An evolutionary theory killer

A single base change refutes theistic evolution (2)

Announcing publication of a model that links the creation of quantized energy from changes in subatomic particles to biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation in all living genera.

Nutrient-dependent Pheromone-Controlled Ecological Adaptations: From Angstroms to Ecosystems

This angstroms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptation links nutrient energy-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

The invited review of nutritional epigenetics was returned without review and the preprint was posted 4 years ago as:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

The only significant change to the manuscript was a change in the title. Atoms to ecosystems became Angstroms to Ecosystems when quantized energy-dependent changes in angstroms were linked to ecological adaptation by what is known to all serious scientists in this 2014 parody.
All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14
Repeat after them (and me): “… every angstrom is dynamic from the 5 prime to the three…”
See also the 2015 publication: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

DNA simultaneously exists in a largely inactive B-form with bases tucked in and protected and an active, highly varied structure with exposed bases.

See also: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering

George Church and others may have been the first to place the naturally occurring biophysically constrained energy-dependent processes of ecological adaptations into the context of a patent. (It is extremely unusual for anyone to attempt to patent a naturally occurring process.) That explains why there is no patent litigation, which still plagues those who claimed to discover the CRISPR-Cas 9 innate immune system of bacteria, which biophysically constrains viral latency and prevents the degradation of messenger RNA that links the energy-dependent creation of bacteria to the virus-driven creation of archaea and L-forms. All biophysically constrained virus-driven pathology has since been placed back into the context of embryogenesis and the dynamics of energy-dependent gene expression at the level of single-cell resolution as if bacteria somehow evolved into humans.

See:

Single-cell reconstruction of developmental trajectories during zebrafish embryogenesis
Single-cell mapping of gene expression landscapes and lineage in the zebrafish embryo
The dynamics of gene expression in vertebrate embryogenesis at single-cell resolution
Chronicling embryos, cell by cell, gene by gene
Reported as: How one cell gives rise to an entire body
See for comparison our section on molecular epigenetics in: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
Watch pseudoscientists continue to make ridiculous claims that fail to link the creation of biophysically constrained thermonuclear energy to autophagy and all biodiversity in the context of the cell biology game Cytosis and most of the forthcoming presentations during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018.
Remember to note that at the end of the parody All About that Base, the research group politely refers to Neil deGrasse Tyson as a big ass (er, a bass). Try not to use the acronym ROTFLMAO in attempts to discuss what is known to all serious scientists with theorists.

Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

Ecological adaptation: A new definition of heredity (3)

Excerpt:
Moving forward: Novel and Haplotype Specific MicroRNAs Encoded by the Major Histocompatibility Complex

…these data suggest that a subset of the identified novel miRNAs may contribute to the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, laying the groundwork for future studies to elucidate the functional connections of miRNAs to the numerous diseases associated with sequence variants within non-coding regions of the MHC.

OMCD: OncoMir Cancer Database

Dysregulation of miRNAs is commonly observed in cancers and it largely cancer dependent.

The virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information has been linked from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to all pathology. That fact replaces the circular logic that links cancer-dependent dysregulation of miRNAs to cancer.  Simply put, the proliferation of viruses cause cancer. The proliferation of viruses is energy-dependent in the context of established links from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera.
See: Subatomic: An Atom Building Board Game

A deck-building game where particle physics & chemistry collide! Use quarks to build subatomic particles & particles to build Atoms!

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements.

Moving forward: Novel and Haplotype Specific MicroRNAs Encoded by the Major Histocompatibility Complex

…these data suggest that a subset of the identified novel miRNAs may contribute to the pathophysiology of numerous diseases, laying the groundwork for future studies to elucidate the functional connections of miRNAs to the numerous diseases associated with sequence variants within non-coding regions of the MHC.

My “Disqus” comment (and nearly 2000 others): Gene expression is energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained.
See: FUS Regulates Activity of MicroRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing.

MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing is a fundamental mechanism in the regulation of gene expression.

MicroRNAs do not create themselves.
See also:  Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
8 of my 9 most recent comments to Disqus have been removed.
See for comparison: Incomplete host immunity favors the evolution of virulence in an emergent pathogen
Reported as: In nature, an imperfect immune system drives the evolution of deadly pathogens

…birds that eat at feeders are more likely to be infected with the disease, which causes red, swollen eyes and often blindness that results in death.

…lower virulence strains could be their own worst enemies, creating a population of hosts that are resistant to them but not the higher virulence strains that remain.

By removing my Disqus comments, the moderators limit discussion of the facts about virus-driven energy theft, which links mutations to all pathology.  That allows the biased reporting on preprints that continue to try to support the ridiculous concept of neo-Darwinian evolution.
It also prevents the realization of goals by serious scientists who have linked the biogenic creation of uranium ores to the prevention of radiation sickness via microRNA therapy. See, for examples: miRNA-mediated therapies
A miRNA-145/TGF-beta1 Negative Feedback Loop Regulates the Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Phenotype

…miR-145 is a key regulator of the CAF phenotype, acting in a negative feedback loop to dampen acquisition of myofibroblastic traits, a key feature of CAF associated with poor disease outcome.

See also: Microhomology-assisted scarless genome editing in human iPSCs

Gene-edited induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide relevant isogenic human disease models in patient-specific or healthy genetic backgrounds. Towards this end, gene targeting using antibiotic selection along with engineered point mutations remains a reliable method to enrich edited cells. Nevertheless, integrated selection markers obstruct scarless transgene-free gene editing. Here, we present a method for scarless selection marker excision using engineered microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ). By overlapping the homology arms of standard donor vectors, short tandem microhomologies are generated flanking the selection marker. Unique CRISPR-Cas9 protospacer sequences nested between the selection marker and engineered microhomologies are cleaved after gene targeting, engaging MMEJ and scarless excision. Moreover, when point mutations are positioned unilaterally within engineered microhomologies, both mutant and normal isogenic clones are derived simultaneously. The utility and fidelity of our method is demonstrated in human iPSCs by editing the X-linked HPRT1 locus and biallelic modification of the autosomal APRT locus, eliciting disease-relevant metabolic phenotypes.

Reported as: Gene Editing Is Now Precise Enough to Modify a Single Letter of DNA

To make these very precise edits, an SNP modification is first inserted alongside a fluorescent reporter gene that helps researchers to identify modified cells. The researchers engineered a duplicate DNA sequence known as a microhomology (hence the technique’s name) on each side of the fluorescent gene, targeting sites for CRISPR to go in and cut DNA. The researchers were then able to use a DNA repair system known as microhomology-mediated end joining (MMEJ) to remove the fluorescent gene. That left only the single-base edit, in the form of an SNP, behind.

See also: Inhibition of the Host Translation Shutoff Response by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Triggers Nuclear Envelope-Derived Autophagy
Nuclear envelope-derived autophagy (NEDA) appears to be a cellular stress response, which is triggered late during HSV-1 infection. An energy-dependent single nucleotide repeat (SNR) might compensate for the viral alteration of the macroautophagic response. At this level of hydrogen-atom energy transfer in DNA base pairs in solution, the link to supercoiled DNA and viral latency becomes increasingly important.
Theorists are angry because they have been left behind. They know very little about what is important. That was expected by all serious scientists, especially those who have accumulated decades of testing experience while working in medical laboratories.
See for example: Applications of ligation-mediated PCR

Using a molecular energy source (which differs depending on the enzyme source organism), DNA ligase reforms the missing covalent bond and the strand is whole again. Two aspects of this are critical:

The nick to be repaired occurs on a single strand but in the context of a double-stranded molecule.
The bases of the nicked strand, and particularly those directly flanking the nick site, must be properly base-paired to the opposite (un-nicked) strand.

It’s not hard to imagine why this is: the base pairing is required to hold the two parts (sugar 3′ -OH and the next phosphate) in place for the ligase enzyme active site to catalyze joining them. If either one of these isn’t base-paired down and is flopping about with thermal motion, the reaction geometry doesn’t occur, and no new bond can be made.

Biologically uninformed theorists cannot even speak the same language. They do not start with a molecular energy source for base pairing and microRNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types. Instead, mutations are linked to increasing organismal complexity via the magic of evolution.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Diet-driven RNA interference and mental health (4)

See: Diet-driven RNA interference and mental health (3)

Social transmission and buffering of synaptic changes after stress

Transmission from the stressed subject to the naive partner required the activation of PVN CRH neurons in both subject and partner to drive and detect the release of a putative alarm pheromone from the stressed mouse.

Reported as: Researchers discover brain cells change following close contact with a stressed individual

“There has been other literature that shows stress can be transferred — and our study is actually showing the brain is changed by that transferred stress,” says Toni-Lee Sterley, an Eyes High postdoctoral fellow in Bains’s lab and the study’s lead author. “The neurons that control the brain’s response to stress showed changes in unstressed partners that were identical to those we measured in the stressed mice.”

The researchers discovered that the activation of the neurons causes the release of a chemical signal, an “alarm pheromone,” from the mouse that alerts the partner. The partner who detects the signal can, in turn, alert additional members of the group.

This links Bruce McEwen’s works on stress to my works. It completes details of how the mouse-to-human model links nutrient stress-linked and social stress-linked mutations from the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology. It predicts that fact that human pheromone-enhanced products will continue to be used to prevent or effectively treat Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, and to prevent suicide.
See: Formulation and evaluation of anti-suicidal nasal spray of Thyrotropin releasing hormone
See also: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
The unnecessary suffering and premature deaths of ~ 22 veterans per day and many others who commit suicide or who suffer through largely ineffective treatments for cancer can be place into the context of two reviews:
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)
and Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
In my 2014 invited review of nutritional epigenetics, I linked one food energy-dependent base pair to fixation of one amino acid substitution and the stability of organized genomes in a modern human population. The stability was clearly linked from the creation of microRNAs via ingestion of sago palm-like leaves to an increase in endogenous vitamin C.
See also: Vitamins and Hormones Volume 106 Thyroid Hormone February 2018 (paywalled)
Vitamin C links a single base pair change to one amino acid substitution (V370A) in a modern human population. That fact can now be linked from my 2013 refutation of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense to all biodiversity on Earth via the creation of sunlight and the Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

The model organism that best represent the facts about epigenetic regulation of biophysically constrained ATP-dependent RNA-mediated viral latency is featured here: Meet the creature that can regenerate its brain and resist cancer.

A good model with a good model organism predicts. The mouse to human model predicts that one base pair and one fixed RNA-mediated amino acid substitution link the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all vertebrate biodiversity via food odors.  Predictably, in the axolotyl (aka the “walking fish”), an iodine isotope and cryo-EM technology will soon be used to establish the facts about how the creation of sunlight must be linked from the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA to DNA repair and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and healthy longevity in all living genera.

See also: Researchers ID New Mechanism for Keeping DNA Protein in Line

The actions of a protein used for DNA replication and repair are guided by electrostatic forces known as phosphate steering, a finding that not only reveals key details about a vital process in healthy cells, but provides new directions for cancer treatment research.
Electrostatic forces are not known as phosphate steering.
See: What is an Electrostatic Force?

Electrostatic force between electrons and protons is one of the strongest forces in the universe, even more powerful than gravity. A hydrogen atom, which contains only one electron and one proton, has the fundamental force of gravity keeping it together. However, each subatomic particle can develop electrostatic force as well, which becomes even stronger.

Pseudoscientists are prepared to attack serious scientists at every level of examination that includes aspects of how subatomic particles contribute to oxidative phosphorylation. Who doesn’t know about the role that subatomic particles play in biophysically constraining viral latency?
See: Subatomic: An Atom Building Game (2017)

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available Elements, which score them points. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton, Neutron, and Electron Cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom (by playing these cards face-up as Subatomic Particles) in an attempt to construct one of the available Element Cards. Or players may use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful cards for later use (by playing them in combinations of face-down as energy and face-up as Subatomic Particles!) Subatomic introduces a unique variation on deck building with a highly accurate chemistry theme…

The fact that Discover’s “My Science Shop” does not yet include information on the game “Subatomic” can be explained because the game is not yet available. The fact that Discover’s “My Science Shop” does not mention the availabilty of “Cytosis” suggests they are not willing to admit that their past representations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense were removed from consideration in 1944 when Schrödinger published “What is Life?”
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The most accurate of all chemistry themes has continued to link Schrödinger’s claims from  quantum physics and quantum chemistry to quantum biology via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. The conserved molecular mechanisms link energy-dependent epigenetics to healthy longevity. The conserved molecular mechanisms also link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology.
See also: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution (2013)
Classical biophysics does not have a ready explanation for the role of docosahexanoic acid (DHA), which appears to be irreplaceable in the context of a light-activated endogenous substrate that functions as an electron tunnelling device. DHA provides precise quantized signals that are essential to visual accuity in the context of synaptic signaling. The link from quantum physics to classical physics helps to explain why the energy-dependent creation of photoreceptors has been linked to their counter intuitive orientation — away from the incoming light.
But, I digress. I am often forced to digress by theorists who invent new terms, such as phosphate steering, to obfuscate what is know about epigenetically-effected top-down causation, which starts with effects of sunlight linked to oxidative phosphorylation. Top-down causation does not start with phosphate steering. It starts with the creation of receptors. If any aspect of biophysically constrained life on Earth started with phosphate steering, there would be more than one citation to the claim. There is only one. See. “Phosphate steering.”
For comparison to what is known about the link from microRNAs to the brain and behavior, see:
microRNA brain and microRNA behavior
See also: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene (2011)
and Targeted expression of suicide gene by tissue-specific promoter and microRNA regulation for cancer gene therapy (2013)

See: Epigenetics study helps focus search for autism risk factors

Within the Shank3 promoter 6 region they identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (or SNP, a common type of genetic variation) known as rs6010065. Analyzing genomic data from a clinical study of 554 children with autism and 214 healthy controls, they found that rs6010065 is indeed associated with autism spectrum disorder.

I reiterate. The profiles are energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction helps to ensure that viral latency is biophysically constrained by the dynamic processes. That fact can be compared to ridiculous claims about mutations and the “evolving profiles.”

See for example, this link from the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of the BDNF val66met polymorphism amino acid substitution to behavior in human infants.

The BDNF val66met polymorphism and individual differences in temperament in 4-month-old infants: A pilot study

See for comparison: Stress dynamically regulates behavior and glutamatergic gene expression in hippocampus by opening a window of epigenetic plasticity

Reported as: Newly discovered windows of brain plasticity may help with treatment of stress-related disorders 

…they looked at mice genetically engineered to carry a genetic variant associated with development of depression and other stress-related disorders in humans [ the variant is (BDNF Val66Met)] and present in 33 percent of the population.

If you don’t know where to look, you might find where the information on the BDNF Val66Met is buried. But, if you look at the life’s works of Bruce S. McEwen, you will discover what is known to all serious scientists about stress linked RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.

Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course (2017)

Heterozygous BDNF Val66Met mice are genetically susceptible to stress. The effects of stress on messenger RNA levels in wild-type mice was recapitulated but only via activation of immediate early genes when the heterozygous BDNF Val66Met mice were actually stressed. In the absence of stress, stress activated expression of immediate early genes is not worth studying. Similarly, it is not worth studying how nutrient stress is linked to social stress via c-fos activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuroscretory neurons.

However, if baseline studies had not already linked expression of the Fos protein to epigenetic effects of pheromones on luteinizing hormone in mice, the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on humans might never have been linked to interethnic genetic differences in human morphology and behavior.

See: Influence of male rats on the luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neuronal system in female rats: role of the vomeronasal organ (1993)

[Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] (1994)

Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology (2001)

Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis (2011)

The link from diet-driven RNA interference to mental health can now be considered in the context of gene gains and losses.

For example, see: APOBEC1

  1. Catalytic component of the apolipoprotein B mRNA editing enzyme complex which is responsible for the postranscriptional editing of a CAA codon for Gln to a UAA codon for stop in the APOB mRNA.
  2. Also involved in CGA (Arg) to UGA (Stop) editing in the NF1 mRNA.
  3. May also play a role in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression by participating in DNA demethylation.

Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology

These data provide powerful evidence supporting the critical role of APOBEC1-mediated RNA editing in maintaining the balance between the homeostatic and activated immune functions of MG.

See also: Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Conceptual Framework (Part 1) and Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review (Part 2)

Reported as: Cellular ‘powerhouses’ may explain health effects of stress

The findings are especially exciting for the field of psychosomatic medicine, with its traditional focus on re-integrating the mind (“psyche”) and body (“soma”). Emerging evidence on the role of mitochondria in translating the effects of stress on health “extend the reach of mind-body research into the cellular-molecular domain that is the core foundation of current biomedical training and practice,” Drs. Picard and McEwen write. They emphasize the need for further studies to test various elements of their model, especially in humans. “Future research should consider the dynamic bi-directional interactions between mitochondria and other important physiological systems,” the authors conclude.

See also: Mitochondrial alterations and neuropsychiatric disorders

Mitochondria are membrane-enclosed organelle found in most eukaryotic cells, where they generate the majority of the cell’s supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), used as a source of chemical energy. In addition, they are involved in a range of other processes, such as signalling, cellular differentiation, cell death, as well as the control of the cell cycle and cell growth. Mitochondria have been implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders, in particular, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, autism, and Alzheimer’s dementia. Furthermore, the presence of mutations at the level of mitochondrial or nuclear DNA (mtDNA and nDNA, respectively) has been linked to personality disorders, behavioral disturbances, thought alterations, impulsivity, learning impairment, cognitive failures until dementia. The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms or syndromes and mtDNA mutations or mitochondrial alterations, while highlighting novel therapeutic targets for a broad range of disorders.

 

Plenty of Room at the Bottom

Cryo-EM: Linking spatial and conformational constraints

On Darwin Day (2018) Carl Zimmer suggested use of the twitter hashtag #Istudyevolution to report whatever aspect of biology people were studying. For example, Richard Lenski reported that he studied adaptation in E. coli. When I told others that ecological adaptation is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in species from microbes to humans, he blocked me from seeing his comments. Evidently he did not want people to know that he had been studying ecological adaptation for more than 2 decades but reporting the adaptations in the context of neo-Darwinian theories about mutations and evolution. For further clarification of that fact see:
Cryo-electron tomography reveals that dynactin recruits a team of dyneins for processive motility

…the mechanisms responsible for increased transport activity are not well understood, largely owing to limited structural information. We used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize the 3D structure of the MT-bound dynein–dynactin complex from Mus musculus and show that the dynactin–cargo adaptor complex binds two dimeric dyneins. This configuration imposes spatial and conformational constraints on both dynein dimers.

This spatial and conformational constraints were reported as: Microscopic chariots deliver molecules within our cells

This discovery was totally unexpected, and will change how this motor complex is represented in cell biology and biochemistry text books,” says Saikat Chowdhury, PhD, a TSRI research associate and co-first author of the study.

“There had been years of biophysical experiments and biochemical experiments, and it was always assumed that there was just one dynein molecule,” Lander adds.

Assuming there was just one dynein molecule is something that only a biologically uninformed theorist would do. An energy-dependent difference in two molecules is required for movement and for biophysical constraints on movement. For comparison, all discoveries that link energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems were anticipated by Richard P. Feynman in his claims about Plenty of Room at the Bottom.He linked his claims about the size of letters in a code from atoms to ecosystems in the context of Food Energy and denigrated the works of all theorists in The key to science (Cornell, 1964)
See also McEwen et al., (1964) Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”
Everything known to serious scientists links cryo-ET and cryo-EM technology from ecological niche construction to socio-cognitive niche construction via food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions in the microtubules, which link differences in animal behavior to human consciousness.
See: Untangling Neurodegenerative Diseases using Cryo-Electron Microscopy
Everything known about prevention of all pathology starts with the creation of sunlight.
See: Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases

In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that very low doses of far-UVC light efficiently inactivate airborne viruses carried by aerosols. For example, a very low dose of 2 mJ/cm2 of 222-nm light inactivates >95% of airborne H1N1 virus. Our results indicate that far-UVC light is a powerful and inexpensive approach for prevention and reduction of airborne viral infections without the human health hazards inherent with conventional germicidal UVC lamps. If these results are confirmed in other scenarios, it follows that the use of overhead very low level far-UVC light in public locations may represent a safe and efficient methodology for limiting the transmission and spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Public locations such as hospitals, doctors’ offices, schools, airports and airplanes might be considered here. This approach may help limit seasonal influenza epidemics, transmission of tuberculosis, as well as major pandemics.

Reported as: Special UV light safely kills airborne flu virus, finds study

In the study, aerosolized H1N1 virus—a common strain of flu virus—was released into a test chamber and exposed to very low doses of 222 nm far-UVC light. A control group of aerosolized virus was not exposed to the UVC light. The far-UVC light efficiently inactivated the flu viruses, with about the same efficiency as conventional germicidal UV light.

They confirmed the fact that UV light biophysically constrains the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
See also: Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity

Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2μs. We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2)% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6)% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8)%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.

Reported as: Light controls two-atom quantum computation

This interaction is the basis for performing characteristic gate operations between the atoms, for example the operation as a CNOT gate or the generation of entanglement. The new method offers a variety of advantages: for example, the gate operations take place within microseconds which is an asset for quantum information processing.

Quantized energy is the information that must be biophysically constrained and transferred from hydrogen-atoms in DNA base pairs in solution. That fact seems to have escaped the attention of biologically uninformed pseudoscientists and most so-called science journalists. The pseudoscientists and other theorists linked the emergence of the energy to the evolution of all biodiversity outside the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
See for comparison to what serious scientist have done:Experimental Evidence of Radiation Reaction in the Collision of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse with a Laser-Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beam

The dynamics of energetic particles in strong electromagnetic fields can be heavily influenced by the energy loss arising from the emission of radiation during acceleration, known as radiation reaction. When interacting with a high-energy electron beam, today’s lasers are sufficiently intense to explore the transition between the classical and quantum radiation reaction regimes. We present evidence of radiation reaction in the collision of an ultrarelativistic electron beam generated by laser-wakefield acceleration (ϵ>500MeV) with an intense laser pulse (a0>10). We measure an energy loss in the postcollision electron spectrum that is correlated with the detected signal of hard photons (γ rays), consistent with a quantum description of radiation reaction. The generated γ rays have the highest energies yet reported from an all-optical inverse Compton scattering scheme, with critical energy ϵcrit>30MeV.

Reported as: Intense laser experiments provide first evidence that light can stop electrons

“One thing I always find so fascinating about this is that the electrons are stopped as effectively by this sheet of light, a fraction of a hair’s breadth thick, as by something like a millimetre of lead. That is extraordinary.”

The data from the experiment also agrees better with a theoretical model based on the principles of quantum electrodynamics, rather than Maxwell’s equations, potentially providing some of the first evidence of previously untested quantum models.

Effects of quantized energy as information cannot be defined in the context of equations, which is why physicists have traditionally been ridiculed for any attempt to explain energy-dependent top-down causation in the context of biophysically constrained healthy longevity.

All species on Earth exhibit an undefined, incalculable, innate ability to biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency. That ability is food energy-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. Food energy comes from sunlight, either directly or indirectly via plant grown and the creation of microRNAs in plants. Serious scientists know how to light the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to DNA repair.
See: Watson–Crick Base Pairing Controls Excited-State Decay in Natural DNA (2014)
Reported as: Base-pairing protects DNA from UV damage

…the Watson-Crick base-pairing mechanism itself controls the dissipation of the absorbed UV energy. This contradicts the conventional wisdom, which holds that the base sequence within the same strand is responsible for the deactivation of excited states,” says Wolfgang Zinth.

See also:  Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution (2015)

Ultrafast deactivation pathways bestow photostability on nucleobases and hence preserve the structural integrity of DNA following absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One controversial recovery mechanism proposed to account for this photostability involves electron-driven proton transfer (EDPT) in Watson–Crick base pairs. The first direct observation is reported of the EDPT process after UV excitation of individual guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairs by ultrafast time-resolved UV/visible and mid-infrared spectroscopy. The formation of an intermediate biradical species (G[−H]⋅C[+H]) with a lifetime of 2.9 ps was tracked. The majority of these biradicals return to the original G⋅C Watson–Crick pairs, but up to 10 % of the initially excited molecules instead form a stable photoproduct G*⋅C* that has undergone double hydrogen-atom transfer. The observation of these sequential EDPT mechanisms across intermolecular hydrogen bonds confirms an important and long debated pathway for the deactivation of photoexcited base pairs, with possible implications for the UV photochemistry of DNA.

See also:  UV Irradiation Induces a Non-coding RNA that Functionally Opposes the Protein Encoded by the Same Gene (2017)
Reported as: Noncoding RNA Helps Cells Recover from DNA Damage
My comment to the Scientist:

There is clear evidence that femtosecond blasts of UV light repair DNA in the context of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and autophagy, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and the degradation of messenger RNA.

The failure to integrate the Nobel Prize winning works of Ben Feringa (Chemisty 2016) and Yoshinori Ohsumi (Physiology or Medicine 2016) prevents theorists from linking what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in the context of Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?”(1944) and this claim by Roger Penrose in the reprint edition:

“How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991)

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior In our section on molecular epigenetics, we wrote:

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

The food energy that is linked from alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA to the chemistry of protein folding and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera seems to be largely ignored by those who are not Nobel Laureates.

It links the virus-driven theft of quantized energy from the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology, and physicists cannot explain that fact with math and definitions. They tried with de Vries 1902 definition of mutations, and they have failed miserably ever since.

See: Amino acid–base interactions: a three-dimensional analysis of protein–DNA interactions at an atomic level (2001)

To assess whether there are universal rules that govern amino acid–base recognition, we investigate hydrogen bonds, van der Waals contacts and water-mediated bonds in 129 protein–DNA complex structures. DNA–backbone interactions are the most numerous, providing stability rather than specificity. For base interactions, there are significant base–amino acid type correlations, which can be rationalised by considering the stereochemistry of protein side chains and the base edges exposed in the DNA structure.

See also: Systematic prediction of DNA shape changes due to CpG methylation explains [quantized energy-dependent] epigenetic effects… (2018)
The effects of sunlight and quantum chemistry link energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differentiation of all cell types in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction, which is controlled by pheromones in species from microbes to humans. Pheromones biophysically constrain viral latency in all animals that need to eat for their species to survive.

Cryo-EM technology predicts RNA-mediated DNA shape, which means the technology can be used to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology in the context of the games “Cytosis” and “Subatomic.”
When “Subatomic” is available, players will link what is known to all serious scientists who present during “Schrodinger at 75” to the overwhemling amount of pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists during the past 75 years.

Theorists failed to link subatomic particles to biophysically constrained viral latency via the “Virus Expansion” from “Cytosis.” That fact led to this admission of ignorance:

Microscopic chariots deliver molecules within our cells https://phys.org/news/2018-02-microscopic-chariots-molecules-cells.html

Excerpt: This discovery was totally unexpected, and will change how this motor complex is represented in cell biology and biochemistry text books,” says Saikat Chowdhury, PhD, a TSRI research associate and co-first author of the study.

“There had been years of biophysical experiments and biochemical experiments, and it was always assumed that there was just one dynein molecule,” Lander adds.

My comment: All the discoveries that have since linked energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems were anticipated by Richard P. Feynman in his claims about “Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” Everything known to serious scientists links cryo-EM technology from ecological niche construction to socio-cognitive niche construction via food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions in the microtubules that link differences in animal behavior to human consciousness.

It will good to see “Subatomic” placed into the context of the admission that there are two dynein molecules. Others may begin to see the levels of complexity that must be represented in game play to prevent further assumptions based on ignorance of particle physics and energy transfer that biophysically constrains viral latency.

The fact that many people can readily learn more than most theoretical physicists have learned about subatomic particles and cell biology by playing games for fun is an exciting development for scientists and laypersons.

Magnus S. Magnusson wrote: James Kohl it [the Neil deGrasse Tyson meme] was not aimed at you, of course, understand that it is about the genera educational situation. BTW Einstein mostly missed biology and Hawking says the 21. century will be that of biology, which I also believe.”
The Icelandic atheist and hate monger, blocked me before I could comment further on Neil deGrasse Tyson’s overwhelming display of ignorance.
George FR Ellis, who co-authored with Stephen Hawking in the 60’s has already validated my model. See: Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience

George F R Ellis This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics.

The Genius Games series from John Coveyou is the way forward. The games successfully link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from top-down causation to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via a model that links electrons to ecosystems.

See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

An evolutionary theory killer

A reversible TCA cycle in a thermophile

Make no mistake, pseudoscientists have stolen the soul of science for more than 20 years, with their ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution.
For comparison, see:

“…considering that we have just 3 such round Nos ‘100’ ‘1000’ ‘10000’, its just three out of all realistic possibilities, no? Admit its looks cool just bec. we calc in Dec system. History books claims was invented by ancient societies; but I think its evolution: We have 10 fingers!”

My reply (SARCASM ALERT):

Thanks. The correlations are intriguing. Templeton funding might help you prove that the numbers game of evolution is true in the context of Cosmopsychism. With enough correlations, facts that link physics and chemistry to viral latency can be dismissed.

Thanks to the Ralser lab for bringing this to my attention with a claim about:
A reductive TCA cycle in a thermophile, which uses the same citrate synthase [enzyme] both for the oxidative and the reductive directionality.

“Every day it looks more likely that primoridial and modern metabolism look similar”

A link was provided to: A primordial and reversible TCA cycle in a facultatively chemolithoautotrophic thermophile

…raises the possibility of a facultatively chemolithomixotrophic origin of life.

Has anyone else considered that possibility?
I tried to look at it from the perspective of chemoorganoheterotrophic metabolism and electron-eating microbes that enzymatically (not automagically) create uranium isotopes, but I got side-tracked by the claims about mutations and evolution. I could not link those claims from the physiology of reproduction in microbes to claims that link the metabolism of food energy to pheromones that biophysically constrain viral latency in species from microbes to humans.

Now, the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in electron-eating microbes that create uranium isotopes suggests the same thing that the Ralser lab suggested: SARCASM ALERT: “It’s turtles all the way down” (the infinite regress problem in cosmology).Unless, like the folks at the Ralser Lab,  you are a serious scientist.

The problem for pseudoscientists, theorists, and many so-called science journalists may be familiar to those at the Ralser lab. McEwen et al., (1964) reported “The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.” All serious scientists know “ATP controls the crowd.

These findings suggest an additional way for cells to use ATP to maintain proteostasis in the crowded cytoplasm and also fine-tune the material properties of nonmembrane-bound organelles and the cell interior in general.

Obviously, there are now several groups of serious scientists that can make fun of all the pseudoscientists and so-called science journalists who have failed to link physics and chemistry to biophysically constrained viral latency via energy-dependent changes in base pairs in species from thermophiles to those that create uranium isotopes. But Kudos to the first group, or one of the first, to do that:

12/10/14 All about that base and Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA 10/12/15

Sarcasm Alert: I hope that claims about the emergence of energy and mutation-driven evolution did not confuse others as much as they confused so-called science journalists such as John Hewitt, Philip C. Ball, Carl Zimmer, and many others.
When you see the facts reported by an intelligent science journalist, please tell others about the claims that link the creation of energy from the game “Subatomic” to biophysically constrained viral latency in “Cytosis.” Comparisons will be made. It will become clearer that pseudoscientists, theorists and many others have lost their games.
See for example: Attacked from All Sides: RNA Decay in Antiviral Defense

…RNA decay machinery plays important roles in antiviral defense. This can involve either direct effects on vRNA stability or indirect regulation of the intracellular milieu. Furthermore, an emerging theme suggests that many RNA binding proteins can be repurposed from their endogenous roles in the nucleus to antiviral roles in the cytoplasm. Future studies are necessary to further elucidate how these RNA binding…

…proteins recognize foreign RNAs and how they interface with the RNA decay machinery to restrict vRNA replication.”

Alternatively, everyone can simply accept the fact that food energy typically restricts the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, and tell all the pseudoscientists and so-called science journalists where to put their pseudoscientific nonsense (e.g., where the sun don’t shine).
For example: Is the Universe a conscious mind?

Cosmopsychism might seem crazy, but it provides a robust explanatory model for how the Universe became fine-tuned for life

For comparison: A Big Bang in spliceosome structural biology and Alternative splicing and the evolution of phenotypic novelty
But remember to link the claims about the evolution of phenotypic novelty to the missing claims about behavior, and see the claims made by Bruce McEwen and Martin Picard in:
Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Conceptual Framework (Part 1)

Mitochondria, a subcellular organelle with its own genome, produce the energy required for life and generate signals that enable stress adaptation. An emerging concept proposes that mitochondria sense, integrate, and transduce psychosocial and behavioral factors into cellular and molecular modifications. Mitochondrial signaling might in turn contribute to the biological embedding of psychological states.

Reported as: Cellular ‘powerhouses’ may explain health effects of stress
in the same context as Psychological Stress and Mitochondria: A Systematic Review (Part 2)

Evidence from metabolomic, proteomic, and transcriptomic studies also suggest additional layers of regulation by which stressful experiences may alter mitochondrial components among rodents. Although these metabolites, protein composition, and gene expression outcomes do not reflect the functionality of mitochondria, when assessed in parallel with functional outcomes, they will help explain and refine our understanding of the mechanisms by which stress influences mitochondrial function and health. In addition, whereas functional changes should be regarded as primary indicators of MAL (21), stress-induced molecular changes within mitochondria may also reflect compensatory mechanisms or recalibrations that contribute to long-term changes in mitochondrial function and to the accumulation of MAL. [mitochondrial allostatic load (MAL)]

Review: Subatomic
See also: Self-evident: Contrary to recent opinion, there is such a thing as the self, and it is empirically amenable to scientific investigation 
It has been investigated at every level of investigation that links quantum physics from quantum chemistry to quantum souls in the context of what is known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent protein folding chemistry that protects supercoiled DNA from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
Conclusion (from self-evident):

The multitudinous self mediates scientific explanations of the complexity of real people with and without mental disorders. It also provides resources for enhancing the moral agency that permits people to flourish. For me, flourishing is simply the development of a person’s psychological and social skills in engagement with herself and with others, in the face of the challenges triggered by her physical, social and psychological environment. If we know the characteristics of the self, we might be able to improve the lives of those whose self-experiences are not conducive to flourishing. The self is not an idle concept, either scientifically or ethically; it organises human experience and proliferates moral possibilities. So, yes, know thyself. Every single part.

See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).

Make no more mistakes, pseudoscientists have stolen the soul of science for more than 20 years, with their ridiculous claims about mutations and evolution.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Quantized energy-dependent viral trophism (2)

See first: Quantized energy-dependent viral trophism
Summary of Quantized energy-dependent viral trophism (2)
WTH*? The species evolved to F*- itself?
(H*eck) (*Fertilize)

Rapid genome shrinkage in a self-fertile nematode reveals sperm competition proteins Science  05 Jan 2018

…we compared chromosome-scale assemblies of the outcrossing nematode Caenorhabditis nigoni to its self-fertile sibling species…

The chromosome-scale assemblies extend across species to the fact that a difference in the diet of P. pacificus links its pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from C. elegans to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of a predatory nematode with teeth via chromosomal rearrangements.
Reported as: Worm species lost 7,000 genes after evolving to fertilize itself

“The fact that all the selfing species lost the mss genes suggests that these genes, which are very useful for worms having male-female sex, are harmful for worms that are no longer having sex with each other,” Haag said. “What we are seeing is an evolutionary snapshot of how a species fine-tunes its reproduction.”

See for comparison to what is known by serious scientists: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996) and System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes (2013) and Estrogen receptor α polymorphism in a species with alternative behavioral phenotypes (2014).
For comparison to representations by pseudoscientists see Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system (2015)
The “Lost Sea Adventure” near Sweetwater, TN features fish that became blind within a few generations after they were placed into the water of the underground cave. The genes for phototaxis were no longer important to survival and the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA destroyed everything except the subatomic particles that might be required for reassembly in the context of a return to an environment with sufficient quantized energy as information from sunlight.
The Scopes Museum in Dayton, TN is also an eye-opening way to inform yourself about the difference between “evolution” and ecological adaptations, which must be linked from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and the food organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction by facts, not by ridiculous theories with claims about species that automagically fine-tune energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.
For comparison: Scientific knowledge is drowning in a flood of research

A comic about the problems with the -omics

For comparison: Daniel L. Hurdiss and Ariane Briegel are like the brick-builders.
Role of enhanced receptor engagement in the evolution of a pandemic acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis virus (2017)
Structure of bacterial cytoplasmic chemoreceptor arrays and implications for chemotactic signaling (2014)
 

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The "walking fish" walks straight from quantum physics to quantum souls (2)

Summary: Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.

Application of RNAi and Heat-shock-induced Transcription Factor Expression to Reprogram Germ Cells to Neurons in C. elegans 1/01/2018

Summary

This protocol describes how to study cellular processes during cell fate conversion in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. Using transgenic animals,allowing heat-shock promoter-driven overexpression of the neuron fate-inducing transcription factorCHE-1 and RNAi-mediated depletion of the chromatin-regulating factor LIN-53germ cell to neuron reprogramming can be observed in vivo.

Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
Food energy arises only in the context of the creation of  The Immensity of the milky way…(video)

The facts that link sunlight on contact with water in this video from pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction have been largely ignored since the time this article was published [in Russian] in 1994. [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7995515

Non-human primates are the best example of how subatomic particles protect humans from all pathology in the context of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that links microRNAs to fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See: Five reasons we’re excited by how structural biology is advancing cancer research Posted on 15 June, 2017

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
See also: One amino acid substitution differentiates humans and chimpanzees from gorillas.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).

Humans And Chimps Differ At Level Of Gene Splicing (2007)
Comic relief for the biologically informed. Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear
Comic relief for seniors.
For serious scientists: Single-residue insertion switches the quaternary structure and exciton states of cryptophyte light-harvesting proteins

Using X-ray crystallography, we show that cryptophyte PBPs adopt one of two quaternary structures, open or closed. The key feature of the closed form is the juxtaposition of two central chromophores resulting in excitonic coupling. The switch between forms is ascribed to the insertion of a single amino acid in the open-form proteins. Thus, PBP quaternary structure controls excitonic coupling and the mechanism of light harvesting. Comparing organisms with these two distinct proteins will reveal the role of quantum coherence in photosynthesis.

The fact that a single amino acid substitution links energy-dependent changes in base pairs from electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera continues to be ignored by pseudoscientists and all theorists.
For comparison see: QuEBS 2018: Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

…has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.

 
A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (2)

Summary: The mind does not exist in nature. It is a manifestation of how ecological variation must be linked to the creation of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations.
Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (1)
The energy-dependent de novo creation of all receptors is biophysically constrained.
See: Channel opening and gating mechanism in AMPA-subtype glutamate receptors
This was reported as: Scientists capture first image of major brain receptor in action

Defects in glutamate receptors, or the processes they mediate, are implicated in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s disease, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma; psychiatric disorders such as anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and drug use disorders; as well as in acute disorders such as brain trauma and stroke. The new structure of an active AMPA receptor and understanding of the activating mechanism create a solid platform for developing therapeutics to treat neurological disorders that are associated with glutamate receptor dysfunction.

The activating mechanism is energy-dependent and virus-driven energy theft is linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. Search the PubMed database for “microRNA” and “glutamate receptor,” “Alzheimer’s,” “Parkinson’s,” “Huntington’s,” “multiple sclerosis,” “glaucoma,” “anxiety,” “depression,” “schizophrenia” and any other disorders.
For example: microRNA+glutamate+receptor 

MicroRNA in glutamate receptor-dependent neurological diseases

But wait… There’s more.
“Alzheimer’s,”
“Parkinson’s,”
“Huntington’s,”
“multiple sclerosis,”
“glaucoma,”
“anxiety,”
“depression,”
“schizophrenia”

See also:  Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses! Energy is required to build the enzymes, hormones and receptors that protect organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

See also: Excerpt from update #16

We’ve had a ton more of you volunteer to playtest the Subatomic PnP than we expected, which is terrific.

I did have the PnP ready to send out… or so I thought. Somehow every time we’ve played Subatomic the past several weeks I’ve made significant changes. We’ll integrate a change into the rulebook, player mat, cards… and then we play again, and make another set of significant changes all over again.

I want to get a good handle on which of these changes will stay and which don’t work well over the long term before I send the PnP to you all. All that being said, I’m planning to get the link out to you in the next week or so.

As all serious scientists know, the changes that stay will link quantized energy from the subatomic particles to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception and a series of articles that were published by young earth creationists.
See: Researchers identify ‘tipping point’ between quantum and classical worlds
The “tipping point” between quantum and classical worlds is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained via the anti-entropic virucidal effect of sunlight, which is linked to the physiology of food energy-dependent reproduction in all living genera.
See also: Subatomic Particles, Part 1: Leptons
Subatomic Particles, Part 2: Baryons, the Substance of the Cosmos
Subatomic Particles, Part 3: Mesons
Subatomic Particles, Part 4: Gauge Bosons, the Glue That Holds the Universe Together

We have seen the delicate balance between the four forces; each is perfectly designed to make life possible. We have explored the fleeting nature of so many subatomic particles. Yet the ones needed for atomic chemistry and life are stable. The masses and forces are precisely tuned. If the up quark were just slightly heavier than the down quark, all matter would decay into neutrons. Slightly change the charge of an electron or a quark and atoms could never form larger structures due to electric repulsion. It’s clear the universe is perfectly designed for life.

What then can be said about the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology? What challenges to perfectly designed life would theorists like serious scientists to consider outside the context of food energy and human idiocy?
For example, this claim was reasserted in the June 2017 issue of Discover Magazine:

…energy may not be conserved “locally” — that is, in an arbitrarily small patch of space — but everything works out when the space is sufficiently large.

See for comparison: Food energy

Richard Feynman was a Nobel prize winning Theoretical Physicist who popularized physics… This snippet is taken from one of his lectures in the series “The character of Physical Law” where he complains about all the different units that are used to measure the single concept of Energy.
Claims that the local conservation of energy do not require conservation in the context of an ever-expanding time-space continuum are additional examples of human idiocy. The fact that theoretical physicists must return to the examination of a early 1900’s theory set forth by an uneducated layperson attests to the reason why even Richard Feynman ridiculed those from his discipline.
See also: A Neuroscientist Just Tricked 4 Dodgy Journals Into Accepting a Fake Paper on ‘Midi-Chlorians’

…a prominent neuroscientist has tricked four publications into accepting a totally fake paper about midi-chlorians – the entirely fictional life forms in Star Wars that make ‘the force’ possible.

See also: Dear Readers – Hiatus From Blog

For five years, I have written summaries of current scientific literature in subjects related to how mind exists in nature.

The mind does not exist in nature. It is a manifestation of how ecological variation must be linked to the creation of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations.
My comment to Jon Lieff.

Finally. By the time the “Cytosis” becomes available, everyone else will learn how much confusion you have contributed via your failure to integrate what is known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation into a cohesive representation of biophysically constrained top-down causation that exists outside the context of your nonsense about evolution.

Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build
enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

I look forward to reviewing your book at the earliest opportunity to do so. See for example of a recent review: “How Can Physics Underlie the Mind?: Top-Down Causation in the Human Context (The Frontiers Collection)”

Cytosis

From E. coli to monkeys and mankind: Theories vs models (2)

Dedicated to Dr. Tom Jordan and Priscilla Jordan on the day of their retirement from the Baptist ministry, May 28, 2017. They always encouraged me to learn more about the “Laws of Biology” and link the Laws from energy as information to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction.

See also: From E. coli to monkeys and mankind: Theories vs models

High-throughput biochemical profiling reveals sequence determinants of dCas9 off-target binding and unbinding (5/23/127)

…changes in observed association and dissociation, suggesting the possibility of kinetic and thermodynamic tuning of Cas9 behavior.

Simply put, the technology didn’t work. That’s a problem for CRISPR/Cas9 advocates (see the incessant barrage of CRISPR/Cas9 promotion on the closed FB group CRISPR Cas9).

Advocates will be forced to accept the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality has always been the link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation via food odors and pheromones.

Suggesting the possibility of kinetic and thermodynamic tuning is akin to telling all serious scientists that, until now, the innate immune system of bacteria and the CRISPR Cas technology has not been examined inside the context of the Laws of Physics and the Basic Principles of chemistry. The Laws and the Basic Principles must link RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry from the physiology of reproduction to all food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled behavior in species from microbes to humans via amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
 

That fact separates the serious scientists from the pseudoscientists who have refused to examine other facts about biologically-based biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry. The facts start with the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy as information and the energy as information has been linked to all cell type differentiation by these researchers.

See: Mechanism of transmembrane signaling by sensor histidine kinases (5/18/17)

Reported as: Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

My summary of the signalling mechanism, which links subatomic particles to cell type differentiation in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria:

The active and inactive signaling states link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via slight variations at the nitrate-binding site. When the ion binds to the sensor, a change in 0.5-1 angstroms (approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself) causes a change in the protein that links input from the sensor to a change in the output that varies by as much as 7 angstroms.

In the context of what is known about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled quorum sensing in bacteria, the change in 0.5-1 angstroms can be linked from the changes in 7 angstroms to base pair changes and amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of species from E. coli to primates in the context of all energy-dependent interactive ecosystems, which appear to have existed from the dawn of Creation.

For example, the link from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all vertebrates is mentioned in the title of this published work: The zinc spark is an inorganic signature of human egg activation. 

The spark that links inorganic material to organic life was placed into the context of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. See our section on molecular distance in: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.

Molecular distance. As measured in centimorgans, human and other species’ male and female chromosomes, including the autosomes, tend to have different lengths in various segments. To some extent, this suggests a correlation with physical distance but instead the differing lengths are based upon rates of recombination; although sections of most female chromosomes are longer than their homologous counterparts in male chromosomes, in some segments of various chromosomes opposite length-difference occurs, with males having larger centimorgan values than females in those regions (Lawrence, Collins, Keats, Hulten, and Morton, 1993; Murray, Buetow, Weber, Ludwigsen, Scherpbier-Heddema, Manion, Quillen, Sheffield, Sunden, and Duyk, 1994; Straub, Speer, Luo, Rojas, Overhauser, Ott, and Gilliam, 1993). While ramifications of these centimorgan sexual dimorphisms are not yet clearly established, in recent years cis- and trans-acting factors contributing to these recombination length differences have been reported for a specific part of the murine major histocompatibility complex (MHC) (Shiroishi, Sagai, Hanzawa, Gotoh, and Moriwaki, 1991).

Simply put, the cited works linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the innate immune system of bacteria, which was linked to sex differences in chromosomes. Note the difference between our accurate representation of biophysically constrained energy-dependent chromosomal inheritance and the claims in: Sex chromosome evolution: historical insights and future perspectives

Conclusion:

…a direct experimental test of the steps in sex chromosome evolution constitutes more robust evidence than a comparative study, especially considering the new manipulative possibilities opened up by the CRISPR/Cas9 system [105]. In any case, the field of sex chromosome evolution seems likely to remain active and dynamic for many years to come.

Reported as: Knowledge gap on the origin of sex

The review shows that the significance of ecology has not been sufficiently noted. Therefore, the biologists in Lund call for more research on how the living environment of a population affects the development and evolution of sex chromosomes. This could include factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes when populations that have lived separately meet and mix.

The fact that others still claim that the origin of sex has not already been linked from factors such as access to food, age variations within a population or the consequences for sex chromosomes attests to the ignorance of theorists. The fact that theorists want to attempt to evoke aspects of the CRISPR Cas9 technology in attempts to explain sexual differentiation attests to the ignorance of those who think more research is required to link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and chromosomal inheritance.

Energy-dependent changes were linked from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera in this published work: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (10/12/15) and in this parody from 12/10/14.

See also: Origins of Life: A Problem for Physics

The hope is that a theory akin to our other theories in fundamental physics might one day emerge to explain the phenomenon of life, and in turn finally permit solving its origins.

See for comparison: The Chirality Of Life: From Phase Transitions To Astrobiology

A key missing piece is the origin of biomolecular homochirality: permeating almost every life-form on Earth is the presence of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.

Watch as Jeremy England eliminates any discussion of light activated endogenous substrates in the context of microRNAs linked to the energy-dependent creation of exclusively levorotary amino acids and dextrorotary sugars.

A New Physics Theory of Life

You start with a random clump of atoms, and if you shine light on it for long enough, it should not be so surprising that you get a plant.

If another ridiculous theory emerged, will it explain anything outside the context of experimental evidence that links energy as information to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera? For example, what theory might emerge to explain how an infection in the throat is linked to mental disorders in adults.

See: Streptococcal throat infection linked to mental disorders

The researchers found that the risk of any mental disorder was increased for individuals with a positive streptococcal test compared to those without a streptococcal test…

Watch a biologist fail to link physics and chemistry from the strep infection to brain development via the innate immune system and molecular epigenetics as he explains CRISPR at 5 different levels of his ignorance. 5/24/17

 

The speaker is a co-author of: Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in a Mouse Model of Tumor Growth and Metastasis 3/5/15

In all of these experiments, the effect of mutations on primary tumor growth positively correlates with the development of metastases. Our study demonstrates Cas9-based screening as a robust method to systematically assay gene phenotypes in cancer evolution in vivo.

Reported as: In vivo CRISPR-Cas9 screen sheds light on cancer metastasis and tumor evolution

The results highlighted some well-known tumor suppressor genes in human cancer, including Pten, Cdkn2a, and Nf2, but included some genes not previously linked to cancer. Unexpectedly, the screen also implicated several microRNAs — small RNA segments that are functional in the cell.

Neville E Sanjana, has now linked his ignorance from 2015 to assays that link energy-dependent microRNAs to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Kaveli Kull attests to the fact about what loser must do, when facts replace their ridiculous theories about genome editing.

Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event

Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. —  Kalevi Kull

Anyone who has tried to explain what humans are made of without linking energy from the light activated endogenous substrate that links ATP to the creation of RNA via microRNAs in the context of what is now being referred to as endogenous RNA interference may not recognize how desperate evolutionary theorists have become in their attempt to make others think that all neo-Darwinian theorists are not losers.

See (link opens .pdf) Participation of glycolysis, and the citric acid cycle, in nuclear adenosine triphosphate synthesis (1963)

…thymus nuclei appear to have an endogenous substrate, and some experiments are presented which suggest that this substrate is probably not glycogen or glucose.

See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

amino acid homeostasis

Energy-dependent pheromone-controlled entropy (4)

Solar-driven reforming of lignocellulose to H2 with a CdS/CdOx photocatalyst
Reported as: Scientists harness solar power to produce clean hydrogen from biomass
They claim that the rigid structure of nature’s equivalent to armored concrete evolved to protect plants and trees from degradation. They don’t make claims about what might cause the degradation.
They start with the likelihood that degradation automagically occurs. That led them to design a combination of catalyst and solution that mimics how the anti-entropic energy of sunlight is linked to the potential of hydrogen, which is referred to as pH. Their design allowed them to extract the potential of hydrogen in the context of naturally occurring hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. They placed their simple design into the context of the evolution of armored concrete.

Pieces of wood, paper and leaves were placed in test tubes and exposed to solar light.

Their sunlight-powered extraction technology reminds me Schrodinger’s (1944) inference. Schrodinger seemed to suggest that someone designed an anti-entropic force, when he attempted to support the answer to his question: “What is Life.”
Theosophically, the God of the Holy Bible and Schrodinger both seemed to be saying that God might have used “the force” as if it came from the “Star Wars” series of movies. The sun could be like other stars and brave souls used “the force” to protect other people from harm.
In the context of the movies series, God, Schrodinger, and all serious scientists have detailed every aspect of how the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry protect all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
For comparison, their design enables the production of clean hydrogen from unprocessed biomass. They think they have created a viable alternative to high temperature gasification, which appears to be a renewable means of hydrogen production. It could be compared to God’s way of ensuring that food energy is linked to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and to all biodiversity via energy-dependent biophysically constrained supercoiled DNA. The supercoiled DNA is the linked to chromosomal rearrangements that protect organisms from evolving into something different than their ancestors.
However, their design runs in reverse. They are taking the hydrogen energy out instead of putting it into supercoiled DNA via what is known about quantum physics and how subatomic particles must be linked to the energy-dependent de novo creation of all biodiversity and/or the virus-driven energy theft that appears to be destroying it.

For comparison, this claim links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight on contact with water from the creation of nucleic acid precursors to all healthy longevity and biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction.
Virus decomposition provides an important contribution to benthic deep-sea ecosystem functioning

Viruses proliferate at the expense of their hosts. …approximately 25% of viruses released by lysed prokaryotic cells are decomposed at fast rates. We show that… virus decomposition provides a major source of labile organic compounds able to sustain the microbial food webs and nutrient cycling at a global scale.

If you are a theorist who still does not know where the anti-entropic force comes from that prevents virus-driven energy theft from destroying all life on earth, find out more about how the virucidal effect of sunlight feeds the world in the context of the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction.
It may be too late for you to become a serious scientist, but at least you will not continue to be one of the pseudoscientists who had us outnumbered since the time neo-Darwinism was invented.
See for an example of a pseudoscientist:
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman: Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.