Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

The eternal significance of microRNAs (5)

Excerpt: Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.
Conclusion: Conserved energy biophysically constrains viral latency.

Ridiculously ignorant objections to my publication in what others claim is a predatory journal can be compared to my objection to publication of this article in PNAS.

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
1) They linked environmental selection to the frequency of the EDAR V370A variant in the mouse model via positive selection for modulation of thermoregulatory sweating.
2) They linked environmental selection to similarities in human populations in North Asia, East Asia, and the New World. But they virtually ignored the mouse model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained ecological adaptation.
I linked the same food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled base pair change and microRNA-mediated fixation of the same amino acid substitution to all biodiversity in all living genera via feedback loops. See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

Others see what passes peer-review published in journals that support the expense of efforts made by pseudoscientists and other theorists, but they claim that the OMICS journals are predatory. I claim that pseudoscientists and other theorists do not know the difference between predation and sympatric speciation because they place predation into the context of evolved biodiversity.

For comparison see: Whole-genome sequencing of the blue whale and other rorquals finds signatures for introgressive gene flow

Reported as: Baleen Whale Genomes Point to Evolution With Gene Flow

Large baleen whales in the Balaenopteridae family (commonly known as rorqual whales) have undergone sympatric speciation — speciation without clear geographic barriers between them — despite ongoing hybridization, according to new research from investigators in Sweden and Germany.

System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes

Reported as:

“The patterns of synaptic connections perfectly mirror the fundamental differences in the feeding behaviours of P. pacificus and C. elegans”, Ralf Sommer concludes. A clear-cut result like that was not what he had necessarily expected.

Neo-Darwinian theorists and other biologically uniformed pseudoscientists have failed to use any common sense in attempts to link what organisms eat from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained biodiversity.  For comparison, serious scientists have forced the denuclearization of North Korea by reminding others to start with what is known about how food energy-dependent autophagy protects all life on Earth from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)

…as a reviewer, it is tiresome to raise the same objections repeatedly, wondering why researchers have not fulfilled some of the basic requirements for establishing the occurrence of an autophagic process.

 …appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used.

Researchers in South Korea, for example, have reminded the God-less Communist dictator of North Korea that one microRNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the influenza B virus could decimate the human populations that he thinks he rules.

See: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses

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