

See also: Universe’s ultraviolet background could provide clues about missing galaxies

Simulations show that there should be more small galaxies in the Universe, but UV radiation essentially stopped them from developing by depriving them of the gas they need to form stars.

See also: World’s brightest laser sparks new behavior in light

The claim of new behavior linked from the light of a billion suns begins to make more sense. Now, a high energy trap links the diffuse glow of gamma rays reaching nearly 50 trillion electron volts can be compared to gamma-ray energies and the energy of visible light, which ranges from about 2 to 3 electron volts.

I am happy that we already presciently linked the differences in constrained energy from “…a change in the electron, which abandoned its usual up-and-down motion in favor of a figure-8 flight pattern.”

A rendering of how changes in an electron’s motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception and this two-part video interview:
Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 1
Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 2

In the context of the solar analemma, Mobius strip, and the symbol for infinity, the report on the figure-8 “flight pattern” of electrons is consistent with representations of how the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight is linked under ‘normal’ conditions to the collective energy of all scattered photons. That collective energy links energy as information to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of how quantum physics must be linked to quantum souls.

See also: Probabilistic epigenesis and A probabilistic classifier for olfactory receptor pseudogenes.

Everything known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent creation of receptors links the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance

.For comparison see: Hitchhiking and epistasis give rise to cohort dynamics in adapting populations

Beneficial mutations are the driving force of adaptive evolution.

There is no such thing as a beneficial mutation. The virus-driven theft of quantized information is linked to increased virulence of viruses via a single amino acid substitution in the virus. The link from sunlight to food energy is the link to all ecological adaptations.

My comment: Reported on July 18, 2017 as Large-scale study of adaptation in yeast could help explain the evolution of cancer

See for comparison our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated ecological adaptations that link sexual differentiation in yeasts to all biodiversity in all living genera in the context of our section on molecular epigenetics.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

The hitchhiking, the epistasis, and the dynamics of adapting populations are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology in all living genera.

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

I used the term “adaptive evolution” instead of ecological adaptation to avoid problems with peer-review if the reviewers recognized that my review was a refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense.

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.