Accurate representations of how mutations are linked to the ecological adaptations in viruses that kill us are required to end the stranglehold that pseudoscientists have held on medical research. The pseudoscientists and other theorists make claims about mutation-driven evolution or natural selection and evolution as if the effect of virus-driven energy theft was beneficial to species that have somehow evolved from other species.
Neo-Darwinian theories will cause the death of us all. But first they will kill all the chickens.
Common microRNA-mRNA Interactions in Different Newcastle Disease Virus-Infected Chicken Embryonic Visceral Tissues
figure 3 E (above) includes biosynthesis of amino acids but a word search for “amino acid” turns up nothing.
(E) KEGG analysis of the common up- and downregulated mRNAs in NDV infection. The left panel shows the KEGG enrichment analysis of each of the top 20 significant differences in the upregulated mRNAs, and the right panel shows the KEGG enrichment analysis of each of the top 20 significant differences in the downregulated mRNAs.
The pathways for the biosynthesis of amino acids link microRNA biogenesis from energy-dependent changes in base pairs to amino acid substitutions that stabilize or destabilize the organized genomes in the context of everything that could be learned by playing the cell biology game “Cytosis.”
Ages 10+ can learn how to protect all organized genomes from viruses in the context of the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction of humans, which biophysically constrains viral latency in species from microbes to humans.
One base pair change and one amino acid substitution (e.g., EDAR V370A) in a human host may be all that’s required to protect the organized genome from the virus-driven degradation of mRNA that has been linked to all pathology.
That means the virus-driven theft of quantized energy may link the change in the base pair to an amino acid substitution in the virus that stabilizes the virus. The 1918 Spanish flu was one example of what happens next. But no one knew why it happened until more recently.
See: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution (2013)
Koel et al. (p. 976) show that major antigenic change can be caused by single amino acid substitutions.
…the PA K338R mutation may be a molecular determinant of IBV pathogenicity via modulating the viral polymerase function of IBVs.
Accurate representations of how mutations are linked to ecological adaptations in viruses are required to end the stranglehold that pseudoscientists have held on medical research. The pseudoscientists and other theorists make claims about mutation-driven evolution or natural selection and evolution as if the effect of virus-driven energy theft was beneficial to species that have somehow evolved from other species.
The most recent example of that nonsense may be the focus of several blog posts here.
See: Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
…we investigate whether the population occupying Beringia during the LGM represents another example of human adaptation to an extreme environment, this time adapting to very low UV exposure (Fig. 1). There are two lines of genetic evidence for this: variation in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster that modulates the manufacture of polyunsaturated fatty acids and variation in the ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene that influences ectodermally derived structures, such as teeth, hair, and mammary gland ductal branching. A study on selection on the FADS gene cluster in the ancestral population of Native Americans has been published previously (13), but, here, we shift the emphasis from phenotypic effects on older adults to focus on those that influence fertility via breast milk.
They link the food energy-dependent creation of microRNAs in all mammals from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency via one base pair change an a single amino acid substitution, EDAR V370A. They refuse to acknowledge the facts that link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the creation of microRNAs to viral latency in the mouse-to-human model, and fail to link what is known about what animals eat from the physiology of reproduction to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity and fertility.
See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression (2014)
The potential for sperm miRNA affecting zygote development has recently been reported in the literature  and has interesting implications for the use of sperm miRNA profiles as indicators of potential male fertility.
The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.
The chicken-livered (timid; fearful; cowardly) theorists who refuse to admit that their ridiculous theories have led to the unnecessary suffering and premature death of millions to billions of people and other mammals, have brought us all to the brink of extinction.
Does any intelligent person think that humans will evolve another protective variant allele like the EDAR V370A variant before humanity — as we know it know – ceases to exist?
Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk
The frequency of the human-specific EDAR V370A allele appears to be uniquely elevated in North and East Asian and New World populations due to a bout of positive selection likely to have occurred circa 20,000 y ago.