Watering Young Plant - Vintage Effect

A single base change refutes theistic evolution

Everyone who failed to learn how light-activated endogenous substrates biophysically constrain viral latency is playing “catch up” to serious scientists. The serious scientists know how quantized energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Rather than accept the fact that the innate immune system of bacteria (CRISPR) linked the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency, theorists decided to waste money on virus-assisted gene-editing attempts to repair virus-damaged DNA.

Mammoth Biosciences launches a CRISPR-powered search engine for disease detection

Jennifer Doudna, George Church and many others still refuse to admit that they have refuted theistic evolution. They are just beginning to accurately portray the how detection of changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance links virus-driven energy theft to the degradation of messenger RNA. Clearly, however, they know how the degradation of messenger RNA is linked to all pathology.

Had they followed the works of Christ et al. (2013), The Pharmacology of Regenerative Medicine and Christ et al., (2018) Western Diet Triggers NLRP3-Dependent Innate Immune Reprogramming, they could intelligently interact with those who are scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018.

(Nick Lane excepted.) He appears to be a biologically uninformed theorist who does not realize that Fast food makes the immune system more aggressive in the long term

Unhealthy eating causes some of these normally hidden pieces of DNA to unwind, similar to a loop hanging out of a ball of wool. This area of the genetic material can then be read much easier as long as this temporary unwrapping remains active. Scientists call these phenomena epigenetic changes. “The inflammasome triggers such epigenetic changes,” explains Dr. Latz. “The immune system consequently reacts even to small stimuli with stronger inflammatory responses.”

The immune system reacts to the proliferation of viruses. The viruses cause the inflammation, which has been linked to all pathology in more than 72,500 published works. See microRNA.

See also: Field-deployable viral diagnostics using CRISPR-Cas13

…the Cas13-based SHERLOCK (specific high-sensitivity enzymatic reporter unlocking) platform can detect Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV) in patient samples at concentrations as low as 1 copy per microliter. We developed HUDSON (heating unextracted diagnostic samples to obliterate nucleases), a protocol that pairs with SHERLOCK for viral detection directly from bodily fluids, enabling instrument-free DENV detection directly from patient samples in <2 hours. We further demonstrate that SHERLOCK can distinguish the four DENV serotypes, as well as region-specific strains of ZIKV from the 2015–2016 pandemic. Finally, we report the rapid (<1 week) design and testing of instrument-free assays to detect clinically relevant viral single-nucleotide polymorphisms.

Pardis C. Sabeti’s group already linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from the creation of enzymes to natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality via the pheromone-controlled stability of organized genomes in a human population in what is now Central China.
See this report from 2013 on fixation of the EDAR V370A substitution.
Following the footprints of positive selection February 15th, 2013.
For comparison to positive selection for food and fixation of the EDAR V370A amino acid substitution, the pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution touted by Pardis C. Sabeti’s group appears in this YouTube video report: 2 Cell Studies Reveal Genetic Variation Driving Human Evolution
In the mouse model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations, they replaced the valine normally found in mouse EDAR with the alanine that’s under selection in humans. They got mice with thicker hair, changes in mammary tissue, and and increased  number of eccrine sweat glands. Those changes parallel phenotypic changes in humans. The phenotypic changes in humans link the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.
In humans, the changes are linked to visual perception of mass and energy and the perception of physical features that are sexually selected.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
A single base change results in the valine to alanine substitution, which changes the ancient mammalian gene EDAR and the EDAR encoded protein.
That fact was reported in the context of links from subatomic particles and all levels of biophysically constrained viral latency and biological organization in my 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (unpublished)
Conclusion:

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man

162. Kamberov, Yana G.; Wang, S.; Tan, J.; Gerbault, P.; Wark, A.; Tan, L.; Yang, Y.; Li, S.; Tang, K.; Chen, H., et al., Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 691-702. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.016
163. Grossman, Sharon R.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Shlyakhter, I.; Tabrizi, S.; Winnicki, S.; Yen, A.; Park, Daniel J.; Griesemer, D.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Wong, Sunny H., et al., Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 703-713. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.035
See also:
161. Rosenberg, S. M.; Queitsch, C., Combating Evolution to Fight Disease. Science 2014, 343 (6175), 1088-1089. doi: 10.1126/science.1247472
Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

Serious scientists from South Korea are the winners. Two recent publications forced the denuclearization of North Korea.
Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events

Compared to the G2 RotaTeq vaccine strain, 17-24 amino acid changes, specifically A87T, D96N, S213D, and S242N substitutions in G2 epitopes, were observed. These results suggest that multiple interspecies re-assortment events might have contributed to the emergence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in the post-vaccination era in South Korea.

A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses

When analyzed using reverse-genetically rescued viruses, it was shown that PA K338R alone could increase the pathogenicity of both IBVs in mice and viral replication property in the respiratory tracts of ferrets. In a subsequent mini-replicon assay, the effect of PA K338R was highlighted by the enhancement of viral polymerase complex activity of both Vc_BR60 and Ym_WI01 viruses. These results suggest that the PA K338R mutation may be a molecular determinant of IBV pathogenicity via modulating the viral polymerase function of IBVs.

Mutations are known to be the molecular determinants of all pathology in species from microbes to humans. See:  Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor
Watch as Hashem Al-Ghaili puts everything known to serious scientists about the virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb back into the context of neo-Darwinian evolution.

See also: Study offers new approach to starve p53 deficient tumors

One major hallmark of cancer cells is their ability to adapt to stressful conditions such as nutrient deprivation. Rapidly growing tumor cells must compete for the ever-diminishing supply of nutrients in the surrounding environment to survive and proliferate. Targeting these adaptive mechanisms represents a promising approach for cancer therapeutics.

It’s a little late to claim that the virus-driven theft of quantized energy is linked from autophagy to adaptations in viruses. All serious scientists know that food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained autophagy has been linked to viral latency and to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Intelligent people know that viruses have been linked to all pathology.
See also: From Istanbul, Turkey. Respect for all human life has been placed into the context of the energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs and the works of an Islamic creationist in Turkey.

Autophagy-Regulating microRNAs and Cancer
Cancer researchers in other countries clearly are approaching the cure for all pathology from a scientific creationist perspective despite being forced to place their claims into the context of evolution to get their works past peer review.
The Trump administration has been working towards world peace with other leaders for more than a year. See for example:
May 3, 2017
LIVE: President Donald J. Trump and Palestinian President Mahmoud Abbas make a joint statement at the White House.
Who does not want World Peace? Why The End of the Korean War Is Bad News for the United States
5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Complexity: Routes and Patterns (1)

Physical foundations of biological complexity

 “Routes and patterns of the evolution of complexity are poorly understood.”

Serious scientists have linked differences in the competing energy of two photons from the proton motive force to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Ages 10+ can learn how serious scientists did this by playing the cell biology game “Cytosis.” It starts from the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and links it to all biodiversity.
The game “Subatomic” is scheduled for September, 2018 release and in the same month conference presentations during “Schrodinger at 75: The future of biology” will eliminate the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by Eugene Koonin and others like him. See for instance.

“We propose a general conceptual framework for emergence of complexity through competing interactions and frustrated states similar to those that yield patterns in stripe glasses and cause self-organized criticality.”

Koonin knows he is touting pseudoscientific nonsense.
See: Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

“The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…”

 

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Less evolvable RNA-mediated ecological adaptations

No experimental evidence of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation supports the claim about “…the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation…” The overwhelming systems complexity of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cause and effect can no longer be placed into the context of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists. Watch Andrea Wagner’s group try to escape from the claims made by losers.
But first see: Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull

RNA-mediated gene regulation is less evolvable than transcriptional regulation

…nucleic acid binding sites of RNA-mediated gene regulation are less evolvable than those of transcriptional regulation. This observation is consistent with the high levels of mRNA target conservation for RBPs (10, 82, 83) and the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation (84⇓–86) as well as their role in the evolution of myriad adaptations and innovations (11, 87, 88).

It is obvious to anyone who has followed the works of Andreas Wagner that his group has reached an impasse.
See: Evolution of Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting (2012)

We found that young de novo genes have a different codon usage from the rest of the genome.

There is no such thing as a de novo gene.
See: From de novo to “de nono”: most novel protein coding genes identified with phylostratigraphy represent old genes or recent duplicates

I collectively refer to the putative de novo genes that failed to pass the validation criteria as the ‘de nono’ genes.

See also: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations only in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. That fact is now perfectly clear in the context of more than 71,000 indexed published works that link the energy-dependent creation of ATP synthase to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA in the context of McEwen et al., (1964) and Frohlich (1968).
People like Andreas Wagner are stuck with their ridiculous claims about evolution, when all serious scientists know that only the hecatombic evolution of virus-driven pathology is possible. Healthy longevity requires food energy-dependent biophysically constrained polycombic ecological adaptations. The metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones links RNA-mediated autophagy to all biodiversity. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to all pathology.
Andreas Wagner reversed every aspect of what is known in: Arrival of the Fittest: Solving Evolution’s Greatest Puzzle (2014)

…he has found that adaptations are not just driven by chance, but by a set of laws that allow nature to discover new molecules and mechanisms in a fraction of the time that random variation would take.

See for comparison: Kohl’s Laws of Biology in Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)

Life is nutrient-dependent. That is a Biological Law. The ecological origin of all biological laws is apparent 1) in the context of systems biology (P. Kohl, et al., 2010); 2) in the context of the metabolism of nutrients by microbes (K. D. Kohl, 2012); and 3) in the context of how the metabolism of nutrients results in species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction (J. Kohl, Ostrovsky, Frechter, & Jefferis, 2013). Taken together, the systems biology of nutrient metabolism to species-specific pheromones, which control the physiology of reproduction, can be expressed in a summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2012; M. Lynch, 2007). The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2013). In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior (J. V. Kohl, et al., 2001), which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences (J.V. Kohl, 2007).

Andreas Wagner, and others like him, will probably continue to misrepresent what is known about how the creation of sunlight must be linked to food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction by natural selection for codon optimality. But the facts about how energy must be linked to increasing organismal complexity are not going to change.
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
and/or Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

 
 
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Psychophysical Laws of Biology: RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (3)

Psychophysical Laws and the Superorganism  (open access)

…superorganisms may also exhibit such behaviour, suggesting that these laws arise from fundamental mechanisms of information processing and decision-making.

Reported on Jun 14, 2013 as Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

and again on: Mar 27, 2018 as Honeybees may unlock the secrets of how the human brain works

The study… found that superorganisms may obey the same laws as the human brain.

Kohl’s “Laws of Biology” and Darwin’s “conditions of life” can now be compared in the context of how quantized energy as information was linked to biodiversity in this invited review of nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
See also for review:

Functional and evolutionary aspects of chemoreceptors (2012)
Sensory receptors—design principles revisited (2013)
Moving forward: See: Tuning Insect Odorant Receptors (in press)

Among the insect olfactory receptors the odorant receptors (ORs) evolved in parallel to the onset of insect flight. A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor contacts. This article presents a current view on regulatory processes affecting the performance of ORs and proposes a model of mechanisms contributing to OR sensitization.

Future attempts to place psychophysical laws of biology back into the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense will continue to pit ridiculous theories about experience-dependent tuning of odor receptors against everything known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency and supercoiled DNA.
See for comparison:
Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment (2003)
Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger’s negative entropy to latent information (2006)
Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)
Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype (2016)

Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse – Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) – are hallmarks of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer metastasis.

Cellular plasticity was linked from the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (2017)

The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity.

See also: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The scheduled speakers will undoubtedly link the Science Behind the Game “Cytosis” to the Science Behind the Game “Subatomic” via everything known to all serious scientists based on Schrodinger’s prescient claims in What is Life? (1944).
See also: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also “Outer Membrane Vesicles” microRNA (4 of 4 from a 3/27/18 search)

How Our Other Genome Controls Our Epi-Genome (2016)

Secretable Small RNAs via Outer Membrane Vesicles in Periodontal Pathogens (2017)

Tiny RNAs and their voyage via extracellular vesicles: Secretion of bacterial small RNA and eukaryotic microRNA (2017)

Molecular Paths Linking Metabolic Diseases, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Enterobacteria Infections (2018)

See also: March 28, 2018 sponsored by System Biosciences
Webinar: Deciphering how bacteria utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) to communicate and infect
 
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are membrane vesicles secreted by bacteria that contain DNA, RNA, proteins and endotoxins. Bacteria respond to many environmental factors by secreting specifically-enriched OMVs, which makes these bacteria more fit for their environment. For example, OMVs may be enriched with invasion proteins at the host-pathogen interface. OMVs have recently gained attention as a novel mechanism for transmission of molecular information within bacteria as well as between bacteria and mammalian cells. Owing to their similarities to well-studied extracellular vesicles (EVs), OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines. This webinar will give an overview of recent studies on the role of OMVs in host-pathogen interactions and discuss their bioengineering potential as vehicles for cargo delivery. We will also introduce our new & revolutionary ExoBacteria™ OMV Isolation Kit, which will enable you to achieve faster, simpler & better OMV isolation.
Learn how OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines.
5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Nick Lane refutes theistic evolution (1)

Neo-Darwinian theorists and others who are biologically uninformed will learn this in September (2018).
Synopsis: The difference in two photons has been linked to the Proton motive force. It drives the activity of the enzyme, ATP synthase, which makes ATP. All energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has since been linked from the creation of ATP synthase and the creaton of ATP to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and healthy longevity. For comparison, the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology.
There is no such thing as an intrinsic biogeochemical cycle of energy-dependent protein biosynthesis. Light activated endogenous substrates are required for energy-dependent protein biosynthesis. Energy-dependent biophysical constraints on protein biosynthesis link the intrinsic biogeochemical cycle to biophysical constraints on the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
After the presentations during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018, some theorists may need to be placed on a suicide watch due to the availability of “Cytosis” and the ability of students aged 10+ to learn more about cell biology than theorists have learned during the past 75 years.
See for example: Hard Two-Photon Contribution to Elastic Lepton-Proton Scattering Determined by the OLYMPUS Experiment (2017)
Reported as: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…unlike the theoretical predictions, analysis of the OLYMPUS measurements suggests that, most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

The link from differences in the energy of photons to the amount of ATP that must be be biophysically constrained has been largely ignored since the time that McEwen et al., (1964) linked the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA via oxidative phosphorylation.
Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The difference in two photons have been linked to the Proton motive force. It drives the activity of the enzyme, ATP synthase, which makes ATP. All energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has since been linked from the creation of ATP synthase and the creaton of ATP to changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and healthy longevity. For comparison, the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology.
See for instance this 6-7 minute-long video: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (February 15, 2017)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

See for comparison: The energy expansions of evolution (April 28, 2017) with my emphasis.

Sunlight is a consequence of the planet’s position in the Solar System, whereas geochemical energy is an intrinsic property of the Earth. Geochemical energy arises when water reacts with basalts and other rocks…

Although sources of geochemical energy can be at or near Earth’s surface, they need not be: many are deep within the planet, out of reach of sunlight.

That fact became clear in the context of bacteria that eat electrons and the physiology of their reproduction, which was linked to the creation of uranium isotopes.
See: Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

Many low-temperature ores display similar isotopic fractionation59,60 as found here suggesting an under-recognized importance of biological processes in roll-front ore formation.

The origin of microbial life and the creation of uranium ores via the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria appears to have gone missing in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists who are already scheduled to present during: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
 
See also: Proton gradients at the origin of life (May 16, 2017) by Nick Lane
People like Nick Lane still claim that biochemistry emerged from geochemistry. They link the origins of biochemistry to the emergence of genetically encoded catalysts, such as ribozymes, ATP synthase and other enzymes. Then they proceed to tell others about naturally occurring evolutionary processes. The evolutionary processes supposedly link the automagical creation of ATP sythase in some geochemical settings to the biochemistry of our last universal common ancestor (LUCA).
See: Evolution of ATP Synthase (Video) Jackson Wheat claims that ATP and ATP synthase might link the Last Universal Common Ancestor to the evolution of all biodiversity on Earth.
See for comparison the claim from A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

The magic and logic of evolution now start with the evolution of an enzyme (ATP synthase) linked from ATP to the creation of RNA and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera only in the context of the physiology of energy-dependent biophysically constrained reproduction.
See for comparison: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

Unfortunately, Nick Lane and others appear to initially missed the connection from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to the creation of archaea from bacteria. He reported the bioenergetic basis for divergence as if DNA replication somehow arose in LUCA outside the context of everything known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained top-down energy-dependent creation of membranes.
See: A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria (2014)

Because the bacterial replicon is attached to the plasma membrane during cell division [58]–[60], this complex presumably arose after (or coevolved with) the bacterial membrane, which must have driven a deep phylogenetic disparity, even if DNA replication had arisen in LUCA.

Anyone who still touts claims of emergence or pretends to think that the complexity of the plasma membrane in bacterial replicons automagically arose or coevolved in the context of phylogenetic disparities, may want to attend Schrödinger at 75 and laugh at the nonsense touted by Nick Lane and other neo-Darwinian theorists who are scheduled to present.
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
Nick Lane is an evolutionary biochemist
Beth Shapiro is an evolutionary biologist
Svante Pääbo is a Swedish biologist specialising in evolutionary genetics.
In 2012, I attended a conference presentation on microRNAs and the speaker confirmed the fact that every aspect of cell type differentiation occurs downstream from changes in microRNAs. He claimed that is what had been learned during the past 10 years. I confirmed that others who attended his presentation also knew the facts about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation before publishing a refutation of neo-Darwinian nonsense in 2013.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
After the presentations during Schrödinger at 75, all neo-Darwinian theorists and most big bang cosmologists who have no valid model for comparison may need to be placed on a “suicide watch” for losers.
Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event (2016)

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge.

Published works by people like Nick Lane, Beth Shapiro, and Svante Pääbo have not been at the cutting edge since 1964.
See: Biology, molecular and organismic

The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.

Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.

See also: Patterns of shared signatures of recent positive selection across human populations

…we present a catalogue of selective sweeps in humans, and identify those that overlap and share a sweeping haplotype. We connect these sweep overlaps with potential biological mechanisms at several loci, including potential new sites of adaptive introgression, the glycophorin locus associated with malarial resistance and the alcohol dehydrogenase cluster associated with alcohol dependency.

The failed pattern recognition of biologically uninformed theorists has led serious scientists to proclaim that the pseudoscientists have no way out. Every aspect of life on Earth is energy-dependent, RNA-mediated and biophysically constrained in the context of viral latency.
See: No way out: when RNA elements promote nuclear retention

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (4)

Saying Goodbye to the RNA World Theory

RNA has a limited ability for catalysis compared to peptides, and would have struggled to maintain its catalytic activity under the changing temperature conditions of early Earth. Carter and Wills also argued that if an RNA world existed, it would have been unlikely for it to incorporate peptides later on.

See for comparison: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

The energy-dependent creation of ATP synthase has since been linked to this claim from McEwen et al., (1964):

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

By starting with the energy-dependent de novo creation of enzymes, others have linked Schrödinger’s claims from “What is Life” (1944)  to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.
Say Hello again to Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology
Let Timothy J. Cunningham, who disappeared from the CDC last month, reintroduce you. See his publications on:
1)”Racial Disparities in Age-Specific Mortality”
2) “Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences”
3) “Associations between antioxidants and all-cause mortality”
and
4) “Health and Safety Issues for Travelers”
Serious scientists know that all racial/ethnic disparities are food energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and pheromone-controlled  in the context of enymes, metabolism, and amino acid substitutions. Fixation of the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions differentiates all cell types in all living genera — including sex differences in cell types.
See for examples our section on molecular epigenetics from this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus…

See for comparison, this nonsense: Caenorhabditis elegans glia modulate neuronal activity and behavior

Introduction: a brief on evolution of neuroglia

“Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution”. — Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900–1975)

Evolution of the nervous system proceeded through an increase in number and complexity of the nervous elements and through their specialization into electrically excitable neurons connected through defined synaptic contacts and electrically non-excitable neuroglia forming networks through intercellular gap junctions. Intercellular chemical neurotransmission is, however, characteristic for both forms of the neural cells that express appropriate receptors and are capable of secreting neurotransmitters. The evolution of the nervous system was not a straight journey from less complex and accomplished networks to the more refined ones; at the turning point between invertebrates and vertebrates, a fundamental metamorphosis occurred that changed the overall structure of the central nervous system (CNS).

The difference in the energy of two photons has since been linked from the proton motive force to the creation of enzymes and metabolism of food. The pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from bacteria to humans has linked DNA methylation from the creation and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to viral latency and all biodiversity. Timothy J. Cunningham placed that fact into the context of his history of published works.
For comparison, see: On the Difference between Physics and Biology: Logical Branching and Biomolecules (2018) and The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time(1975) George FR Ellis was a coauthor of both published works.
He, and others like him, failed to link Physics and Chemistry from molecular epigenetics to what is known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained cell type differentiation to all biodiversity on Earth. Framing what is known to all serious scientists about cell type differentiation in the context of what Ellis might think is a logical representation of biomolecules attests to his lack of logic across the time-space continuum of his life.
See for comparison: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (2017).
See also Odor-induced mood state modulates language comprehension by affecting processing strategies (2016)
The 2016 citation to The impact of natural odors on affective states in humans can now be linked to the accurate representations of top-down biophysical constraints on food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled feedback loops. The feedback loops are required to biophysically constrain viral latency.
See: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy (video)

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

See for comparison: Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation (2011)

Still, even in fruit flies, other sensory input besides pheromones — acoustic, tactile, and visual stimuli — play a role in sexual attraction, and sex specific responses to these stimuli appear to be innate rather than learned by association [36.]. We simply don’t know where the boundary between prespecified attraction and learned association lie in our own species, nor do we have compelling evidence for the primacy of one sense over another. (pp. 210- 211)

See also: Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation, 2nd edition (2016)
From the second edition of LeVay’s book:

… chemosignal enthusiasts point to a variety of studies in which sniffing body secretions or substances purified from secretions appears to have some psychological effect… (p. 115)

LeVay cites Kohl et al., (2001) Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology.
He has never mentioned the fact that the effects of virus-driven entropy on cell type differentiation were linked human sexual orientation in The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002) and in the book chapter he cited in the first edition of Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation.
See for comparison: Always follow your nose: the functional significance of social chemosignals in human reproduction and survival (2015) This article is part of a Special Issue “Chemosignals and Reproduction”
John Cacioppo, a Founder of Social Neuroscience, Dies

The University of Chicago psychology professor made fundamental contributions to understanding the neural mechanisms of social experiences.

My comment to The Scientist:

See also: Evolution of neuroarchitecture, multi-level analyses and calibrative reductionism (2012)

I hope John Cacioppo is remembered for this refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense:

Although peptide chemistry has been with us since amino acids first formed, the social role of oxytocin did not exist prior to the evolutionary sculpting of the vertebrate brain.

He may have been one of the first social scientists to recognize the fatal flaw that others continue to include in their works. All other serious scientists, like him, start with the energy-dependent creation of enzymes and amino acids. Only pseudoscientists still start with the evolution of the vertebrate brain.

I remember when he and his wife turned towards me and smiled — after I asked the speaker from Argentina about the role of oxytocin in a rodent model. No studies were being done for the obvious reason that few people knew where oxytocin came from.

I invited the speaker to lunch and we laughed a lot about the works that tried to link oxytocin to differences in behavior without linking the differences to altered  RNA-mediated non-mendelian inheritance of an epigenetic change in the mouse

RIP John Cacioppo

See also: Multilevel integrative analyses of human behavior: social neuroscience and the complementing nature of social and biological approaches (2000)
Nothing published during that 12-year period and nothing published before or since then suggests the the neuroarchitecture of intelligent creatures somehow evolved.
For comparison, see: Human pheromones and nutrient chemicals: epigenetic effects on ecological, social, and neurogenic niches that affect behavior (2012) Presented at the Society for Social Neuroscience Annual Meeting 2012
See also: Neuroglia in C. elegans (2018)

The nematode C. elegans is one of the most important model organisms for understanding neurobiology. Its completely mapped neural connectome of 302 neurons and fully characterized and stereotyped development have made it a prototype for understanding nervous system structure, development, and function. Fifty-six out of C. elegans‘ total of 959 somatic cells are classified as neuroglia. Although research on worm glia has lagged behind studies focused on neurons, there has been a steep upswing in interest during the past decade. Information arising from the recent burst of research on worm glia supports the idea that C. elegans will continue to be an important animal model for understanding glial cell biology. Since the developmental lineage of all cells was mapped, each glial cell in C. elegans is known by a specific name and has research associated with it. We list and describe the glia of the hermaphrodite form of C. elegans and summarize research findings relating to each glial cell. We hope this lecture provides an informative overview of worm glia to accompany the excellent and freely available online resources available to the worm research community.

The worm research community seems to be largely unaware of this fact: System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
The have failed to link food odors from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to ecological adaptatation manifested in morphological and in behavioral diversity.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (3)

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (2)

Teilhardism And The New Religion: A Thorough Analysis of the Teachings of Pierre Teilhard de Chardin”, p.18, TAN Books

The evolutionist thesis has become more stringently unthinkable than ever before. — Dr. Wolfgang Smith (2015).

A Chat with Information Scientist Pedro Marijuán (2017)

I’ve based my informational scheme of the cell on this thinking of “distinction on the adjacent” — where molecular recognition is the essential phenomenon over which biological complexity has been developed.

Biological complexity develops in the context of the olfactory code. Molecular recognition of food odors and pheromones biophysically constrains viral latency.

See: Fundamental principles of the olfactory code  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 94-101 open access

Sensory coding represents a basic principle of all phyla in nature: species attempt to perceive their natural surroundings and to make sense of them. Ultimately, sensory coding is the only way to allow a species to make the kinds of crucial decisions that lead to a behavioral response.

Alternative splicing of microRNAs (aka pre-mRNAs) are required for a behavior response.

The splicing code  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 39-48

…the splicing code depends on a myriad of different factors that in part are influenced by the background in which they are read such as different cells, tissues or developmental stages. Given the complexity of the splicing process, the construction of an algorithm that can define exons or their fate with certainty has not yet been achieved.

Algorithms define nothing. The availability of quantized energy as information must be linked to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biologically based cause and effect.

What is code biology?  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 1-10

The great discontinuities of the history of life, in other words, can be explained as the result of the appearance of new codes.

New codes do not automagically occur. The new codes are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of the fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.

On universal coding events in protein biogenesis  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 16-25

The complete ribosomal protein synthesis cycle and codon-amino acids associations are universally preserved in all life taxa on Earth. This process is accompanied by a set of hierarchically organized recognition and controlling events at different complexity levels. It starts with amino acid activation by aminoacyl tRNA synthetases…

The energy-dependent creation of the tRNA synthetases links hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all energy-dependent biodiversity.

How prokaryotes ‘encode’ their environment: Systemic tools for organizing the information flow  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 26-38

An important issue related to code biology concerns the cell’s informational relationships with the environment. As an open self-producing system, a great variety of inputs and outputs are necessary for the living cell, not only consisting of matter and energy but also involving information flows.

Quantized energy is the information that flows through every cell type in all prokaryotes.

Causation, constructors and codes  Volume 164, February 2018, Pages 121-127

A formal definition of codes in general, and organic codes in particular, allows the relational diagram to be extended so as to capture this translation of formal cause into process. The extended relational diagram is used to exemplify causal entailment in a diverse range of processes, such as enzyme action, construction of automata, communication through the Morse code, and ribosomal polypeptide synthesis through the genetic code.

The diverse range of processes starts with the creation of energy-dependent enzyme action. The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight was first linked to the creation of all biodiversity on Earth in 1944: What is Life?

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

If you think you can link anything except sunlight to all biodiversity on Earth, see: Evolution – Genetic Novelty/Genomic Variations by RNA Networks and Viruses
If you know that serious scientists do not link viruses to the evolution of anything except pathology, see:
Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The future of biology will not be left in the hands of biologically uninformed theorists.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (1)

Excerpt: ” …long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans…”
She Has Her Mother’s Laugh: The Powers, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity May 29, 2018 | 672 Pages
From the description of the book:

1) We need a new definition of what heredity is…

2) …Zimmer ultimately unpacks urgent bioethical quandaries arising from new biomedical technologies, but also long-standing presumptions about who we really are and what we can pass on to future generations.

The long-standing presumptions led to the claims made by biologically uninformed theorists who failed to link biophysically constrained viral latency to the recent origin of most protein-coding variants via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. For comparison to the long-standing presumptions, see:
Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants May 11, 2012
Evolution and functional impact of rare coding variation from deep sequencing of human exomes May 17, 2012
Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants
Reported as: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome November 28, 2012

Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. More broadly, the results suggest that humans are carrying around larger numbers of deleterious mutations than they did a few thousand years ago. But this doesn’t mean that humans now are more susceptible to disease, says Akey. Rather, it suggests that most diseases are caused by more than one variant, and that diseases could operate through different genetic pathways and mechanisms in different people.

Akey dismissed everything known about the epigenetic effects of food energy and the metabolism of food to pheromones, which biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See for comparison: A third of Americans don’t believe in evolution January 1, 2014
My comment:

Ecological adaptation occurs via the epigenetic effects of nutrients on alternative splicings of pre-mRNA which result in amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all species. The control of the differences in cell types occurs via the metabolism of the nutrients to chemical signals that control the physiology of reproduction.

These facts do not refute evolution; they simply refute the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection that most people here were taught to believe is the theory of evolution.

That theory is far too ridiculous to be anything but a joke in the context of biological-based increasing organismal complexity. But here, we have lots of jokers, don’t we? The proof of ecological variation that appears to refute the theory of evolution, which actually refutes itself, is that ecological adaptations occur too fast for mutations to compete with them as a source of anything but diseases and disorders.

When food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled autophagy (see: Autophagy.pro) fails to protect organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, organisms pass on mutations to future generations. Clear evidence of that fact was published in the context of this article: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants January, 2013.

Establishing the age of each mutation segregating in contemporary human populations is important to fully understand our evolutionary history1, 2 and will help to facilitate the development of new approaches for disease-gene discovery3.

The facts about the age of all mutations have since been placed into the context of:
Sperm epigenetics and influence of environmental factors February, 2018

… epigenetic variation may be genetically selected [41], which is in contradiction with the opposite model in which epigenetic variation is a cause of genetic variation. While both models can cooperate, more experimental evidence, other than computationally-based, should be provided to address the mutagenicity of regions subjected to environmentally-induced epigenetic variation and the evolutionary implications.

Conclusion:

Future research efforts may be able to identify a unified epigenetic remodeling response to lifestyle stress across species. Understanding the role of environmentally-driven epigenetic changes in gametes on the phenotype of the offspring constitutes not only a fascinating biological question on its own but also represents a moral obligation for the health of future generations.

See also: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression December, 2014

MicroRNA present in mature sperm… may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes.

To see how much experimental evidence of biophysically constrained food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biologically-based cause and effect has been ignored during the past two decades, see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior December 1996

…we focus directly on molecular events themselves. Here the “environment” involved can be that within a DNA segment. We also expand the notion of “biologically based sex differences.” Although many, and perhaps most, important sex differences arise from gonadal and hormonal development, also important are sex differences which are neither gonadal nor hormonal. All these factors affect the internal workings of the individual and intervene in structuring how the social environment might or might not modify sexual behavior. This discourse calls attention to features that are central to the so-called nature-nurture discussion.

Our section on molecular epigenetics may have been the first to detail what is now being reported in the context of the cryo-EM technology, which links energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems in all living genera via what is known about pre-mRNAs. Pre-mRNAs are now also referred to as microRNAs in more than 70,000 published works.
See: microRNA and/or pre-mRNA 
Clearly, what is known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity has forced Carl Zimmer to suggest that “We need a new definition of what heredity is…”
See also:
7/31/16 From hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs to ecosystems
7/31/16 RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics
7/30/16 What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy
7/29/16 RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy
4/10/14 Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
8/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution
3/8/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone–controlled thermodynamics and thermoregulation
2/17/13 Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution
Watch for Philip C. Ball’s newest book: Beyond Weird  March 22, 2018

Over the past decade or so, the enigma of quantum mechanics has come into sharper focus. We now realise that quantum mechanics is less about particles and waves, uncertainty and fuzziness, than a theory about information: about what can be known and how.

See: 5/8/17 Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference May 8, 2017
See also: New Giant Viruses Further Blur the Definition of Life

“The gap between cellular organisms and viruses is starting to close,” Deeg said. “Which then brings us back to: What is a virus, and what is life?”

Has anyone else linked biophotonics to the energy-dependent proton motive force via the cryo-EM technology?
See for instance: Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase.
And preview, Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
Nobel Laureates, Linda Buck, Ben Feringa, Michael Rosbash are among other Nobel Laureates who are scheduled to present.
See also: Are Humans “Smeller Underachievers?” Not So Fast…

…they will share their data and experience on the psychological influences on eating and behavior, the chemosensory properties of food and how we experience them, the role of food as medicine, and the history and evolution of flavor and flavor perception.

No experimental evidence of energy-dependent biophysically constrained top-down causation suggests that flavor perception “evolved.”  See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

How to biophysically constrain the flu virus (1)

Excerpt: John E Walker (Factor-dependent archaeal transcription termination) will probably explain the molecular mechanism of how ATP is made, which may be important to know for those who have learned how important ATP is by playing “Cytosis.” The creation of ATP can be linked to the creation of RNA and the prevention of messenger RNA degradation in the context of the Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor.
What the flu does to your body, and why it makes you feel awful

…when you have an influenza infection, you can rest assured that it is because your body is fighting hard. It’s combating the spread of the virus in your lungs and killing infected cells.

Why suffer needlessly or die prematurely. See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game 

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses! (2 to 5 Players, Ages 10 & up, Plays in 50 to 75 mins)

Download the “Science Behind the Game” to learn how food energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA protect all cell types, or see Alternative splicing and the evolution of phenotypic novelty.
Link the alternative splicings to species-specific behaviors via the physiology of reproduction in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior and anything else I have published or presented during the past two decades.
All behavior is energy-dependent. The energy comes from sunlight. Quantized energy as information from sunlight is linked to healthy longevity via its anti-entropic virucidal effect.
For example: Special UV light safely kills airborne flu virus, finds study

Scientists have known for decades that broad-spectrum UVC light, which has a wavelength of between 200 to 400 nanometers, or nm), is highly effective at killing bacteria and viruses by destroying the molecular bonds that hold their DNA together.

For comparison to vaccinations:
Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases

A key advantage of the UVC based approach, which is in clear contrast to vaccination approaches, is that UVC light is likely to be effective against all airborne microbes. For example, while there will almost certainly be variations in UVC inactivation efficiency as different influenza strains appear, they are unlikely to be large7,10. Likewise, as multi-drug-resistant variants of bacteria emerge, their UVC inactivation efficiencies are also unlikely to change greatly9.

In the context of vaccinations:
Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

Clearly, vaccinations may not protect you and prevention via use of UV light is desirable.
When you learn how UV light protects you at the level of particle physics, you will understand the horrors of neo-Darwinian theory and big bang cosmology .
See Subatomic
The link from quantum physics to quantum chemistry was reported last month. Modern diversification of the amino acid repertoire driven by oxygen.
Schrödinger at 75, The Future of Biology is scheduled for September 2018
John E Walker (Factor-dependent archaeal transcription termination) will probably explain the molecular mechanism of how ATP is made, which may be important to know for those who have learned how important ATP is by playing “Cytosis.” The creation of ATP can be linked to the creation of RNA and the prevention of messenger RNA degradation in the context of the Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor.
People who have played “Cytosis” can predict what will happen at the Schrödinger at 75 conference. They will jump ahead of most academics if they play “Subatomic” and link particle physics to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.
The fun factor is important to most people. They don’t care about supercoiled DNA or the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA. But other scientists are having fun watching the creator of the genious games teach facts to theorists. We are especially pleased about his help in teaching the facts about energy-dependent cell biology to anyone who wants to have fun, prevent or survive the flu, or to become a serious scientist.
Alternatively, play the Mutation-driven evolution game (available only as an outdated 2013 textbook).
But remember:  Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
Simply put, you could be dead by the time pseudoscientists start to tell the truth. For example, this is the truth:

There had been years of biophysical experiments and biochemical experiments, and it was always assumed that there was just one dynein molecule,” Lander adds.

Lander just admitted that their assumptions may have made many serious scientists wrong about every aspect of energy-dependent life on Earth.
See also: Real Heroes Have the Guts to Admit They’re Wrong

…one reason we can’t admit we have the facts wrong is that it’s too painful to our self-conception as smart, right-thinking people—or to our political tribal identity.

In the past year alone, mathematicians have pulled papers when they’ve learned their proofs don’t hold and economists have retracted work after finding they’d misclassified their data. The Harvard stem-cell biologist Douglas Melton had a hit 2013 paper that got cited hundreds of times—but when colleagues couldn’t replicate the finding, he yanked it.

They discount the fact that any claims that have been placed into the context of neo-Darwinian theories have been invalidated first by Schrödinger in “What is Life? (1944) and since then by all serious scientists who have linked  the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity.
See also: Windowed Granger causal inference strategy improves discovery of gene regulatory networks

Significance

Discovery of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) is crucial for gaining insights into biological processes involved in development or disease. Although time-resolved, high-throughput data are increasingly available, many algorithms do not account for temporal delays underlying regulatory systems—such as protein synthesis and posttranslational modifications—leading to inaccurate network inference. To overcome this challenge, we introduce Sliding Window Inference for Network Generation (SWING), which uniquely accounts for temporal information. We validate SWING in both in silico and in vitro experimental systems, highlighting improved performance in identifying time-delayed edges and illuminating network structure. SWING performance is robust to user-defined parameters, enabling identification of regulatory mechanisms from time-series gene expression data.

Reported as: New machine learning algorithm uncovers time-delayed interactions in cells

SWING puts together a more complete picture of the cause-and-effect interactions happening among genes by incorporating time delays and sliding windows. Rather than only looking at the individual perturbations and responses, SWING uses time-resolved, high-throughput data to integrate the time it takes for those responses to occur.

Researchers will continue to scramble in attempts to put their findings into the context of what has already been presented in: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
and in:

 

 

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Anti-entropic sunlight: Schrödinger's Creationist Secret? (1)

Summary: Perhaps Daniel Dennett will make people feel better about the unnecessary suffering and premature death.
Daniel Dennett is scheduled to present the Keynote Lecture at Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

For insight into his philosophical perspective see: How to Criticize with Kindness: Philosopher Daniel Dennett on the Four Steps to Arguing Intelligently

1) You should attempt to re-express your target’s position so clearly, vividly, and fairly that your target says, “Thanks, I wish I’d thought of putting it that way.
2) You should list any points of agreement (especially if they are not matters of general or widespread agreement).
3) You should mention anything you have learned from your target.
4) Only then are you permitted to say so much as a word of rebuttal or criticism.

For insight on his philosophical perspective on consciousness, see:

From the laws of mathematics to human consciousness: Expert explains why he thinks God DOES exist

Recognising that he could not reconcile his own scientific materialism with the existence of a nonphysical world of human consciousness, a leading atheist, Daniel Dennett, in 1991 took the radical step of denying that consciousness even exists.

Finding this altogether implausible, as most people do, another leading philosopher, Thomas Nagel, wrote in 2012 that, given the scientifically inexplicable – the ‘intractable’ – character of human consciousness, ‘we will have to leave [scientific] materialism behind’ as a complete basis for understanding the world of human existence.

Several of the serious scientists who are also scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018 have failed to leave scientific materialism behind. Scientific materialism is also known as scientism and historical materialism. It has virtually no appeal to anyone who has linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucdal energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the microRNA-mediated physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
The appeal of scientific materialism has been linked from the bastardization of Darwin’s “conditions of life” to the efforts of “Big Pharma” to develop therapeutic and largely ineffective treatments or ineffective influenza vaccines (primarily in the United States of America).
See for comparison to the real threat, which Daniel Dennet may not address in his Keynote Lecture.

Addendum: When I first heard a lecture on microRNAs (in 2012), I asked the speaker if he was saying that every aspect of what happens to cell type differentiation occurs downstream from the creation of microRNAs. I was somewhat embarrassed when he replied “Yes, that’s what we’ve learned during the past 5-10 years.” But, others in the audience later assured me that this was a specialized field that most people in the medical profession had not learned anything about. I still felt bad, since I realized people were suffering and dying from that ignorance. Now, I feel worse.
Perhaps Daniel Dennett will make people feel better about the unnecessary suffering and premature death.