My summary: They help to detail how olfactory input causes the energy-dependent de novo creation of sensory maps, which are representations of the external world. The experience-dependent representations link chemotaxis and phototaxis to biophysically constrained behavior. The representations are systematically organized in brain structures throughout development. Simply put, the maps are links from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA in organized genomes.
By investigating how ongoing neurogenesis in the mouse olfactory bulb is linked to existing circuitry, they found differences between excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks. This led them to compare functional responses of both maturing and established granule cells. They confirmed previously observed refinement of excitatory maps but also found that inhibitory sensory maps became broader during experience-dependent maturation.
These data describe the development of an inhibitory sensory map as a network, highlighting the differences from previously described excitatory maps.
Summary: Energy-dependent RNA methylation links RNA-directed DNA methylation from learning and memory to the stability of the sensory maps.
See this report from 2005: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.
…noradrenergic, dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and opiotergic pathways; inhibitory neurotransmitters (e.g., gamma aminobutyric acid) and excitatory amino acids (e.g., glutamic and aspartic acids); and other brain peptides including pineal secretions (melatonin) and corticotrophin releasing hormone, and the complex interactions among them are subtle but functional species-specific influences on the electrochemical transmission of neuronal signals that the hypothalamus translates to the chemical signal GnRH. Puberty: ontogeny, neuroendocrinology, physiology & disorders (1992, p. 1164)
–as cited in Kohl (2006) The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences (author’s copy) and in Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality (2007, p. 350)
Pseudoscientists have ignored the fact that energy-dependent autophagy links the innate immune system to the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). For example, achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide links energy-dependent excitatory and inhibitory neuronal networks to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
See for comparison: Novel candidate genes underlying extreme trophic specialization in Caribbean pupfishes
This greater phenotypic distance is primarily due to the large jaws of scale-eaters (Fig. S1B). Orr’s extension of Fisher’s geometric model predicts that de novo mutations with a large effect on phenotypic variation are more likely to be fixed during adaptation toward distant phenotypic optima than nearby optima (Orr 1998; Orr 2005). Based on this model, we predict more large-effect variants mediated the transition from generalist to scale-eater due to the greater phenotypic distance across the fitness valley separating these species.
Reported as: Jawing away: Bahama pupfish study identifies candidate genes driving food-niches
…each, through subtle jaw size differences, has carved out its own food niche —- all within the last 10,000 years. They specialize by their jaw size and food—algae, snails or quick-striking scale-eaters —- that like Darwin’s finches, reflect differences in seed choices by the size and shape of their beaks.
They claim their ridiculous theory of greater phenotypic difference extends to a model of how fixed de novo mutations predict what happened during 10,000 years of evolution in three variants of one vertebrate species. Their ridiculous theory can be compared to the works of serious scientists who have linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via food odors and pheromones.
For a comparison to energy-dependent changes in amino acid substitutions among three primate species, see: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).”
Dobzhansky (1973) included more information on the importance of these nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. He wrote:
Cytochrome C is an enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of aerobic cells. It is found in the most diverse organisms, from man to molds.
E. Margoliash, W. M. Fitch, and others have compared the amino acid sequences in cytochrome C in different branches of the living world. Most significant similarities as well as differences have been brought to light. The cytochrome C of different orders of mammals and birds differ in 2 to 17 amino acids, classes of vertebrates in 7 to 38, and vertebrates and insects in 23 to 41; and animals differ from yeasts and molds in 56 to 72 amino acids. Fitch and Margoliash prefer to express their findings in what are called “minimal mutational distances.” It has been mentioned above that different amino acids are coded by different triplets of nucleotides in DNA of the genes; this code is now known.
Dobzhansky (1973) may have knowingly linked light-induced energy-dependent changes in enzymes from Schrodinger’s claims about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight to selection for codon optimality via the “minimal mutational distances” reported in the context of Fitch and Margoliash (1967). But Dobzhansky reported the energy-dependent differences in the context of a model of links from energy-dependent changes in single nucleotide polymorphsims to amino acid substitutions. That fact should cause all pseudoscientists to wonder why Dobzhansky (1973) framed his review of cell type differentiation as an example of the need to start with an anti-entropic energy source.
Why did he choose this title: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution Did he know that sunlight is the energy source for all biodiversity, or was he guessing?
See also my comments on: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease
For comparison to everything now known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation, Fitch and Margoliash (1967) determined the minimal mutation distance between two cytochromes in the context of a definition, which was linked from what they thought would be
“…the minimal number of nucleotides that would need to be altered in order for the gene for one cytochrome to code for the other. This distance is determined by a computer making a pair-wise comparison of homologous amino acids (8).”
Simply put, first they dismissed the need for an anti-entropic energy source. Then they took de Vries definition of “mutation” and linked energy-dependent changes in RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to morphological phenotypes. They failed to link the energy-dependent changes in RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the physiology of reproduction, which is the only way to link the energy-dependent changes in morphology to changes in behavior.
If others had not linked the changes to reproductive sexual behavior, Linda Buck, who is the co-author of Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction might never have linked every aspect of energy-dependent cell type differentiation to odors and pheromones. See for example: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…
All serious scientists now know that the 2004 Nobel Laureate in Physiology or Medicine, Linda Buck clearly linked energy-dependent autophagy from substitution of achiral glycine in GnRH to all vertebrate biodiversity. With co-authors, she integrated what is known about the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of excitatory and inhibitory metabolic and genetic networks reproduction in yeast to non-human primates and humans.
If there is any experimental evidence that supports claims about 10,000 years of evolution and trophic specialization in Caribbean pupfishes or any other species, I have not seen it. All experimental evidence supports Dobzhansky’s claims and the claims of all others who have linked the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun to healthy longevity and also linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
See also: Vietnam Veterans and others with glioblastoma