An evolutionary theory killer

A single base change refutes theistic evolution (2)

Announcing publication of a model that links the creation of quantized energy from changes in subatomic particles to biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation in all living genera.

Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems

This angstroms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptation links nutrient energy-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

The invited review of nutritional epigenetics was returned without review and the preprint was posted 4 years ago as:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

The only significant change to the manuscript was a change in the title. Atoms to ecosystems became Angstroms to Ecosystems when quantized energy-dependent changes in angstroms were linked to ecological adaptation by what is known to all serious scientists in this 2014 parody.
All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14
Repeat after them (and me): “… every angstrom is dynamic from the 5 prime to the three…”
See also the 2015 publication: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

DNA simultaneously exists in a largely inactive B-form with bases tucked in and protected and an active, highly varied structure with exposed bases.

See also: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering

George Church and others may have been the first to place the naturally occurring biophysically constrained energy-dependent processes of ecological adaptations into the context of a patent. (It is extremely unusual for anyone to attempt to patent a naturally occurring process.) That explains why there is no patent litigation, which still plagues those who claimed to discover the CRISPR-Cas 9 innate immune system of bacteria, which biophysically constrains viral latency and prevents the degradation of messenger RNA that links the energy-dependent creation of bacteria to the virus-driven creation of archaea and L-forms. All biophysically constrained virus-driven pathology has since been placed back into the context of embryogenesis and the dynamics of energy-dependent gene expression at the level of single-cell resolution as if bacteria somehow evolved into humans.

See:

Single-cell reconstruction of developmental trajectories during zebrafish embryogenesis
Single-cell mapping of gene expression landscapes and lineage in the zebrafish embryo
The dynamics of gene expression in vertebrate embryogenesis at single-cell resolution
Chronicling embryos, cell by cell, gene by gene
Reported as: How one cell gives rise to an entire body
See for comparison our section on molecular epigenetics in: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
Watch pseudoscientists continue to make ridiculous claims that fail to link the creation of biophysically constrained thermonuclear energy to autophagy and all biodiversity in the context of the cell biology game Cytosis and most of the forthcoming presentations during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018.
Remember to note that at the end of the parody All About that Base, the research group politely refers to Neil deGrasse Tyson as a big ass (er, a bass). Try not to use the acronym ROTFLMAO in attempts to discuss what is known to all serious scientists with theorists.

Biology to a Physicist

Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (4)

Premise: Sunlight is the energy as information that is required to link endogenous RNA interference to healthy longevity
Counter claim:  The Quantum Thermodynamics Revolution: Information theory

Understanding entropy as a subjective measure allows the universe as a whole to evolve without ever losing information.

Precision Medicine virtual conference, Feburary 22-23, 2017

Title: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

  •  James V. Kohl
  • RNA-mediated.com
  • jvkohl@bellsouth.net
  • Abstract describing the poster

 

Narrative: The term microRNA has been used in 58,000 indexed works. All the works support claims that link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from endogenous RNA interference to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry and cell type differentiation.
For comparison, news from last week reported: Physicists make the case that our brains’ learning is controlled by entropy.
On the same day, George Church spoke during the highest-profile lecture program at the NIH. His topic was “The future of genetic codes and BRAIN codes
But he failed to link energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference or exogenous RNA interference to the genetic codes or the brain codes.
For contrast, the systems complexity of energy-dependent top-down RNA-mediated causation is detailed here.
The details can be compared to claims that minimal mutational differences might link energy and/or entropy to the evolution of all morphological and behavioral diversity on Earth via DNA.
What I have done is to link Quantized Energy as Information from chirality and hydrophobicity to thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation via the potential of hydrogen, which is referred to as pH.
pH links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from hydroxylation to the de novo creation of nucleic acids and hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution.
Photosynthesis links the creation of G protein-coupled receptor genes from the innate immune system to nutritional epigenetics and autophagy.
pH-taxis, chemotaxis, thermotaxis and phototaxis link microRNA biogenesis and microRNA flanking sequences from hydrogen energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to autophagy.
Autophagy links everything currently known about nutritional epigenetics from alternative splicings of pre-messenger RNA to nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions.
For example, feedback loops link odors and pheromones to the physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates via substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide.
Simply put, endogenous RNA interference clearly links RNA-directed DNA methylation from DNA repair to supercoiled DNA and healthy longevity in all living genera via fixation of achiral glycine and/or fixation of other amino acid substitutions in all species.
For comparison, excess STRESS links reduced pH to virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
The cited works that support the details in this poster link epigenetically-effected changes in amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation from archaea to Zika virus-damaged human DNA.
When that fact is considered in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative it becomes clear that virus-driven energy theft links neural circuitry, odor hedonics, mood, memory, motivation, expressions of affect, cognitive behavioral state, and potentiating responses to other stimuli from nutritional and/or social stress to mutations and all pathology.
In the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative, prevention of pathology is achieved only in the context of nutritional epigenetics and the National Microbiome Initiative.
The National Microbiome Initiative links energy-dependent fixation of nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
That fact helps to explain why exogenous RNA interference might sometimes be effective IF it restores nutrient-energy-dependent viral latency.
The failure to restore viral latency can now be placed into the context of three recent additions to the Merriam-Webster dictionary:
Phytoremediation,
Microbiome,
and CRISPR.
Taken together, the dictionary definition of these terms replaces ideas about evolved biodiversity that were based on de Vries 1902 definition of mutation. That definition led to the assumptions of population geneticists who never linked energy-dependent metabolic networks to genetic networks via endogenous RNA interference and the physiology of reproduction.
POSTER TEXT
Fact: The ribosome links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA. The ribosome acts as a molecular decoder and as sensor that couples changes in the efficiency of messenger RNA (mRNA) translation to its biophysically constrained stability, which is regulated by energy-dependent stop codons.
1) ATP hydrolysis by UPF1 is required for efficient translation termination at premature stop codons
Alternative: Temperature-dependent biological processes could theoretically occur within a  range from –50°C, where cells vitrify or at +140°C when evolutionary theorists seem to think that nucleic acids spontaneously hydrolyze.
2)  Evolutionary drivers of thermoadaptation in enzyme catalysis
Elaboration: The speed of light on contact with water links adenosine triphosphate  (ATP) from energy-dependent changes in chirality and hydrolysis to phosphorylation. The anti-entropic virucidal effects of sunlight  link the energy-dependent creation of RNA to the innate immune system. For example, the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is energy dependent. Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling from ATP to the physiology of reproduction via GPCRs and nutrient energy-dependent phosphorylation.
The innate immune system links chirality to autophagy to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry in all living genera. Nutrient energy-dependent fixed RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft.
For example, nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) has been linked to cell type differentiation and species diversity via nutritional epigenetics and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in nematodes.
3). Endogenous RNAi Pathways Are Required in Neurons for Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
Example and summary: “….the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones are involved in neurogenic niche construction as exemplified in nematodes…”  See Bumbarger et al., (2013) as cited in Kohl (2013)
4) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
Nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing links codon identity to the biophysically constrained stability of  mRNA. Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality appears to be the link from Darwin’s “conditions of life” to endogenous RNAi and all biodiversity via conserved molecular mechanisms in all living genera.
5) Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
The ATP-dependent creation of RNA links energy from endogenous RNAi to the stability of mRNA and  healthy longevity. That fact underlies every aspect of metabolic theory, which predicts how nutrient energy-dependent changes are linked from angstroms to ecosystems via genetic networks in all living genera.
6) Metabolic theory predicts whole-ecosystem properties
RNAi pathways appear to link ATP from hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to microRNA flanking sequences and to all morphological phenotypes and behavioral phenotypes via the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity.
7) The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
8) Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression
9) MicroRNA analysis in mouse neuro-2a cells after pseudorabies virus infection
10) microRNA-binding proteins: specificity and function
11) RNA in extracellular vesicles
12) Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
Alternative facts and the ‘arbitrium’ system link communication among viruses and bacteria to all biodiversity on Earth inside and outside the context of quorum sensing. In the context of quorum sensing, viruses  decide how much energy to steal from cell types. Outside the context of quorum sensing in bacteria, the viruses must somehow tell each other exactly how much energy to use to link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the stability of their organized genomes via minimal mutational distances and/or de novo mutations.
13)  Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions
14) The human initiator is a distinct and abundant element that is precisely positioned in focused core promoters
15) Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders
In theory, until a specific cell type realizes that a change in chirality also indicates that energy is missing, the cell type does not decide to use autophagy to protect its supercoiled DNA from more energy theft. That theory links the alternative facts about the ‘arbitrium’ system from de novo mutations to evolution.
Theories of mutation-driven evolution fail to explain any aspect of what is known to those who have linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction. Two song parodies link the difference in theory and what is known about energy-dependent changes in base pairs to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. 16) All about the base and 17) Chemists know.
The diagram represents what is known about the systems complexity of energy-dependent changes in base pairs, amino acid substitutions and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which has been placed into the context of RNAi.
Two recently published articles by co-authors who are 2016 Nobel Laureates, link chirality to autophagy and endogenous RNAi. The current understanding of RNAi surpasses all understanding of systems complexity that was placed into the context of RNA-mediated DNA methylation.
18) Dynamic control of chirality and self-assembly of double-stranded helicates with light
19) The Intrinsically Disordered Protein Atg13 Mediates Supramolecular Assembly of Autophagy Initiation Complexes
Until now, most researchers have failed to link light induced changes in chirality to the biophysically constrained structurel of supercoiled DNA. That fact makes the difference between metabolic theory and the arbitrium’ system clear. All metabolic approaches explicitly and quantitatively link the natural selection of food to the control the carbon cycle at every level of examination that is required to link what organisms eat to supercoiled DNA via the physiology of reproduction. No alternative facts or theories are required. Supercoiled DNA links everything known about cell type differentiation in all  individuals of all species to energy-dependent ecosystems and the Earth’s biosphere.
Energy-dependent links from angstroms to ecosystem are clearly manifested in endogenous RNA interference, which links fixation of RNA amino acid substitutions in all differentiated cell types to the Precision Medicine Initiative. For comparison, links from virus-driven energy theft and gene-editing via the CRISPR-Cas9 technology are included in this proposal for the treatment of pathology. 20) RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering
In the context of human genome engineering: “Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).”
Simply put, viruses are used to edit DNA in genomes that are damaged by virus-driven energy theft. Researchers using the technology think they can biophysically constrain virus-driven energy theft with directed virus-driven editing.
The current political climate in the USA indicates that a paradigm shift has already occurred. The National Microbiome Initiative and the Precision Medicine Initiative collectively appear to be blocking attempts to deliver an exogenous RNAi-based treatment. The treatment has been referred to as a “billion dollar baby.” The alternative to spending billions more dollars to perfect the treatment, which may cost more than what most people can afford, will require more scientists to learn what is known about how the microbiome and metabolic networks are linked to precision medicine by  genetic networks.
In the context of precision medicine, learning more about how ecological variation and endogenous RNAi link metabolism from ecological variation to energy-dependent  ecological adaptation  in species form microbes to humans may make more sense than learning more about the use of viruses to repair DNA damage caused by other viruses.
For example, Roger Penrose inadvertently linked energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to exogenous RNA interference: How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?”(Roger Penrose 8 August 1991) in 20) What is Life?
See also: 21) Arginine 66 Controls Dark-State Formation in Green-to-Red Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins
22) Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor
The photoconvertible fluorescent proteins link energy-dependent endogenous RNAi to the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide, which links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all vertebrates to the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry in all living genera. Every aspect of every detailed link from angstroms to ecosystems involves the energy-dependent protein folding chemistry that links what organisms eat to the functional structure of supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
23) A Big Bang in spliceosome structural biology

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy is information. Objections over ruled. You're fired!

Objection: In the law of the United States of America, an objection is a formal protest raised in court during a trial to disallow a witness’s testimony or other evidence which would be in violation of the rules of evidence or other procedural law.
Americanism (ideology) links the laws of United States of America to God’s “Laws of Biology.”  Pseudoscientists violated the rules of evidence that link Darwin’s “conditions of life” from God’s “Laws of Biology” to all nutrient energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled biodiversity on Earth.
Laws of biology: why so few? (2010)

…every biological decision is optimal in a given environmental context. However, due to complex nature of biological organization it is difficult to think of a universal law or a theory in biology connecting all the levels, from atoms to ecosystems.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (excerpts)

  1. In Section One, the focus is on links between atoms and ecosystems via amino acid substitutions. In Section Two, the focus is on examples of links across a continuum of nutrient-dependent, pheromone-controlled, epigenetically-effected, receptor-mediated ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions and changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.
  2. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations exemplify how sensing nutrients and secreting the metabolites of nutrients accomplishes different tasks. Efficient circuits enable the functional flexibility that is required in ever-changing ecologies that cause species diversity. Biophysical constraints on ecological adaptations are exemplified in physical proof which suggests that Kohl’s Laws of Biology (Kohl’s Laws) represent what Darwin called ‘conditions of life.’

Natural selection for nutrient energy-dependent codon optimality is exemplified in species from archaea to humans. See for example: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition (2015)

The bias between codons or amino acids, and mRNA expression levels has been previously recognized across species and is thought to result from selection for efficient, accurate translation, and folding of highly expressed genes (Ikemura, 1982; Akashi, 1994; Akashi & Gojobori, 2002; Drummond & Wilke, 2008; Kudla et al, 2009; Novoa & Ribas de Pouplana, 2012). The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

That perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease placed endogenous RNA interference into the context of Intelligent Design after Darwin and all other serious scientists had linked it from sunlight to all biodiversity on Earth via their observations and experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect.
See for example: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

See for comparison: Membrane Patterns Carry Ontogenetic Information that is Specified Independently of DNA
Reported as: Peer-Reviewed Paper: Development Needs Ontogenetic Information that Cannot Arise from Neo-Darwinian Mechanisms

Wells recognizes that various well-established processes like alternative splicing and RNA editing often determine the amino acid sequence of proteins.

Like all pseudoscientists before him, Wells failed to recognize the most important fact of all. That fact was expressed in the context of the fact that gene expression is energy-dependent in DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION”(1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The pseudoscientists that failed to acknowledge that fact are among the losers that were placed into the following perspective:
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.Kalevi Kull (2016)
The losers can now be recognized in the context of the failure to provide the free delivery of God’s “billion dollar baby” to  healthcare practitioners. Simply put, many healthcare professionals were not told how to link energy from endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) to healthy longevity in all living genera. They were not told that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and endogenous RNAi have always linked angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. Why didn’t all medical practitioners learn that supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
See for examples of what was missing:
Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy

RNAi has targeted exogenous genes in models of viral infection…

RNA-triggered gene silencing (1999)
RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering (2015)

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

Alnylam Pharmaceuticals: RNAi Failure Could Catch Monsanto Investors Off Guard ? (2016)

The other technology besides CRISPR gene editing, which is the subject of this post is called RNAi technology. See link in references below as to the differences between CRISPR & RNAi technologies.

…something went horribly wrong, they don’t really know what it was other than it failed, caused death of some patients and so they discontinued the experimental drug. This has an uncanny similarity to and is reminiscent of the Tryptophan disaster – GM Potato & Árpád Pusztai affair & the GM pea causes allergic reactions to name a few.

“Deep inside its labs, Monsanto is learning how to modify crops by spraying them with RNA rather than tinkering with their genes”

Spraying crops with RNA causes RNA interference in the same way that the CRISPR/Cas9 technology replaced virus-altered RNA interference via use of other viruses that caused the innate immune response to link amino acid substitutions to DNA repair if the missing amino acids were again made available. It is like fighting fire with fire, which sometimes works to extinguish the life of one fire that is out of control but does not prevent other fires from emerging and destroying other properties, or the same property at a later date. The ominous prophecies from the Holy Bible now loom larger if, like all other prophecies, they are correct. Those who survive the next viral apocalypse seem likely to live long enough to die a fiery death that clearly will be linked to the sun’s biological energy from the protection of supercoiled DNA that once helped to ensure our healthy longevity.

See for comparison:  A Christian Worldview & Mental Health (2011)

Christian concern for the whole person includes both mind and body, so this volume encourages readers to think about theoretical and spiritual issues within Christian mental health care. Views are collected from various disciplines such as ethics, psychology, theology, counseling, and psychiatry. In its consideration of a Seventh-day Adventist spiritual identity in mental health theory and practice, this text will prove very valuable to mental health education.

The Christian worldview links what organisms eat to natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and healthy longevity, which links supercoiled DNA from the physiology of reproduction to all morphological and behavioral diversity in species from microbes to humans. The Christian worldview has typically been one in which peaceful coexistence is the desired goal. That goal is based on what is known about energy-dependent symbiosis and homeostasis in species from microbes to humans. The atheistic worldview is shared by proponents of Intelligent Design and others who are biologically uninformed. They seem to think that Darwin replaced the Laws of Biology, when what he repeated asserted was that “conditions of life” come first. Only pseudoscientists have continued to link mutations from natural selection to the evolution of one species from another across millions of years.
The pseudoscientists have organized a “March for Science” in an attempt to keep forcing their pseudoscientific nonsense on the biologically uninformed masses in the United States of American who were taught that they could break any of God’s Laws that they chose to break, after the Laws were broken by those who chose to believe in, and to teach, their ridiculous theories to several generations of children that grew up to become liberals.
But wait, here are a few more claims that can be placed into the context of the Laws of Biology, but not into the context of mutation-driven evolution.
Worm gene could be key to developing obesity treatment
Nutrient energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA link endogenous RNA interference to biophysically constrained biodiversity in nematodes that is exemplified in differences between C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth. The physiology of reproduction is controlled by pheromones in all living genera and the pheromones link microRNAs from supercoiled DNA to chromosomal inheritance in different species.
See also from 2013: Extracellular Regulation

During Caenorhabditis elegans development, the hermaphrodite-specific neurons (HSNs) migrate and then extend axons toward their functional targets. Posttranslational modification of heparan sulfate proteoglycans are important for HSN development, and so Pedersen et al. (p. 1404) tested the effect of disrupting or reducing chondroitin and heparan sulfate synthesis during C. elegans development. The results suggest that proteoglycan biosynthesis is tightly regulated by a microRNA pathway to shape the cell surface glycosylation architecture required to direct neuronal migration.

Females More Prone to Disease Due to Key Immunological Difference
This means the sex difference in cell types can be linked to the advent of sexual reproduction in yeasts via the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
See for comparison: Today on Darwin Day, Trey the Explainer Sends a Gift. He Power Owns Dr. Ben Carson! (Video)
The “Explainer” dismisses facts about energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference and pretends that the variants in the fossil record support the ridiculous theories of neo-Darwinian theorists. There is no way to explain his ignorance, or why he flaunts it.
See also: Team develops tool that maps functional areas of the genome to better understand disease

…sections of DNA called “enhancers” dictate where and when the gene information is read out.
 

Energy as information dictates gene expression in the context of established links from chirality to autophagy in species from microbes to humans.

See: Light Could Propel Nanorobots on a “Fantastic Voyage” Through the Human Body

“Light is a more effective option to communicate between the microscopic world and the macroscopic world,” said Tang.
 

All pathology is caused by virus-driven energy theft. The barrage of misinformation you are being subjected to is increasing each day.

See:How evolution alters biological invasions
also reported as:

Superspreader phages transfer drug resistance
Lucky for us, bacteriophages infect bacteria, not humans. That doesn’t mean they don’t have profound effects on us, however. A new report in the journal mBio from researchers at the University of Miami and the National Cancer Institute describes “superspreader” bacteriophages that promote DNA transfer from one bacterium to another – and some of this DNA codes for antibiotic resistance genes.

Does life have a purpose?
 

fruit-dove

Happy Darwin Day (2017)

My series of blog posts about the refutation of theistic evolution by George Church led him to contact me via email.

  1. He asked why he would get credit for or against the refutations
  2. He claimed he was trained in quantum physics.
  3. He claimed that he has authored peer reviewed papers on protein folding, biodiversity, supercoiling, etc.
  4. He wanted to know more but did not know enough about my target audience to realize why I included information about the viral hecatomb.
  5. He also claimed to have written more on what is known about endogenous RNA interference than on exogenous RNA interference.

I invited him to discuss this further on my FB group, or on this domain. He declined. That was a great end to my 2017 Darwin Day.
See Evolution-guided optimization of biosynthetic pathways, which was co-authored by George Church and published December 1, 2014.
There is no such thing as evolution-guided optimization. Natural selection for energy dependent codon optimality is the only link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation in all living genera. That means we can move forward without George Church and still place his comments into the context of “Trust me, I’m a biologist.
I think that most serious scientists agree that you can’t trust evolutionary theorists For comparison, you can trust Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
Darwin’s “conditions of life” link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Can you trust anyone who claims evolution did that?
See: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering 

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

Nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to viral latency and protection of organized genomes from endogenous viral elements. Targeting endogenous viral elements with RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions is the key to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation. Fixation of amino acid substitutions prevents problematic nearly identical copies. There is no need for uncontrolled copies if there is no need to find another energy source. Uncontrolled copies link virus-driven energy theft from mutations to all pathology in all genera.
For example, energy theft from bacteria links messenger RNA degradation to morphological and behavioral phenotypes of archaea. Similarly, messenger RNA degradation in humans links the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged DNA to craniofacial morphology and brain development in infants.
Taken together with what is known about differences in energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in nematodes, all ridiculous misrepresentations of Darwin’s works must be reversed to show the truth about what virus-driven energy theft does. It links RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the energy-dependent creation of bacteria to the energy-dependent creation of humans and it links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis… 

Is Eugene Koonin joking about what was left out? If not, big bang cosmologists and neo-Darwinian theorists have never tried to support their ridiculous theories with any experimental evidence of biologically based cause and effect. They never examined the role of energy-dependent microRNAs or virus-driven energy theft. Instead, they invented gene-centric theories of mutation-driven evolution.

See for comparison: Membrane Patterns Carry Ontogenetic Information that is Specified Independently of DNA
Reported as: Peer-Reviewed Paper: Development Needs Ontogenetic Information that Cannot Arise from Neo-Darwinian Mechanisms

With over 400 citations to the technical literature, this well-researched and well-documented article shows that embryogenesis depends on crucial sources of information that exist outside of the DNA.

A 16 page monograph with 12 pages of citations is an unparalleled achievement for anyone who is not a polymath or someone who has not already linked physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to all biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all living genera via fixation of nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
None of the cited works appear to link what is known about virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Again, it is time to move forward.
See: Charles Darwin’s Ocean Upwelling

It’s hard to overstate how vital Darwin’s coral reef theory was in developing his career and thinking. It paved the way, conceptually and methodologically, for everything to come — particularly his transmutation theory [natural selection]. The likenesses startle. Like the transmutation theory, the coral reef theory described how small, virtually unnoticeable changes could create differences of essential type in seemingly immutable forms — and in doing so, account for broad patterns of development and difference.

Changes in coral reefs are nutrient energy-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. De vries defined “mutation” in 1902, which means that Darwin could not have had a transmutation theory. Also, Darwin repeatedly asserted the claim that his “conditions of life” must come before any claims about natural selection.
Darwin Day 2017 may become known as the day George Church refused to publicly discuss evolution or to admit there is no such thing as evolution outside the context of virus-driven energy theft and the evolution of  pathology. On the same day, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History blog site published a post that misrepresented everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and healthy longevity.  Who could ask for a better Darwin Day than one during which Darwin’s “conditions of life” clearly triumphed over the ridiculous claims made by neo-Darwinian theorists and others who refuse to admit to the facts that link energy-dependent changes in chirality from autophagy to endogenous RNA interference and to supercoiled DNA, which prevents virus-driven energy theft from causing the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology?
 

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

The tipping point? 50,000 publications (5)

For review see my blog posts “The tipping point? 50,000 publications” with follow-ups: (2) (3) & (4).

There are now more than 52,000 published works that link microRNAs to cell type differentiation in the context of healthy longevity or virus-driven energy theft, which has been linked from viral latency to all pathology.

At the rate of ~1000 more publications per month that link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity or link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, it won’t be much longer until public outcry puts an end to the money-grabbing evolution industry and big bang cosmology industry support of theories.

Combating Evolution to Fight Disease is the next step forward to altering the progress of pathology. Others have learned enough about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to move science forward by leaving neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense behind.

See: Life’s Greatest Secret: The Race to Crack the Genetic Code

Excerpt from:

 “Information” was about to enter science, but had not done so when Schrödinger gave his lectures. Without that conception of the content of the code, Schrödinger’s insight was merely part of the zeitgeist, a hint of what was to come rather than a breakthrough that shaped all subsequent thinking.– Matthew Cobb (2015)

See for comparison:

I am absolutely certain that if you showed this statement to any professor of biology or genetics in any accredited university anywhere in the world that 100% of them would say that “Random mutations are the substrate upon which directional natural selection acts” is a correct and true statement. — Jay R. Feierman (2013)

My comment: Schrodinger’s published claims (1944) set the stage for discussions about energy as information in the context of reality. His equation helped those who were interested in discussion. His claim about the link from sunlight as the source of fuel for all biodiversity is rarely mentioned. Feierman, for example, seems to think that random mutations can somehow be linked from natural selection to all biodiversity.

See for comparison:What is Life?

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight)

See also the forward by Roger Penrose

Excerpt:

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?

My comment: If you can link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, you can link ultraviolet light to RNA-mediated DNA repair via the innate immune system, the physiology of reproduction, and supercoiled DNA, which typically protects us from all virus-driven energy theft and pathology.
The energy as information is linked from RNA methylation to learning and memory at the cellular and organismal level is the basis for this patent application: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering
Excerpt:

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

My comment: Latent viruses (i.e., endogenous viral elements) are the obvious source of all pathology.  See: “…viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…” Paul M. Lieberman
If a patent is issued for RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering, the technology may never be available to all those who need it.
Indeed, the people who need the technology most may never be told why they need it. They will need it because the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of energy-dependent reproduction has been altered by the use of viruses to genetically modify the nutritional value of plants that people eat for food. Now others have learned that virus altered nutrient stress and social stress make the largest contribution to how and why viral latency becomes life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk.  Apparently, they intend to make billions with technology that uses RNA to repair DNA, which is what our innate immune system always has done. The RNA-mediated repair is their  RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering.
See also: N6-methyladenosine of HIV-1 RNA regulates viral infection and HIV-1 Gag protein expression
Excerpt:

These findings suggest that adenosine methylation plays an important role in regulating the ability of HIV to thrive and multiply in T-lymphocytes, which are an important target for HIV. Since the RNAs of other human viruses, such as influenza virus, can also be modified by adenosine methylation, drugs that target this pathway could have the potential to be used to fight a variety of viral illnesses.

My comment: The fact that they have linked energy-dependent RNA methylation to RNA-directed DNA methylation and healthy longevity via prevention of virus-driven energy theft is presented in the context of drug development, which is typical. No one makes much money by reporting how energy-dependent cell type differentiation is linked to healthy longevity.  For comparison, the RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering patent may be worth billions.

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Did “Nature” kill Steve Jobs? (3)

So Many Research Scientists, So Few Openings as Professors

Excerpt:

Even someone as brilliant as Emmanuelle Charpentier, who in 2015 became head of the Max Planck Institute for Infection Biology after a momentous discovery in gene editing, spent the previous 25 years moving through nine institutions in five countries.

My comment: Why did she move around so much when in the same year, on 07/02/2015, George Church and colleagues filed a patent application for “RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering.”
Excerpt:

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

My comment: I suspect that Emmanuelle Charpentier was forced to move around and that others are now going to link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology and take credit for discoveries people like Emmanuelle Charpentier reported. If successful, those with successfull patent applications typically make the money that goes with the credit for taking others works and hiding information that would help others put an end to virus-driven pathology.

See also:  What does it mean for researchers, journalists and the public when secrecy surrounds science?

Excerpt:

…some observers were concerned that the organizers’ decisions – which included seeking industry partners and private funding – were quiet moves towards “privatiz[ing] the current conversation about heritable genetic modification.”

My comment: What does it cost others in terms of their health or their careers when only a few key people control the release of information about how energy-dependent genetic modifications could be used to benefit humanity? If a few key people continue reporting their works in terms used by theorists, such as mutations and evolution, what must serious scientists do to try to stop them?

See for example: RNA sequencing uncovers antisense RNAs and novel small RNAs in Streptococcus pyogenes

My comment: Emmanuelle Charpentier is the senior author. You could ask her about the role RNA-guided genetic engineering plays in microbes for comparison to the role that RNA-mediated genetic engineering plays in humans.

See for example:  The Mechanisms of Virulence Regulation by Small Noncoding RNAs in Low GC Gram-Positive Pathogens

Excerpt:

In order for pathogens to successfully infect and colonize a host, strict control of virulence is critical. Recently, a group of noncoding RNAs called small RNAs (sRNAs) has been recognized as an essential factor of virulence control in many pathogens. These bacterial sRNAs have become the most abundant class of post-transcriptional regulators [1].

My comment: Energy-dependent control of cell type differentiation is RNA-mediated. If viral latency is not controlled by nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs, the proliferation of viruses may cause unrepaired DNA damage that can be epigenetically inherited across generations. With Zika virus damage as an example, why have so few serious scientists called attention to the facts about cell type differentiation?

See also: Voices of biotech Published online 10 March 2016

My comment: Both these researchers obviously understand the need to detail how energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair typically prevent virus-driven mutations and pathology. If patents prevent others from using the technology that is available, only the wealthy will benefit from research funded by your tax dollars, which are funneled through the gatekeepers of the evolution industry and, to a lesser extent, the gatekeepers of the big bang cosmology industry.

Jennifer Doudna: Exciting opportunities in genome engineering include curing human genetic disease, creating disease-resistant crops and trees, and developing fungi capable of sustainable chemical production. To advance fundamental knowledge and applications of genome engineering, new technologies for delivering editing molecules into cells and tissues are needed, as well as ways of controlling DNA repair and chemical modification pathways.

Feng Zhang: Being able to modify the genome and to modulate gene expression precisely has enormous potential for advancing our understanding of biology, treatment of diseases and development of important agricultural products. The efficiency of making precise genetic changes needs to be increased. We need to advance our understanding of DNA damage and repair processes and to explore and harness the diversity of DNA-acting molecular mechanisms in nature.

Please revisit: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy Published to YouTube on 30 Mar 2016

Abstract:

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

My presentation placed the invention of neo-Darwinian theory into its proper context.

See Schrodinger (1944)

“…about forty years ago the Dutchman de Vries discovered that in the offspring even of thoroughly pure-bred stocks, a very small number of individuals, say two or three in tens of thousands, turn up with small but ‘jump-like’ changes, the expression ‘jump-like’ not meaning that the change is so very considerable, but that there is a discontinuity inasmuch as there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. The significant fact is the discontinuity. It reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries’s mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology. We shall see later that this is much more than figurative. The mutations are actually due to quantum jumps in the gene molecule. But quantum theory was but two years old when de Vries first published his discovery, in 1902. Small wonder that it took another generation to discover the intimate connection! (page 33-34).”

Excerpt from the forward to the reprint:

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy? — Roger Penrose
My comment: De Vries called the energy-dependent changes “mutations” and neo-Darwinists assumed that the changes could be linked to the evolution of one species from another. Only recently have serious scientists tried to force the biologically uninformed theorists to acknowledge that virus-driven energy theft prevents beneficial mutations from being considered in the context of all the links from angstroms to ecosystems that must be considered in the context of ecological variation.

When Roger Penrose asks about the quantum effects of food energy, he presents a direct challenge to people like George FR Ellis who ignore the facts about food energy and the facts about virus-driven energy theft, and the fact that the physiology of reproduction links top-down causation from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera.

See my review: Energy vs virus-driven energy theft must be considered in the context of adaptive changes in the brain, June 12, 2016

My comment: Energy-dependent changes in cell types and in all tissues of all individuals of all living genera have been considered by serious scientists, but ignored by pseudoscientists and other theorists, who simply put have killed people like Steve Jobs with their ignorance.

Pancreatic cancer ‘breakthrough’ hailed

This was reported as if it was a “medical miracle.”

Excerpt:

…treatment options for someone with pancreatic cancer are “limited”, with the surgical removal of tumors possible in less than one fifth of patients. Apple co-founder and former CEO Steve Jobs died of the disease in 2011.

My comment: The facts about RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and biophysically constrained cell type differentiation that link the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA via the physiology of reproduction have been known for at least two decades. Virus-driven energy theft has been linked to all pathology for more than three decades. Medical miracles should be linked to those who survived the past few decades of ignorance that clearly should have linked energy to RNA-mediated gene duplication.

See for example: RNA-mediated gene duplication: the rat preproinsulin I gene is a functional retroposon (1985)

For comparison, see: RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity (2013)

See also: RNA-mediated gene duplication, fixation, and ecological adaptation (2015)

See also: JBC Thematic Minireview Series RNA-mediated Regulation and Noncoding RNAs (2007)

Excerpt with my emphasis on their emphasis:

Ten research articles in the collection cover topics ranging from mechanisms of post-transcriptional gene regulation by microRNAs to activation of the RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR, by double-stranded viral RNA in a process critical to the innate immune response. Additional results of recent investigations of microRNA biogenesis and mechanism of action are distilled in a minireview with a specific emphasis on the roles of microRNAs in viral infection and oncogenesis.

For specific information on the role of microRNAs in different types of pancreatic cancers, see: microRNA “pancreatic cancer”

My comment: Many researchers have failed to link any of the biomarkers from pathology in neuroscience to the pathology of cancer.

See for example: Neurons Form Synapse Clusters

Excerpt:

“The existence of these clusters suggests that the synapses interact with each other to control the strength of the combined signal,” explains Onur Gökçe, author of the study. This is the first anatomical explanation for the disproportionate strength of clustered synapse signals in comparison to the individual signals – a finding known from activity measurements.

My comment: It is not the first anatomical explanation. It links energy-dependent changes in morphological and behavioral phentotypes to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in every neuronal system that is linked via feedback loops to the gonadotropin releasing hormone neuronal system of all vertebrates. We did that in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. See our section on molecular epigenetics.

The existence of these “clusters” also links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. That fact refutes every claim made by neo-Darwinian theorists who are still trying to convince you that they correctly linked mutations from natural selection to increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to humans.  Mutations in the “clusters” link energy-dependent changes from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. All serious scientists know that, especially those who have linked angstroms to ecosystems via energy-dependent changes in the immune system, which are clearly linked to supercoiled DNA. The supercoiled DNA links RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to all morphological and behavioral phenotypes via the physiology of reproduction. It’s time to look at the facts from the perspective of ethics and the suffering and death caused by researchers who are willing to delay reporting results that clearly link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. They are waiting to cash in.
I reiterate: What does it mean for researchers, journalists and the public when secrecy surrounds science?

Excerpt:

The global market for synthetic DNA is estimated at nearly US$1 billion annually, and does not typically draw much ethical scrutiny. Indeed, both Drs. Church and Endy are co-founders of a DNA synthesis company called Gen9. 

See also: Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy
George Church and others appear to be waiting to deliver their billion dollar baby until their patent is granted. However, there is still time for others to force them to disclose the basis for their patent application and also admit that the information on RNA-mediated cause and effect has been known to many others for at least two decades.
Unfortunately, the devil is in the details of what is known.
For example: The miRacle in Pancreatic Cancer by miRNAs: Tiny Angels or Devils in Disease Progression
Excerpt:

…it is important to identify biomarkers that can detect early stages of this devastating disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Among these biomarkers, microRNAs (miRNAs) have supplied a profitable recourse and become an attractive focus of research.

My comment: If you still cannot find how “devil” is linked from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, it is probably because you were not taught where to look. If you were taught to link mutations and natural selection to the evolution of increasing organismal complexity, you never learned about the difference between energy-dependent healthy longevity and virus-driven pathology during life history transitions that link biophysically constrained protein folding to the physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity in species from microbes to humans.
See also: Is Schizophrenia a Disorder of the Immune System?
Excerpt:

They conclude that schizophrenia does not appear to be an autoimmune disease and that the illness could be caused by environmental risk factors which activate the immune response, like infections or stress, although further research is needed.

My comment: Further research is always needed, but not to link nutrient-stress and/or social stress to pathology via changes in pH in specific tissues of organs, like the liver, pancreas, or brain. The stress-induced changes in pH have been linked to all pathology via the immune system and energy-dependent histones that are called oncohistones in what appears to be an attempt to confuse people about the role that energy-dependent amino acid substitutions play in healthy longevity. The oncohistones are amino acid substitutions that link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.  Calling amino acid substitutions “oncohistones” blurs the defined boundaries between epigenetics and genetics at a time when most serious scientists have already realized there is no boundary between epigenetics and genetics. Pseudoscientists took the definition of “mutation” and used it in their assumptions about biologically-based cause and effect, which they thought explained how one species evolved into another species. No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect ever supported their ridiculous claims, so “oncohistones” must link mutations to healthy longevity and to virus-driven pathology in the context of ridiculous theories.
In the context of what is known about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and cell type differentiation a different story has emerged and evolved.
See also: Gen9 Our Founders
Excerpts (with my emphasis):

Joseph Jacobson

He has authored over 70 peer reviewed papers and conference proceedings in the fields of femotosecond lasers, quantum optics, molecular electronics, nano-chemistry and synthetic DNA. In the private sector Joe was co-founder of E Ink, Kovio and Gen9 and was a founding board member of One Laptop Per Child (OLPC).

George Church

Professor of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Director of the Center for Computational Genetics. 1984 Harvard PhD included the first direct genomic sequencing method, molecular multiplexing tags, which lead to automation & software used at Genome Therapeutics Corp. for the first commercial genome sequence — pathogen, Helicobacter in 1994. This multiplex solid-phase sequencing evolved into polonies (1999), ABI-SOLiD (2005) & open-source Polonator.org (2007). Innovations in DNA reading, writing & allele replacement in cells lead to current research & commercialization in human genomics (Complete Genomics, PersonalGenomes.org, 23andme, Knome), synthetic biology (SynBERC, Joule, LS9) & new ethics/security strategies.

My comment: Femtosecond blasts of ultraviolet light link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to DNA repair and they link the physiology and reproduction of soil bacteria from the bull sperm microRNAome to microRNAs in breast milk, which protect against further DNA damage from the Zika virus. Helicobacter pylori and other bacteria link virus-driven energy theft in the bacteria to cancer.  By the time human genomics is fully commercialized, the billions of dollar spent on research will be used to line the pockets of those who deliver their billion dollar babies to the people who have not yet suffered and died from virus-driven pathology. Those who remain will receive better treatment, but no one will be told anything more about preventing the virus-driven pathology. Greed is the nature of all human suffering, and it will always link either the angels or the devils from microRNA flanking sequences to RNA-guided human genome editing via what is known about RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and virus-driven pathology compared to nutrient energy-dependent healthy longevity.
What should serious scientists who want to help people avoid unnecessary suffering and death do? How can they make more people realize that the commercialization in human genomics  synthetic biology and new ethics/security strategies are killing us all?

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Funding the Human Genome Project-Write

The Genome Project-Write

Excerpt:

…understanding of genetic blueprints could come from construction of large, gigabase (Gb)-sized animal and plant genomes, including the human genome, which would, in turn, drive development of tools and methods to facilitate large-scale synthesis and editing of genomes. To this end, we propose the Human Genome Project-Write (HGP-write), named to honor HGP-read but embracing synthesis of all large genomes.

My comment: Synthesis is nutrient energy-dependent and the synthesis of all large genomes links the innate immune system to the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Synthesis of all genomes also is RNA-mediated, which explains why George Church and Luhan Yang are named in the patent application for RNA-guided human genome engineering.
Excerpt 2) 

The goal is to launch HGP-write in 2016 with $100 million in committed support, from public, private, philanthropic, industry, and academic sources from around the world. The costs of the project lie not only in obtaining de novo synthesized DNA but in the assembly, integration, and functional assays required to evaluate and understand the modified genomes. Total project costs are difficult to estimate but would likely be less than the $3 billion cost of HGP-read.

My comment: Funding the Human Genome Project-Write (HGP-write) will probably help George Church and others secure the patent and to deliver their “Billion Dollar Baby” ahead of schedule.  When others realize that the “Baby” exemplifies what is already known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative and the National Microbiome Initiative,  all funding that has been wasted on projects that reinforce the views of pseudoscientists about mutations and evolution will be recognized as the biggest waste of money that any government has ever directly or indirectly sanctioned.
It is time to ask people like George Church to explain the difference between RNA-guided and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation or admit that they have known how it occurs in the context of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry but are waiting to secure their patent(s) for maximum profit from the works of all others who know how to link angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera.