An evolutionary theory killer

ATP and RNA-mediated chromosomal stability

Cytosis, a cell biology game for ages 10+ links ATP to viral latency and the protection of all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that serious scientists have linked to all pathology.
It is time for a new measure of cell function: Quantifying Cellular ATP Production Rate…(2018)

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the most common high energy intermediate of living organisms. Cells utilize the energy derived from the breakdown of cellular fuels to synthesize ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate. The free energy released from ATP hydrolysis is then used to sustain various cellular functions such as growth, movement, and response to the environment. Mammalian cells tightly regulate production and consumption of ATP – i.e. supply and demand are balanced to maintain intracellular ATP levels quite constant. Therefore, measuring the rate of ATP production enables a view into cellular function that is not provided by simply measuring the amount of ATP in the cell. The Agilent Seahorse XF Real-Time ATP Production Rate Assay quantifies ATP Production Rates from mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis in real time with live cells providing a unique insight into cellular phenotype and function.

See also: Ferrick DA Remember that ATP does not create itself. The creation of ATP and the creation of RNA are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight.
For example: Assessment of drug-induced mitochondrial dysfunction via altered cellular respiration and acidification measured in a 96-well platform

…respiration and acidification changes upon addition of the thiazoldinediones were cell-type specific, with the rank order of mitochondrial impairment in whole cells being in accord with the known adverse effects of these drugs.

Cell-type specific drugs alter the mitochodrial production of ATP, which alters the production of RNA via changes in the potential of hydrogen (pH).
See also:  Analysis and interpretation of microplate-based oxygen consumption and pH data

…this chapter also provides a detailed accounting of proton production during glucose oxidation in the context of plate-based assays.

Difference in proton production link differences in the energy of photons from the proton motive force and proton gradients to energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Pseudoscientists and other theorists complain about so-called predatory publishing and use their complaints to attack anyone who does not “toe the line” of dogmatic consensus. See for example: OMICS Publishing Group
See also: Prominent Cell Biologist Fired After Data Manipulation Investigation

The University of Tokyo confirmed last August that Yoshinori Watanabe tampered with research-related images, and dismissed him in late April.

In 2015, his group stomped on the toes of biologically uninformed theorists. The group published:
The inner centromere–shugoshin network prevents chromosomal instability

Artificial restoration of the ICS network suppresses chromosome segregation errors in a wide range of CIN+ cells, including RB- and BRCA1-deficient cells. Thus, dysfunction of the ICS network might be a key mechanism underlying CIN in human tumorigenesis.

Food energy-dependent RNA-interference has since emerged as an effective treatment for all chromosomal instability, which appears to be caused by the virus-driven theft of quantized energy.
Additional details about energy-dependent healthy longevity will be found in the Science Behind the Game Subatomic which will link biophysically constrained viral latency from Cytosis to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See also: New EU-wide tests to tackle ‘food apartheid’

…recent comparisons of food samples showed that big Western brands use cheaper ingredients in products sold in former communist countries.

The cheaper ingredients could alter the innate immunity of human populations in former Communist countries, where God-less Communism was supported by ridiculous theories.
See: Darwinian Theory Proved by Video Game? Robert J. Marks Begs to Differ (2017)

We’ve begun developing support materials for teachers and students to help them use ‘Darwin’s Demons’ to demonstrate and teach evolutionary concepts.

A National Science Foundation grant for evolution studies helped pay for the project.

Conclusion:

Adaptation, if anything, demonstrates intelligent design, not Darwinism. Of course they won’t tell you that at the University of Idaho, or most anywhere else. Instead they’ll stick you in front of a video game and tell you the stale, old fable.

Ecological models of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained adaptations have replaced evolutionary concepts except within the school system of the US and other backward countries.
See: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution

…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.

All serious scientist know the difference between evolution and adaptation.
See:  Are Evolution and Adaptation the Same? (2018)
The energy-dependent de novo creation of the cell links ATP to RNA biosynthesis and the physiology of reproduction via food odors and pheromones in the context of this board game.

Cytosis is a worker placement game that takes place inside a Human Cell! Players utilize the organelles within a cell to collect cellular resources such as mRNA from the Nucleus, Lipids from the Smooth E.R., ATP from the Mitochondria, etc. and score points when they use these resources to complete Hormones, Receptors or Enzymes!

It refutes neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense by starting with Darwin’s energy-dependent “conditions of life.”

Conditions of life are mediated by RNA interference. See also: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering 

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptations vs the randomness of evolution (3)

Summary: Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
Serious scientists will meet during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018 to discuss the overwhelming amount of human idiocy exemplified in the works of theorists who failed to learn that life is “All about that base.”
Without the quantized energy-dependent creation of the base pairs, viral latency could not be biophysically constrained and entropy would be used to explain the evolution of biodiversity manifested in sympatric speciation.
See for comparison: The costs of living at the edge: Seasonal stress in wild savanna-dwelling chimpanzees

Adaptations associated with shifting from a predominately forested habitat to a more open environment are considered a crucial step in hominin evolution.

The adaptations are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For example, higher levels of dehydroepiandrosterone in humans are an adaptation.
See:  Dehydroepiandrosterone – is the fountain of youth drying out?

…humans are unique in having adrenals that secrete large amounts of the prohormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate, DHEA-S, into the bloodstream of males and females. Even non-human primates produce only ~10% of the DHEA found in humans

Carl Zimmer places everything known about how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptations into the context of human evolution.
See: Hints of Human Evolution in Chimpanzees That Endure a Savanna’s Heat

Millions of years ago, our apelike ancestors gradually moved from woodlands to savannas and began walking upright at some point. The Fongoli chimpanzees demonstrate just how difficult that transition would have been — and how that challenge may have driven some major changes in our evolution, from evolving sweat glands to losing fur and walking upright.

Before she graduated from her medical technologist course (circa 2014), I mentioned to Misty ______ the importance of  β-lactamase testing to understanding how the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs would soon be linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity on Earth via antibiotic susceptibility testing in the hospital medical laboratory.
Shared strategies for β-lactam catabolism in the soil microbiome

A hydrolase from the put operon was found to degrade in vitro benzylpenicilloic acid, the β-lactamase penicillin product.

This clearly exemplifies how the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in β-lactamase positive organisms is linked to antibiotic resistance via what all serious scientists know about the molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent cell type differentiation.
The findings were reported in the ridiculous context of claims about How Bacteria Eat Penicillin

…some of the bacteria could, in fact, eat the drugs… As it turned out, they were everywhere. He also found examples of the phenomenon in the scientific literature going back to the 1960s.

In 1964, McEwen et al, linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from Schrödinger’s claims in What is Life? (1944) to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA. Now, others like McEwen know that RNA interference biophysically constrains viral latency.
In 1968, Frohlich speculated that the highly ordered storage of quantized energy in species from microbes to humans linked hydrogen-atom transfer to the functional structure of cell membranes via the hydrogen bonds of molecules, or other dipolar constituents, which he linked to the shared energy supply that biophysically constrains life.
Fifty years later, only theorists and other pseudoscientists have failed to recognize the facts that link experimental evidence of differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force, which links the potential of hydrogen (pH) to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity on Earth. In that context, Carl Zimmer serves as an important example of human idiocy each time he makes claims about evolution.
See also: UTX-mediated enhancer and chromatin remodeling suppresses myeloid leukemogenesis through noncatalytic inverse regulation of ETS and GATA programs

By integrating proteomic and genomic analyses, we link these changes to UTX regulation of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, coordination of the COMPASS complex and enhanced pioneering activity of ETS factors during evolution to AML.

They linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of ATP to chromatin remodeling during the evolution of pathology, which all serious scientists know is biophysically constrained by the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)

A study of the influence of pheromone stressor(s) on proliferating germ and somatic cells was performed on laboratory lines of house mouse in the context of the physiological hypothesis of mutation process, proposed by M.E. Lobashev in 1947. Data from experiments are presented, and results obtained during last 10-15 years are discussed. The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.

The interorganism systems of genetic regulation have since been placed into the context of sympatric speciation by all serious scientists.
See: Direct estimation of mutations in great apes reveals significant recent human slowdown in the yearly mutation rate
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants

Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

MicroRNA-mediated denuclearization (4)

Summary: Christ’s lab showed that in vivo formation of I-motif structures is pH dependent and helped to put the “fear of God” into atheistic communists.

I-motif DNA structures are formed in the nuclei of human cells (4/23/18)

Reported as: In human cells, scientists find DNA that looks like a twisted knot instead of a double helix (4/23/18)

Also reported as: New Twisted ‘Knot’ Human DNA Structure Discovered—and It Looks Nothing Like the Double Helix (4/23/18)

Christ’s lab showed that in vivo formation of I-motif structures is pH dependent. Clearly, the potential of hydrogen (pH) and pH-dependent cell cycles link the quantized energy of virucidal sunlight to protection from the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
In that context, denuclearization has been forced on North Korea and other communist countries by scientific creationists in South Korea. The creationists have indirectly revealed that they could decimate human populations in China via the creation of a virus with one base pair change linked to one amino acid substitution.
See also: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Until recently, the pseudoscientific nonsense about vaccines that could protect human populations from the forthcoming viral apocalypse was tightly linked from communism to atheism. For comparison, Christ’s lab appears to have put the fear of God into its proper context; the 1918 Spanish flu.
Previously reported as: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (2015) and parodied in:

See also: The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine (2013)
See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (2017)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA.

Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution.

The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Diet-driven RNA interference and mental health (4)

See: Diet-driven RNA interference and mental health (3)

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress

Transmission from the stressed subject to the naive partner required the activation of PVN CRH neurons in both subject and partner to drive and detect the release of a putative alarm pheromone from the stressed mouse.

Reported as: Researchers discover brain cells change following close contact with a stressed individual

“There has been other literature that shows stress can be transferred — and our study is actually showing the brain is changed by that transferred stress,” says Toni-Lee Sterley, an Eyes High postdoctoral fellow in Bains’s lab and the study’s lead author. “The neurons that control the brain’s response to stress showed changes in unstressed partners that were identical to those we measured in the stressed mice.”

The researchers discovered that the activation of the neurons causes the release of a chemical signal, an “alarm pheromone,” from the mouse that alerts the partner. The partner who detects the signal can, in turn, alert additional members of the group.

This links Bruce McEwen’s works on stress to my works. It completes details of how the mouse-to-human model links nutrient stress-linked and social stress-linked mutations from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology. It predicts that fact that human pheromone-enhanced products will continue to be used to prevent or effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, and to prevent suicide.
See: Formulation and evaluation of anti-suicidal nasal spray of Thyrotropin releasing hormone
See also: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
The unnecessary suffering and premature deaths of ~ 22 veterans per day and many others who commit suicide or who suffer through largely ineffective treatments for cancer can be place into the context of two reviews:
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)
and Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
In my 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics, I linked one food energy-dependent base pair to fixation of one amino acid substitution and the stability of organized genomes in a modern human population. The stability was clearly linked from the creation of microRNAs via ingestion of sago palm-like leaves to an increase in endogenous vitamin C.
See also: Vitamins and Hormones Volume 106 Thyroid Hormone February 2018 (paywalled)
Vitamin C links a single base pair change to one amino acid substitution (V370A) in a modern human population. That fact can now be linked from my 2013 refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense to all biodiversity on Earth via the creation of sunlight and the Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The model organism that best represent the facts about epigenetic regulation of biophysically constrained ATP-dependent RNA-mediated viral latency is featured here: Meet the creature that can regenerate its brain and resist cancer.

A good model with a good model organism predicts. The mouse to human model predicts that one base pair and one fixed RNA-mediated amino acid substitution link the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all vertebrate biodiversity via food odors.  Predictably, in the axolotyl (aka the “walking fish”), an iodine isotope and cryo-EM technology will soon be used to establish the facts about how the creation of sunlight must be linked from the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA to DNA repair and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and healthy longevity in all living genera.

See also: Researchers ID New Mechanism for Keeping DNA Protein in Line

The actions of a protein used for DNA replication and repair are guided by electrostatic forces known as phosphate steering, a finding that not only reveals key details about a vital process in healthy cells, but provides new directions for cancer treatment research.
Electrostatic forces are not known as phosphate steering.
See: What is an Electrostatic Force?

Electrostatic force between electrons and protons is one of the strongest forces in the universe, even more powerful than gravity. A hydrogen atom, which contains only one electron and one proton, has the fundamental force of gravity keeping it together. However, each subatomic particle can develop electrostatic force as well, which becomes even stronger.

Pseudoscientists are prepared to attack serious scientists at every level of examination that includes aspects of how subatomic particles contribute to oxidative phosphorylation. Who doesn’t know about the role that subatomic particles play in biophysically constraining viral latency?
See: Subatomic: An Atom Building Game (2017)

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available Elements, which score them points. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton, Neutron, and Electron Cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom (by playing these cards face-up as Subatomic Particles) in an attempt to construct one of the available Element Cards. Or players may use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful cards for later use (by playing them in combinations of face-down as energy and face-up as Subatomic Particles!) Subatomic introduces a unique variation on deck building with a highly accurate chemistry theme…

The fact that Discover’s “My Science Shop” does not yet include information on the game “Subatomic” can be explained because the game is not yet available. The fact that Discover’s “My Science Shop” does not mention the availabilty of “Cytosis” suggests they are not willing to admit that their past representations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense were removed from consideration in 1944 when Schrödinger published “What is Life?”
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The most accurate of all chemistry themes has continued to link Schrödinger’s claims from  quantum physics and quantum chemistry to quantum biology via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. The conserved molecular mechanisms link energy-dependent epigenetics to healthy longevity. The conserved molecular mechanisms also link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology.
See also: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution (2013)
Classical biophysics does not have a ready explanation for the role of docosahexanoic acid (DHA), which appears to be irreplaceable in the context of a light-activated endogenous substrate that functions as an electron tunnelling device. DHA provides precise quantized signals that are essential to visual accuity in the context of synaptic signaling. The link from quantum physics to classical physics helps to explain why the energy-dependent creation of photoreceptors has been linked to their counter intuitive orientation — away from the incoming light.
But, I digress. I am often forced to digress by theorists who invent new terms, such as phosphate steering, to obfuscate what is know about epigenetically-effected top-down causation, which starts with effects of sunlight linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Top-down causation does not start with phosphate steering. It starts with the creation of receptors. If any aspect of biophysically constrained life on Earth started with phosphate steering, there would be more than one citation to the claim. There is only one. See. “Phosphate steering.”
For comparison to what is known about the link from microRNAs to the brain and behavior, see:
microRNA brain and microRNA behavior
See also: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene (2011)
and Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy (2013)

See: Epigenetics study helps focus search for autism risk factors

Within the Shank3 promoter 6 region they identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (or SNP, a common type of genetic variation) known as rs6010065. Analyzing genomic data from a clinical study of 554 children with autism and 214 healthy controls, they found that rs6010065 is indeed associated with autism spectrum disorder.

I reiterate. The profiles are energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction helps to ensure that viral latency is biophysically constrained by the dynamic processes. That fact can be compared to ridiculous claims about mutations and the “evolving profiles.”

See for example, this link from the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of the BDNF val66met polymorphism amino acid substitution to behavior in human infants.

The BDNF val66met polymorphism and individual differences in temperament in 4-month-old infants: A pilot study

See for comparison: Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity

Reported as: Newly discovered windows of brain plasticity may help with treatment of stress-related disorders 

…they looked at mice genetically engineered to carry a genetic variant associated with development of depression and other stress-related disorders in humans [ the variant is (BDNF Val66Met)] and present in 33 percent of the population.

If you don’t know where to look, you might find where the information on the BDNF Val66Met is buried. But, if you look at the life’s works of Bruce S. McEwen, you will discover what is known to all serious scientists about stress linked RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course (2017)

Heterozygous BDNF Val66Met mice are genetically susceptible to stress. The effects of stress on messenger RNA levels in wild-type mice was recapitulated but only via activation of immediate early genes when the heterozygous BDNF Val66Met mice were actually stressed. In the absence of stress, stress activated expression of immediate early genes is not worth studying. Similarly, it is not worth studying how nutrient stress is linked to social stress via c-fos activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroscretory neurons.

However, if baseline studies had not already linked expression of the Fos protein to epigenetic effects of pheromones on luteinizing hormone in mice, the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on humans might never have been linked to interethnic genetic differences in human morphology and behavior.

See: Influence of male rats on the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuronal system in female rats: role of the vomeronasal organ (1993)

[Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)

Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology (2001)

Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis (2011)

The link from diet-driven RNA interference to mental health can now be considered in the context of gene gains and losses.

For example, see: APOBEC1

  1. Catalytic component of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme complex which is responsible for the postranscriptional editing of a CAA codon for Gln to a UAA codon for stop in the APOB mRNA.
  2. Also involved in CGA (Arg) to UGA (Stop) editing in the NF1 mRNA.
  3. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation.

Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology

These data provide powerful evidence supporting the critical role of APOBEC1-mediated RNA editing in maintaining the balance between the homeostatic and activated immune functions of MG.

See also: Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Conceptual Framework (Part 1) and Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review (Part 2)

Reported as: Cellular ‘powerhouses’ may explain health effects of stress

The findings are especially exciting for the field of psychosomatic medicine, with its traditional focus on re-integrating the mind (“psyche”) and body (“soma”). Emerging evidence on the role of mitochondria in translating the effects of stress on health “extend the reach of mind-body research into the cellular-molecular domain that is the core foundation of current biomedical training and practice,” Drs. Picard and McEwen write. They emphasize the need for further studies to test various elements of their model, especially in humans. “Future research should consider the dynamic bi-directional interactions between mitochondria and other important physiological systems,” the authors conclude.

See also: Mitochondrial alterations and neuropsychiatric disorders

Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, where they generate the majority of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition, they are involved in a range of other processes, such as signalling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondria have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, the presence of mutations at the level of mitochondrial or nuclear DNA (mtDNA and nDNA, respectively) has been linked to personality disorders, behavioral disturbances, thought alterations, impulsivity, learning impairment, cognitive failures until dementia. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms or syndromes and mtDNA mutations or mitochondrial alterations, while highlighting novel therapeutic targets for a broad range of disorders.

 

http://nnjournal.net/article/viewFile/2354/1850/10234

Diet-driven RNA interference and mental health (2)

The diet-driven construction of the competing endogenous RNA networks (ceRNA networks) is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Viruses compete for the energy, which is how they contribute to the degradation of messenger RNA that all serious scientists have linked to all mental and physical pathology.

Cell death is not just seen in the context of autophagy and neural cell death. The pathogens that alter physiology also alter behavior via the conserved molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent RNA interference.

See for instance: Molecular Network-Based Identification of Competing Endogenous RNAs in Thyroid Carcinoma

In the future, more attention should be paid to the construction of ceRNA networks and the validation of biomarkers or RNA competing endogenous interactions.

MicroRNAs are the biomarkers that link diet-driven RNA competing endogenous interactions from RNA interference to mental health or to mental disorders.

See for comparison:  Interactions between neurotropic pathogens, neuroinflammatory pathways, and autophagic neural cell death

The presence of antigenic stimuli of pathogens can induce autophagic genes through a stratified array of principal immunologic processes, and therefore result in augmented autophagy and inflammation at the site of infection, which is considered to be protective to the host. However, an excessive auto-degeneration of the neuronal cells can be harmful. The question arises, whether there are any known direct interactions of intracellular pathogens (having neurotropism) with this degradative pathway that favor the pathogens for intracerebral survival and growth? It is worth exploring if there is any cooperation between pathogen factors altering immune inflammatory pathways, thereby influencing host cell autophagy regulatory genes that cause massive neuronal damage in intracranial infections as hypothesized presently [Figure 1]. Targeting some key pathways with respect to infectious causes of neurodegeneration will be the need of tomorrow’s new drug discovery that may or may not include the targeting of autophagy for minimizing brain matter degeneration.

There are many ways to say the same thing, and that is what’s happening in the context of their claims about  autophagic neural cell death.
See: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is the link to neurodegeneration and to the activation of death genes in all cell types of all tissues of all individuals of all living genera.
The interactions among pathogens, inflammatory pathways, and autophagy can be viewed from the bottom-up. See: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

The interactions among pathogens, inflammatory pathways, and autophagy can be viewed from the top-down.
Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics

Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner.

Monoallelic gene expression in olfactory neurons links parent-of-origin-specific epigenetic effects on genetic predispositions to all cell type differentiation via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes.  
See for comparison: Evolution unleashed: Is evolutionary science due for a major overhaul – or is talk of ‘revolution’ misguided? 

If evolution is not to be explained solely in terms of changes in gene frequencies; if previously rejected mechanisms such as the inheritance of acquired characteristics turn out to be important after all; and if organisms are acknowledged to bias evolution through development, learning and other forms of plasticity – does all this mean a radically different and profoundly richer account of evolution is emerging? No one knows:…

The late-breaking claim that “No one knows” can be compared to what is known to all serious scientists about molecular epigenetics. See for an unchanged historical perspective: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
See also:  Epigenetic mechanisms underlying nervous system diseases 

 

Re: “…evolving profiles of cell-extrinsic, cell-cell, and cell-intrinsic signals. These dynamic processes are responsible for mediating cell- and tissue-specific gene expression and function…”

The biophysically constrained profiles do not evolve. They link ecological variation to ecological adaptation via RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. The protein folding chemistry links energy-dependent changes in base pairs to fixation of amino acid substitutions in the cell types of all individuals of all species.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Diet-driven RNA interference and cancer prevention (3)

Excerpt: They claim to have found novel autoregulatory feedback loops that link changes in microRNAs to the alternative splicing factors SRSF1 and SRSF2.  Ectopic expression of SRSF1 can automagically repress the level of multiple microRNAs and SRSF2 can automagically upregulate miRNA expression.

The fact that a peer-reviewed work published in 2018 links autoregulatory feedback loops to automagically altered gene expression and apoptosis via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs suggests it is time for all serious scientists to retire. The magic of pseudoscientists has prevailed for more than 2 decades.

See for comparison: In clinical trial, cream reduces squamous cell carcinoma risk

Results of a new randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial in veterans showed a 75 percent reduction in the risk of needing surgery to treat a squamous cell carcinoma for a year after applying a skin cream for up to four weeks.

How Fluorouracil Works: (with my emphasis)

The ability of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells depends on its ability to halt cell division. Usually, the drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that tells the cell how to copy itself in division. If the cells are unable to divide, they die. The faster the cells are dividing, the more likely it is that chemotherapy will kill the cells, causing the tumor to shrink. They also induce cell suicide (self-death or apoptosis).

Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells only when they are dividing are called cell-cycle specific. Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells when they are at rest are called cell-cycle non-specific. The scheduling of chemotherapy is set based on the type of cells, rate at which they divide, and the time at which a given drug is likely to be effective. This is why chemotherapy is typically given in cycles.

Chemotherapy is most effective at killing cells that are rapidly dividing. Unfortunately, chemotherapy does not know the difference between the cancerous cells and the normal cells. The “normal” cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur. The “normal” cells most commonly affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and the hair follicles; resulting in low blood counts, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea, and/or hair loss. Different drugs may affect different parts of the body.

Fluoruracil belongs to the category of chemotherapy called antimetabolites. Antimetabolites are very similar to normal substances within the cell. When the cells incorporate these substances into the cellular metabolism, they are unable to divide. Antimetabolites are cell-cycle specific. They attack cells at very specific phases in the cycle. Antimetabolites are classified according to the substances with which they interfere. Fluoruracil is classified as a pyrimidine analog because it interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis by mimicking the building blocks necessary for synthesis.

The term antimetabolites is confusing. Metabolism is enzyme-dependent. Cell type differentiation is energy-dependent and the creation of microRNA links ATP to the creation of enzymes that metabolize food to the species-specific pheromones.
Pheromones biophysically constrain viral latency. That is how they prevent all pathology in the context of metabolism. Enzyme-dependent cycles of metabolism are the key to healthy longevity. Simply put, pheromones prevent the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of nearly all viruses that have not been biophysically constrained by food energy-dependent metabolism.

Hardin, Hall and Rosbash (1990) put that fact into the perspective of Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels. The feedback loops are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by naturally occurring RNA interference (i.e., natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality). The feedback links the metabolism of food to pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency.
 

Rosbash shared the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which attests to the fact that all serious scientists probably know how to prevent or to effectively treat cancer as a disorder of cyclic changes in the chemistry of energy-dependent RNA mediated cell type differentiation. Prevention should include limiting exposure to nutrient stress and/or social stress because stress alters microRNA-mediated alternative splicings that link food energy to the biophyiscally constrained chemistry of protein folding.

See: Microrna-mediated regulation of splicing factors SRSF1, SRSF2 and hnRNP A1 in context of their alternatively spliced 3’UTRs

The microRNAs targeting SRSF1 and SRSF2 are involved in a regulatory feedback loop. microRNAs miR-183-5p and miR-200c-3p that target SRSF2, affect the expression of genes involved in apoptotic regulation.

They claim to have found novel autoregulatory feedback loops that link changes in microRNAs to the alternative splicing factors SRSF1 and SRSF2.  Ectopic expression of SRSF1 can automagically repress the level of multiple microRNAs and SRSF2 can automagically upregulate miRNA expression.

The fact that a peer-reviewed work published in 2018 links autoregulatory feedback loops to automagically altered gene expression and apoptosis via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs suggests it is time for all serious scientists to retire. The magic of pseudoscientists has prevailed for more than 2 decades.

See for comparison:

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two [model organisms.]

See also:
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
The feedback loops are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

Sarcasm alert: The treatment of automagically dysregulated apoptosis should probably begin with a change in diet.

Changes in diet have been linked from the energy-dependent creation of enzymes that specifically link an energy-dependent base pair change to microRNA-mediated DNA repair via fixation of an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution. The substitutions are linked to energy-dependent cell type differentiation and healthy longevity without the magic.

Just add food energy or the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to eliminate the term autoregulatory and you could prevent or effectively treat all virus-driven pathology. 

Energy-dependent RNA interference links the enzyme-dependent metabolism of food and drugs to cell type differentiation via feedback loops that link pheromones to biophysically constrained viral latency.

Do not claim to have a logical philosophy if you cannot link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to every aspect of the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to human by starting with the obvious need to control viral replication in the ocean and linking the control to healthy longevity in modern human populations via fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in all differentiated cell types.

See also: Metabolic Labeling and Profiling of Transfer RNAs Using Macroarrays

Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are abundant short non-coding RNA species that are typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length. tRNAs are directly responsible for protein synthesis by translating codons in mRNA into amino acid sequences.

See also: Molecular mechanism of promoter opening by RNA polymerase III

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) and transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) assemble together on different promoter types to initiate the transcription of small, structured RNAs.

Nothing happens without the energy-dependent creation of the enzymes and the biophysically constrained viral latency that links the creation of G protein-coupled receptors to the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. The claims about molecular mechanisms of promoter opening appear to be deliberate attempts to obfuscate cause and effect.
Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling inhibits melanoma and improves response to immune checkpoint blockade

Female sex and history of prior pregnancies are associated with favorable melanoma outcomes. Here, we show that much of the melanoma protective effect likely results from estrogen signaling through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) on melanocytes. Selective GPER activation in primary melanocytes and melanoma cells induced long-term changes that maintained a more differentiated cell state as defined by increased expression of well-established melanocyte differentiation antigens, increased pigment production, decreased proliferative capacity, and decreased expression of the oncodriver and stem cell marker c-Myc. GPER signaling also rendered melanoma cells more vulnerable to immunotherapy. Systemically delivered GPER agonist was well tolerated, and cooperated with immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma-bearing mice to dramatically extend survival, with up to half of mice clearing their tumor. Complete responses were associated with immune memory that protected against tumor rechallenge. GPER may be a useful, pharmacologically accessible target for melanoma.

Sex-specific cell type differentiation links yeasts to primates via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links the food energy-dependent structure and function of enzymes and G protein-coupled receptors to the biophysically constrained Structure and dynamics of GPCR signaling complexes, which are required to biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of effect of androgens and estrogens on difference in the cell type of males and females.
Any focus on G protein-coupled estrogen receptors compared to G protein-coupled androgen receptors  should be viewed with suspicion in the context of what has been known to all serious scientists about hormones and behavior since our Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
Simply put, the alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs, which are now called microRNAs, biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency and prevents the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of nearly all virus-driven pathology until excess nutrient stress or social stress takes its toll on the innate immune system.
Eventually, our food energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair fails, and the accumulation of viral microRNAs predicts the failure of cell type differentiation in the tissues that are required to sustain our physical health and mental health.

"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Autophagy is the antiphage defense strategy (2)

2/15/17 Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (video)
The 6.46 minute-long technical presentation (above) from the Precision Medicine Virtual Conference is difficult to understand.Thus, 10 months later, Nik Willmore asked:

12/24/17 What are your insights into CRISPR and mTOR, for a young audience? I’m not mocking you…yet, Humpty Dumpty. What is the basis of your unifying principle? Vibration? Bohmian morphogenetic fields? Modified Darwin? God? –Nik Willmore 

12/25/17 Replying to

God created the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight and all energy-dependent biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. I co-authored a book about that for a young audience in 1995/2002, and a 6-part series for today.

1/1/18 Replying to

Do you understand any aspect of how to model biophysically constrained biologically-based energy-dependent top-town causation and bottom-up effects on cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction and autophagy? The “walking fish” walks straight from quantum physics to quantum souls (2)

1/9/18 Viral suppressors of RNAi employ a rapid screening mode to discriminate viral RNA from cellular small RNA

My paraphrased summary:

RNA interference (RNAi) is our indispensable antiphage defense mechanism. Viruses escape the defense system by the theft of quantized energy, which encodes RNAi suppressors that prevent elimination of viral RNAs. The suppressors ensure energy-dependent virus accumulation.

1/12/18 Human cytomegalovirus-encoded miR-UL112 contributes to HCMV-mediated vascular diseases by inducing vascular endothelial cell dysfunction

The significantly altered pathways mainly include the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, cell adhesion molecules, chemokine signaling pathway, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, circadian rhythm-mammal, mineral absorption, protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, proximal tubule bicarbonate reclamation, vasopressin-regulated water reabsorption, and arachidonic acid metabolism. In conclusion, hcmv-miR-UL112 could serve as a potential biomarker, and the miRNA-mediated regulation of signaling pathways might play significant roles in the physiological effects of hcmv-associated diseases.

1/12/18 H5N1 influenza virus-specific miRNA-like small RNA increases cytokine production and mouse mortality via targeting poly(rC)-binding protein 2

We conclude that miR-HA-3p is the first identified influenza virus-encoded microRNA-like functional RNA fragment and a novel virulence factor contributing to H5N1-induced ‘cytokine storm’ and mortality.

Virus-encoded microRNA-like functional RNA fragments are not novel virulence factors. They link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology in all living genera via the theft of quanitzed energy, which typically links the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity.
See: Viral MicroRNAs, Host MicroRNAs Regulating Viruses, and Bacterial MicroRNA-Like RNAs
All serious scientists know what goes wrong in the context of host microRNA-mediated regulation of viruses. They also know how it goes wrong. See Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

The serious scientists do not claim that viruses evolve. Scientists who make claims about evolution  typically do not know how to link the creation of sunlight from ecological variation to food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptation via the physiology of biophysically constrained reproduction and biophysically constrained viral latency. Indeed, most pseudoscientists do not know the difference between a mutation and an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See for comparison: Mechanisms of Recombination conference Start: Sunday, May 20, 9.00am Finish: Tuesday, May 22, 6.45pm

Description

Genetic recombination provides an important mechanism for the repair of chromosome breaks caused by DNA damage or replication fork demise. Defects in the recombination process have been linked to cancer predisposition, in particular breast cancers caused by mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2, and also acute leukemias associated with the rare genetic disease Fanconi anemia. Understanding precisely how recombination occurs is of interest to workers in the fields of meiosis, DNA repair, replication, chromosome architecture and interactions, and chromatin biology.

Download provisional conference program
Excerpts:

Douglas Bishop (University of Chicago, US)
A primary function of the ATPase activity of E. coli RecA is to prevent accumulation of a toxic form of the protein bound to undamaged chromosomal sites

Maria Jasin (Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, US)
Protecting the genome by homologous recombination

The energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation of enyzmes protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links the theft of quantized energy from mutations to all pathology.  Pseudoscientists who do not start with the creation of energy, have bastardized Darwin’s claims. His claims were based on placing “conditions of life” before natural selection. Conditions of life are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the mechanisms of pheromone-controlled recombination, which have been linked to autophagy by all serious scientists since 1925.
See also my RNA-mediated Facebook page and/or my RNA-mediated Facebook group and other tweets @jvkohl
The number of my tweet impressions since December 21, 2017 has climbed to more than 68,000 as the number of published works that mention “microRNA” has climbed to nearly 69,000. See for comparison: The tipping point (revisited): 68,000 publications, which was published to my other blog site on December 21, 2017.
See also: What Darwinists Fail to Consider (discussion attempt)
See also, this discussion attempt about the “spark of life.”
See also: Noncoding RNA Helps Cells Recover from DNA Damage

“The most logical, simple explanation is that the [noncoding RNA] counteracts the protein encoding form…”

My comment to the Scientist:

There is clear evidence that femtosecond blasts of UV light repair DNA in the context of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and autophagy, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and the degradation of messenger RNA.

The failure to integrate the Nobel Prize winning works of Ben Feringa (Chemisty 2016) and Yoshinori Ohsumi (Physiology or Medicine 2016) prevents theorists from linking what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in the context of Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?”(1944) and this claim by Roger Penrose in the reprint edition:

“How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991)

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior  In our section on molecular epigenetics, we wrote:

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

The food energy that is linked from alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA to the chemistry of protein folding and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera seems to be largely ignored by those who are not Nobel Laureates.

See also: Search Results for “autophagy”

"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (6)

I think that I may be able to finish this series before the end of the month and use my tweets to expose more than 100,000  people to what is known about how the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs prevents all pathology.
See for one example of more than 68,000 published works:
MicroRNA-22 suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting NLRP3
For an extensive review of biologically-based biophysically constrained viral latency, see:
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (1)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (2)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (3)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (4)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (5)
Moving forward:

 
See: Celgene Near Acquisition of Impact Biomedicines

Chief Executive Officer Mark Alles has pledged to look outside Celgene’s own labs for new drugs to bolster its pipeline, telling investors in October that “we look for opportunity all the time.”

The CEOs of companies like this have been looking in all the wrong places for several decades. All of “Big Pharma” is dangerously close to collapse under the weight of evidence known to serious scientists who have linked physics and chemistry to the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that protect all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The CEOs don’t want you to be freaked out by the price tag for medications that will bankrupt the economy of the United States of America. But, quite frankly, this freaks me out.
See also:  An $850,000 Price Tag on Gene Therapy Shouldn’t Freak You Out—Yet

Spark’s Luxturna was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December for patients who have a genetic mutation in the RPE65 gene, which causes degenerative retinal disease.

The therapy, which is injected into the eye, contains millions of engineered virus particles containing correct copies of the gene. The treatment improves vision but doesn’t fully restore it.

The real test may come when Spark and other companies start winning approval to sell gene-replacement therapies for diseases like hemophilia and sickle-cell anemia, which affect tens of thousands of people in the U.S.

Spark’s inadvertently appears to claim gene-replacement therapies can prevent the virus-driven theft of messenger RNA that causes the mutation in the RPE65 gene. If so, the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled hemoglobin S ecological adaptation will require treatment with enzymes or food supplements that increase the production of specific enzymes.
That might be the most effective treatment. However, sooner or later, people will learn that sickle-cell anemia is a food energy-dependent ecological adaptation that can be linked from one base pair change and one amino acid substitution to all other pathology. “Big Pharma” will then no longer control the economic success of the United States of America.
Indeed, this publication may drive the decline of the gene-editing component of the stock market:  Identification of Pre-Existing Adaptive Immunity to Cas9 Proteins in Humans
Pre-Existing Adaptive Immunity in Humans is RNA-mediated. The facts about interethnic variation in hemoglobin molecules link pre-existing humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses from Cas9 to the RNA-mediated factors that must be taken into account before the CRISPR-Cas9 system moves forward into clinical trials. The CRISPR-Cas9 system damage to human DNA caused by gene editing could be prevented by something as relatively simple as enrolling more participants in studies like this one: Nevada Health Project Participants to Gain Access to Helix Genomics Marketplace
See for comparison: Exome Sequencing Data Links ADCY3 to Severe Obesity

Loss-of-function mutations in ADCY3 cause severe obesity, according to a series of new studies in Nature Genetics.

Exome sequencing yields much more data than genotyping does and the data conclusively shows that there is no such thing as a gain-of-function mutation. That is why food energy-dependent changes in SNPs have consistently been linked to interethnic biodiversity and to differences in longevity in modern human populations like the Amish.
See also:  Pfizer Ends Hunt for Drugs to Treat Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s by Jonathan.Rockoff@wsj.com
The end of the hunt links Bruce McEwen’s works to the beginning of the search for effective treatments that must help to biophysically constrain viral latency if they are used to treat some neurodegenerative diseases.
Bruce McEwen’s works, link energy-dependent cell type differentiation from feedback loops that link olfaction to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Historical perspective: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” McEwen et al., (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

For a practical application of facts that McEwen’s life’s works have detailed since 1964, see:
Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
The fact that human pheromones biophysically constrain the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has been known to all serious scientists since the time that this was published in 1994.
Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)
The conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation have not changed since the dawn of the energy-dependent creation of ATP and RNA.
 
That fact was indirectly represented in New Description of the Rostral Migratory Stream in Adult Mice Brains Delineating the Starter of the Stream as an Infundibulum: A New Described Limb, by H&E and Antidoublecortin Antibody 

Conclusion: The neuroblasts take different arrangement through their period of life from their site of origin to their final destination the olfactory bulb through the RMS.

The creation of the neuroblasts and their energy-dependent niche construction in the olfactory bulb is tractable to the niche creation of bacteria, which neo-Darwinian theorists seem to think occurs in the context of the evolution of functional structures such as the flagellum via a “quantum leap.”
See: Biologists Trace Evolution of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

This clear separation between primitive and sophisticated species represents a ‘quantum leap’ in evolution…

That claim represents a return to de Vries definition of mutation, which Schrodinger (1944) placed into the context of his organized thoughts about biophysically constrained biodiversity with my emphasis.

“…about forty years ago [in1902] the Dutchman de Vries discovered that… a very small number of individuals, say two or three in tens of thousands, turn up with small but ‘jump-like’ changes, the expression ‘jump-like’ not meaning that the change is so very considerable, but that there is a discontinuity inasmuch as there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. The significant fact is the discontinuity. It reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries’s mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology. We shall see later that this is much more than figurative. The mutations are actually due to quantum jumps in the gene molecule.

See for comparison: Evolution of higher torque in Campylobacter-type bacterial flagellar motors (January 8, 2018)

Phylogenetic inference was made using maximum-likelihood in GARLI (v2.01.1067)23, using Jones, Taylor and Thornton (JTT) amino acid substitution rates24.

Phylogenetic inferences still seem to be based on a definition of mutation from  1902. For comparison, all serious scientists have learned that the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the cell types of all individuals of all species from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity in all living genera.
I have placed the proof of concept for my model into a series of blog posts on “Interethnic Diversity” in an attempt to help biologically uninformed theorists join serious scientists from the 21st century who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease
Recruits are required to take intelligence tests and compete basic training with an essay on top-down causation that links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity on Earth without mention of mutation or evolution.
Recommended reading includes a monograph from Bruce McEwen about his life’s works, and one recently published work that was co-authored by Bruce McEwen:
See: Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course
The details of natural biological rhythms; “allostatic overload” (as a natural part of autophagy and limits on population density);
a natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC);  our natural day-night rhythm; and natural cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation are linked from a naturalistic rodent model to interethnic biodiversity. There is no mention of natural selection and only one mention of evolution and one mention of mutation.
See also: Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology
RNA interference links base editing from microRNA editing to the energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.

Bruce McEwen’s works and his advice: “Start with gene activation (in GnRH neurosecretory neurons)” led to publication of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. We linked food energy to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity in species from yeasts to primates via alternative splicing of pre-mRNA.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…  That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The fact that sex differences do not evolve has since been linked to all the other differences in cell types that did not evolve. The National Microbiome Initiative has been linked to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to refutations of all the pseudoscientific nonsense that has been touted by theorists during the past few decades of stalled scientific progress.
See for another example. Epigenetic supersimilarity of monozygotic twin pairs

…we identified genomic regions at which the epigenetic similarity of monozygotic twins is substantially greater than can be explained by their genetic identity. This “epigenetic supersimilarity” apparently results from locus-specific establishment of epigenotype prior to embryo cleavage during twinning. Epigenetically supersimilar loci exhibit systemic interindividual epigenetic variation and plasticity to periconceptional environment and are enriched in sub-telomeric regions. In case-control studies nested in a prospective cohort, blood DNA methylation at these loci years before diagnosis is associated with risk of developing several types of cancer.

Reported as: Identical twins can share more than identical genes: Molecular similarity

For decades, researchers have studied genetically identical twins to estimate what proportion of disease risk is determined by one’s genes. To the extent that epigenetic supersimilarity affects risk of disease, as our results indicate, genetic risk estimates based on twin studies have been inflated.

This is how sex researchers stalled scientific progress. They failed to recognize that all molecular similarities and differences are food energy-dependent and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all similarities and differences must be links from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to the energy-dependent biodiversity that is displayed in all life on Earth.
Public health bodies such as the CDC are mandated to meet the needs of all people, in all their diversity.
All diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links autophagy to viral latency. The Trump administration is clearly making an attempt to ensure that the CDC does not obfuscate the language used by serious scientists. Serious scientists know how to link physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to biophysically constrained viral latency by one or more RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The amino acid substitutions are consistently referred to as mutations in examples of human idiocy:
See: Brief report: Geographic variation in EGFR mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma may be explained by interethnic genetic variation The full article can be downloaded from here: http://bit.ly/2z97l9b
EDAR V370A and ABCC11 G180A are the two energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that the authors refer to as mutations, which they link to interethnic genetic variation in the context of de Vries 1902 definition of mutation and A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (1914).
pp. 195-196

Evolution of Man. – Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants. If we follow the early history of man upon the earth, we find that at first he must have been little better than one of the lower animals.

p. 263

If such people were lower animals, we would probably kill them off to prevent them from spreading. Humanity will not allow this, but we do have the remedy of separating the sexes in asylums or other places and in various ways preventing intermarriage and the possibilities of perpetuating such a low and degenerate race. Remedies of this sort have been tried successfully in Europe and are now meeting with success in this country.

For God and Country

Sci-Hub vs limits on the dissemination of information

The ideology of “Americanism” is not consistent with the tactics of academics and politicians that constrain release of accurate information about  biologically-based cause and effect.

Americanism is an ideology, or belief in devotion, loyalty, or allegiance to the United States of America, or to its flag, traditions, customs, culture, symbols, institutions, or form of government.[2] In the words of Theodore Roosevelt, “Americanism is a question of spirit, conviction, and purpose, not of creed or birthplace.”[3]

Americanism has two different meanings. It can refer to the defining characteristics of the United States and can also signify loyalty to the United States and a defense of American political ideals. These ideals include, but are not limited to self-government, equal opportunity, freedom of speech, and a belief in progress.

Scientific progress has been hindered by publishing companies whose corporate purpose is financial gain for stockholders, not the dissemination of freecinformation that is required to make scientific progress by serious scientists who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
Rarely do the efforts of serious scientists get noticed because there is too much pseudoscientific nonsense that gets published in peer-reviewed journals. The nonsense overwhelms the ability to discern between facts and story-telling. Evolutionary theorists, for example, are story-tellers.
For an attempt to resolve the problem with theorists, see: Publishers’ Legal Action Advances Against Sci-Hub

Based on data from Google Trends, researchers found that the suits against Sci-Hub led to brief spikes in visits to the site.

The publishers contribute to the theft of information because most people do not care how they acquire it. People want the information on biologically based cause and effect for free, and many of them will use it to make scientific advances such as those that have linked energy-dependent changes in microRNAs to all pathology.
A PubMed search for “microRNA” reveals that nearly 65,000 indexed published works have already established facts that link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Most the publications are behind “pay walls.”
That means most researchers will be unable to access all of them. Anyone outside the specific discipline that is the focus of the article will not be likely to integrate the information across disciplines and accurately represent what is known about biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect.
For an example of the level of integration that is required, request a copy from the corresponding author and wait to see the information in this “pay-walled” publication: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception.
By the time you get it, there will probably be several hundred more publications that link the food energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See also:

Alternatively, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
Cited works:
1) ATP hydrolysis by UPF1 is required for efficient translation termination at premature stop codons
2)  Evolutionary drivers of thermoadaptation in enzyme catalysis
3). Endogenous RNAi Pathways Are Required in Neurons for Dauer Formation in Caenorhabditis elegans
4) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
5) Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
6) Metabolic theory predicts whole-ecosystem properties
7) The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
8) Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression
9) MicroRNA analysis in mouse neuro-2a cells after pseudorabies virus infection
10) microRNA-binding proteins: specificity and function
11) RNA in extracellular vesicles
12) Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
13)  Communication between viruses guides lysis–lysogeny decisions
14) The human initiator is a distinct and abundant element that is precisely positioned in focused core promoters
15) Prevalence and architecture of de novo mutations in developmental disorders
16) All about the base
17) Chemists know.
18) Dynamic control of chirality and self-assembly of double-stranded helicates with light
19) The Intrinsically Disordered Protein Atg13 Mediates Supramolecular Assembly of Autophagy Initiation Complexes
20) RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering
21) What is Life?
22) Arginine 66 Controls Dark-State Formation in Green-to-Red Photoconvertible Fluorescent Proteins
23) Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor
24) A Big Bang in spliceosome structural biology
The works cited above have been placed into the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis.”

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See for comparison: 2017 Royal Society Insight Investment Science Book Prize

The perfect science book marries scientific breakthrough with elegant, engaging communication. Reading these books side-by-side, we were struck by how creative and unique each voice was, and the varied ways these writers tackle their subjects, using metaphors and personal stories as much as scientific facts.

The perfect science book marries what is known about the creation of energy as information with the biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which prevents the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Biophysically constrained viral latency prevents all pathology. This year’s Prize winner linked testosterone to “gender” differences in behavior.

For comparison, see: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences

Excerpt:

…this model incorporates a logical pathway that directly links sensory input from the social environmental to the development of sexual preferences and to the development of sexual behavior.

The five-step logical pathway that directly links sensory input from the social environment to the development of sexual preferences and sexual behavior is gene→cell→tissue→organ→organ system. Failure to incorporate any of the steps in this pathway makes it impossible to directly connect to sexual preferences and sexual behavior, a logical sequence of events that must somehow and somewhere begin with the effect of sensory input from the social environment.

See also: Intelligent Design – Science & Philosophy: discussion thread

Antagonist, Timothy Kershner wrote:

I have a PhD in Psychology and a minor degree in Microbiology and personally funded many Bacterial Consciousness studies between 2008 and 2012 and mentored directly under James Shapiro from 2009 to 2011.

Shapiro already is laughing at you and others as he tries to recover from teaching you to become biologically uninformed science idiots who believe in evolution outside the context of energy-dependent ecological adaptations that are biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

See: Biological action in Read-Write genome evolution

Coincidentally, ‘non-coding’ RNAs rich in repetitive mobile DNA sequences function as key regulators of complex adaptive phenotypes, such as stem cell pluripotency. The intersections of cell fusion activities, horizontal DNA transfers and natural genetic engineering of Read-Write genomes provide a rich molecular and biological foundation for understanding how ecological disruptions can stimulate productive, often abrupt, evolutionary transformations.

Shapiro’s latest is part of a Theme issue ‘New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives’ organized by Denis Noble, Nancy Cartwright, Patrick Bateson, John Dupré and Kevin Laland.

See for comparison: How life changes itself: The Read-Write (RW) genome

Research dating back to the 1930s has shown that genetic change is the result of cell-mediated processes, not simply accidents or damage to the DNA.

See also: Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution

and UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair

All cell-mediated processes are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

Energy dependent life does not change itself. RNA-mediated events must be linked to the stability of organized genomes. The organized genomes cannot come first. The details of energy-dependent cell-mediated RNA-directed DNA methylation clearly link the virucidal energy of sunlight from microRNAs in plants to the microRNAome of all mammals. All humans are included.

RNA interference occurs in plants, animals, and humans. It is of great importance for the regulation of gene expression, participates in defense against viral infections, and keeps jumping genes under control. RNA interference is already being widely used in basic science as a method to study the function of genes and it may lead to novel therapies in the future.

Naturally occurring endogenous RNA interference links what organisms eat from their physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to all energy-dependent biodiversity on Earth via biophysically constrained viral latency. For example, see:

The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental changes may impact the expression of specific miRNA.

The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

See for comparison: Alnylam’s rare disease drug shines in trial, paving way for a brand-new class of medicines

RNA interference, or RNAi, a technology that uses snippets of genetic code to shut down disease-causing genes. The scientists who invented RNAi were awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 2006. Many years and more than $1 billion in research later, Alnylam is finally on the cusp of proving that RNAi can be transformed into a medicine that helps patients.

Scientists did not invent RNAi. They discovered that it links what organisms eat to their biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. That fact links RNAi to all biodiversity without the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by evolutionary theorists. The cost of any RNAi drug that is approved will almost assuredly bankrupt the person who needs the drug and the cost will probably destroy the economy of the United States of America via the impact on the costs of Medicare and/or other insurance.
This is not Amercanism: Alnylam Data Puts a Nobel Discovery One Step Closer to Approved Drug

Shares of Alnylam soared more than 51 percent and closed at $113.84 apiece on Wednesday.

Cytosis

Host-derived creation of all pathology (2 of 2)

Summary: All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

See for comparison: Jay R. Feierman: “Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.”

A Bacterial Messenger Molecule Extends Healthspan

…indole, a molecule produced by commensal bacteria, extends “healthspan” not only in mice but in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans and in fruit flies as well. Taking away the bacterial production of the molecule ablated these anti-aging gains.

Does anyone need to repeatedly be reminded that food energy is required for the production of any molecule associated with nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled anti-aging gains? The epigenetically effected gains are consistently manifested in the survival of species via the physiology of reproduction.
The food energy-dependent production of indole is the obvious link from nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops to biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptation in all living genera. Testing for indole is used to determine the ability of an organism to split (deaminate) the amino acid tryptophan.  Indole contributes to fecal odor and it is a chemical messenger that has been indirectly or directly included in detailed representations of biologically-based pheromone-controlled energy-dependent cause and effect like these.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
There is a model for that! See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)
The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans biophysically constrains the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. That fact links constraint-breaking mutations to all pathology in all living genera. A test protocol established that fact in the context of this book chapter, which links the test for indole to differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance in humans.

For example, the test protocol links the creation of energy as information to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology. The complexity of the testing can be reduced via the focus on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs.

See the abstract:

Disease research and treatment development have turned to the impact and utility of microRNA. The dynamic and highly specific expression of these molecular regulators can be used to predict and monitor disease progression as well as therapeutic treatment efficacy and safety…

MicroRNAs are identified and monitored through the use of locked nucleic acid (LNA)™-based detection probes. The LNA™ technology enhances the sensitivity and specificity of target binding for short, highly similar, microRNA sequences, which help to differentiate cell types in the context of everything known to serious scientists about how to link physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to all biodiversity via fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.

The availability of this testing was predicted in: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (7-min video)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
See for comparison: Metabolic, Epigenetic, and Transgenerational Effects of Gut Bacterial Choline Consumption (2017)

There is no such thing as transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological or behavioral phenotypes outside the context of feedback loops that link food odors from the metabolism to pheromones and biophysically constrained viral latency. The consumption of choline by bacteria links food energy to protection from viral latency via the test for indole. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy can be linked from reduced amount of choline that link viruses in the bacteria to their ability to overwhelm the immune system. The effects of virus-driven energy theft link the CRISPR-Cas9 technology of gene-editing to DNA repair via exogenous RNA-interference because energy-dependent endogenous RNA-interference protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Corporate America is not willing to tell the truth about that. You will probably suffer unnecessarily and die prematurely because the goal of every corporation is to make more money.

See also: Americans Are Dying Younger, Saving Corporations Billions

Absent a war or an epidemic, it’s unusual and alarming for life expectancies in developed countries to stop improving, let alone to worsen. “Mortality is sort of the tip of the iceberg,” says Laudan Aron, a demographer and senior fellow at the Urban Institute. “It really is a reflection of a lot of underlying conditions of life.”

Darwin’s “conditions of life” were food energy-dependent. Serious scientists have since learned that all “conditions of life” also are fixed in the organized genomes of all living genera via the physiology of reproduction. Without the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality would link mutations to evolution instead of linking mutations to all pathology.

Instead, the reality of cell type differentiation was reported as: Microbes compete for nutrients, affect metabolism, development in mice

 …new research that shows mice that harbor high levels of microbes that eat choline are deprived of this essential nutrient.
 

I placed that fact into the context of this excerpt from my 2013 review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Sex-dependent production of a mouse ‘chemosignal’ with incentive salience appears to have arisen de novo via coincident adaptive evolution that involves an obvious two-step synergy between commensal bacteria and a sex-dependent liver enzyme that metabolizes the nutrient chemical choline.

The result of this synergy is (1) a liver enzyme that oxidizes trimethylamine to (2) an odor that causes (3) species-specific behaviors. Thus, the complex systems that biology required to get from nutrient acquisition and nutrient metabolism to species-specific odor-controlled behavior is exemplified by adaptive evolution of an attractive odor to mice that repels rats (see for review Li et al., 2013).

Addendum: Fish odor syndrome is the link from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy. The odor links ecological variation to failed ecological adaptation and all pathology when there is insufficient food energy. Any scientist who does not already know that based on the facts known to every medical laboratory scientist is an example of “human idiocy” (Feynman) or a biologically uninformed science idiot (Kohl).

Serious scientists have begun to effectively use energy-dependent microRNAs to the prevention of all virus-driven pathology. That fact is being reported in the context of gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’  at a time when all serious scientists realize there is no such thing as ‘junk DNA.’

Gene therapy using ‘junk DNA’ could lower risk for heart disease

The LeXis gene belongs to a unique group of genes that until recently were considered “junk DNA” because scientists believed they served little purpose. However, evidence from the human genome project led to the discovery that genes like LeXis are actually active. The study of these genes, now referred to as long noncoding ribonucleic acids, or lncRNAs, is a rapidly evolving area in biology.

Long Noncoding RNA Facilitated Gene Therapy Reduces Atherosclerosis in a Murine Model of Familial Hypercholesterolemia

Long noncoding (lnc) RNAs form the vast majority of transcriptionally active regions and are arbitrary defined as transcripts >200 bps that biochemically resemble mRNA and yet do not template protein.2

Diet and drug-induced changes in LeXis link energy as information to liver X receptor activation of genes via the “promoter binding of RNA-binding proteins.” That fact supports the claim that a transcriptional coactivator for genetically predisposed cholesterol biosynthesis in the mouse liver links promoters, enhancers, quantitative trait loci, et al., to the transciptional coactivator referred to as “Rally” without mention of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.
If you believe that the long noncoding ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are genes, you may be convinced that mutations in RNA are the same as mutations in genes. But mutations are the cause of all pathology. Linking mutations in RNA to pathology outside the  context of energy-dependent healthy longevity allows others with no expertise in laboratory testing to continue to believe that mutation-driven evolution is the link from natural selection to the origin of new species. That belief is probably common among others who believe that the Universe itself may be conscious.

See for comparison: Scientists Now Believe the Universe Itself May Be Conscious

For the behavior of subatomic particles and the systems they constitute promises to be fully explained by physics and the other physical sciences.

 See for comparison: Subatomic

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available atoms. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton Cards, Neutron Cards, Electron Cards and Energy Cards and a beginning hand limit of 5 cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom, in an attempt to construct one of the available Atom Cards, and/or use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful atom building cards for later use, or increase their hand limit. The deck building cards are simple and clean, but offer a number of interesting combinations. Players also have an energy track that allows them to store energy, which introduces a “push-their-luck” type of mechanic enabling players to pay energy to shuffle through their deck quicker, or to offset the cost of more powerful deck building cards.

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking
 

The question arises: “Who needs this kind of nonsense?” Does anyone at any level of examination believe that “the Universe is always looking” is the best representation of what we can expect from a “Conscious Universe?”

See for comparison: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

 Chromogenic In Situ Hybridization Methods for microRNA Biomarker Monitoring of Drug Safety and Efficacy was reported on the Exiqon FB page. Exiqon is a biotechnology company that specializes in RNA products and services. I recommend that they purchase this domain (RNA-mediated.com) in an attempt to promote their products, which obviously link energy-dependent healthy longevity to all biodiversity and also link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

See also: ‘Chromatin modifiers and remodellers in DNA repair and signalling’ The fact that food energy as information must be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera appears to be the focus of this Theme issue.

But wait: Here is one of the articles from  the Theme issue:

Nucleosome remodelling, DNA repair and transcriptional regulation build negative feedback loops in cancer and cellular ageing

Nucleosome remodelling (NR) regulates transcription in an ATP-dependent manner, and influences gene expression required for development and cellular functions, including those involved in anti-cancer and anti-ageing processes. ATP-utilizing chromatin assembly and remodelling factor (ACF) and Brahma-associated factor (BAF) complexes, belonging to the ISWI and SWI/SNF families, respectively, are involved in various types of DNA repair.

See for comparison, from 1964: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

McEwen et al., knew that “The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.” That statement of fact was the beginning of the abstract from 1964. When he told me my model could not be validated unless I started with energy-dependent gene activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, I had no reason to doubt him. When I learned that Robert L. Moss had already linked pheromones to energy-dependent gene activation in GnRH neurons, I continued to pursue top-down causation as if it was energy-dependent — because it obviously is energy-dependent.

I never considered that my model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained gene activation would not be accepted by theorists. See for comparison:

Induction of FOS immunoreactivity in central accessory olfactory structures of the female rat following exposure to conspecific males (1992)

See also: Gonadotropin releasing hormone and human sexual behavior (1991) in Neuropeptides and Psychiatric Disorders (1991)

Is anyone else interested in linking the facts from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior or from any other works I have published before Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013) to what is known about all biophysically constrained biologically- based cause and effect?
If so, see: Worldwide patterns of human epigenetic variation

We found that population-specific DNA methylation mirrors genetic variation, and has greater local genetic control than mRNA levels. We estimated the rate of epigenetic divergence between populations, which indicates far greater evolutionary stability of DNA methylation in humans than has been observed in plants. This study provides a deeper understanding of worldwide patterns of human epigenetic diversity…

All serious scientists know that all epigenetic diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See for comparison: 7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.
See for comparison: Quantum Biology: An Introduction (video) by Philip Ball and Quantum common sense

To turn quantum to classical, we don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look; we just need an environment full of stuff. With or without us, the Universe is always looking.

See also these restricted and unrestricted articles: ARTICLES