This was ~20 years after we linked alternative splicings of pre-mRNA to all cell type diversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in yeasts at the advent of energy-dependent sexual reproduction.
See also: Implications of polyadenylation in health and disease
This review addresses the key steps of polyadenylation and alternative polyadenylation in different cellular conditions and diseases focusing on the molecular effectors that ensure a faultless pre-mRNA 3′ end formation.
Watch as researchers continue to invent new names for the molecular effectors in attempts to obfuscated the facts about biophysically-contrained protein folding chemistry that have been known to all serious scientists since Schrodinger (1944) linked the anti-entropic energy of the sun to all biodiversity.
Epigenetic (re)programming of caste-specific behavior in the ant Camponotus floridanus
Eusocial insects organize themselves into behavioral castes whose regulation has been proposed to involve epigenetic processes…
Research article summary excerpt:
…behavioral plasticity can be manipulated in the ant C. floridanus by pharmacological and genetic tools that target chromatin regulatory enzymes to stimulate, inhibit, and reprogram behavior. These findings reveal the epigenome as a likely substrate underlying caste-based division of labor in eusocial insects.
…our ability to alter a canonical altruistic behavior in a truly social organism by experimental perturbation of a single gene suggests that the application of increasingly versatile reverse genetic approaches in eusocial insects will allow us to expose the general organizational principles underlying complex social systems (10).
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
All general organizational principles underlying complex social systems are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the regulation of gene expression that enables the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavioral phenotypes.
‘Mysterious’ non-protein-coding RNAs play important roles in gene expression
Berger and Daniel Bose, PhD, a postdoctoral fellow in her lab, study the regulation of gene expression from enhancers, non-coding regions of the genome more distant from protein-coding regions.
The only mystery should focus on why they thought they could continue to suppress the facts by referring to natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality in terms like “enhancers.” Since 2013, everything known to serious scientists about nutrient-dependent microRNAs has been linked to all healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft has been linked to to all pathology. Serious scientists are not using the term “enhancer.” See for example any of the 56,000 published works that use the term “MicroRNA”
Ask why Phys.org / Medical Xpress must report old news from 2013 in the context of unpublished research by two people who cannot be found on the PubMed indexed list of research that links sunlight from chirality to autophagy and chromosomal rearrangements to all biodiversity via energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger balance, which link supercoiled DNA to the protection of all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
See: Enhancer RNAs alter gene expression: New class of molecules may be key emerging ‘enhancer therapy’
Enhancers are sequences in the genome that act to boost or “enhance” the activity or expression of nearby genes. They “often behave in a cell-specific manner and play an important role in establishing a cell’s identity and functional potential,” said Christopher Glass, MD, PhD, a professor in the department of Medicine and Cellular and Molecular Medicine at UC San Diego and principal investigator of one of the papers.
Although enhancers have been recognized for more than 25 years, scientists have labored to fully flesh out the breadth and complexity of what enhancers do and how they do it. In 2010, it was discovered that enhancers directed expression of RNA on a broad scale in neurons and macrophages, a type of immune system cell. Dubbed eRNAs…
I do not know any serious scientists who accepts the term invented to replace pre-mRNAs after the term microRNAs was introduced at the turn of this century and more than 56,000 published papers now use the term microRNA in the context of links from metabolic networks to genetic networks in all living genera via non-coding RNAs..
SnapShot: Non-coding RNAs and Metabolism
In recent years, understanding the crucial role played by cellular homeostasis in disease initiation and progression became the focus of scientists and clinicians. This SnapShot sketches the involvement of both short microRNAs and long ncRNAs in the major metabolic pathways altered in diseases.
Functional Importance of eRNAs for Estrogen-dependent Transcriptional Activation Events
Who do they think does not know that the functional importance of microRNAs and the functional difference of eRNAs is the same. eRNAs are the term theorists use for microRNAs.
Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.