Both parts of this protein complex are essential… but until now it was unclear how its two pieces fit and work together.
My comment: RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are fixed in the organized genomes of all genera via the experience-dependent de novo creation of receptors. Receptors allow nutrients into the cell types that must be differentiated to be functional. Differentiation occurs via changes in energy that link Schrodinger’s claims to quantum biology sans mutations.
Theorists start with mutations. They think it takes much longer than 4 days to create nutrient-dependent cell types via the physiology of reproduction, which links biophysically constrained cell type differentiation to what they report as a “re-evolved” bacterial flagellum.
See for example: Evolutionary Rewiring
The results highlight the importance of gene duplication in evolution…
My comment: The results highlight the importance of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication in ecological adaptation. Proteins and genes do not “evolve.” Ecological variation is linked to ecological speciation via chemical ecology in all living genera.
See also: Scientists discover organism that hasn’t evolved in more than 2 billion years
My comment: Theorists refuse to comment on the differences in bacteria living in the sediment at the bottom of the ocean, where the speed of light has slowed to allow only the electrostatic “fifth force” of physics to limit entropy. Instead, claims of no evolution in ~2 billion years are met with claims that those bacteria did not need to evolve.
See also: Signalling “The study of the proteins that control communication within and between cells”
For cells to grow there must be both available nutrients and positive signals from proteins responding to environmental stimuli.
See also: Simulation studies reveal the role disulfide bonds play in protein folding
…the chemical character of the amino acid chain dictates how the protein folds into its three-dimensional structure.
My comment: This links what serious scientists know about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to biodiversity via amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes in the context of fixation via the physiology of nutrient-dependent reproduction.
That was inferred in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. We started with the conserved molecular epigenetics of yeasts and extended nutrient-dependent genetic diversity from the metabolism of nutrients to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man.
Four years later our yeast-to-mammalian model was extended by others to hormone-organized and hormone-activated invertebrate behavior, and 5 years after that to the life history transitions of the honeybee model organism.
Since then, “Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex” has linked yeasts to “Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction” in other species and to “Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model”
Placing all these published works into the context of evolution as Youk and Lim have done seems somewhat problematic for some evolutionary theorists. The conserved molecular mechanisms appear to represent adaptations to ecological variation via nutrient-dependent secretion of pheromones and the sensing of pheromones.
That links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man.
The fact that ecological adaptations occur via a nutrient-dependent signaling pathway, which regulates a pheromone-controlled signalling pathway shows how unicellular and multicellular organisms produce a coordinated response to multiple stimuli with no consideration for mutations or for natural selection of anything except food.
That does not present a problem in the context of biologically-based food odor- and social odor-driven cause and effect, but it makes mutation-driven evolution appear to be not only biologically implausible but also to not be an ecologically valid approach to species diversity.
Re: Simulation studies reveal the role disulfide bonds play in protein folding
Also, Does anyone think that more basic research would convince any phys.org trolls that “…the chemical character of the amino acid chain dictates how the protein folds into its three-dimensional structure.”
Nothing that I have claimed about biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding and the chemical stability of organized genomes via amino acid substitutions has been reflected back as anything other than ridiculous criticisms of my model, which included examples of biologically-based cause and effect in different organisms.
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
Does anyone know if the initial β-hairpin formation is altered by the “fifth force” of physics outside the context of an aqueous epigenetic landscape, or how it could be linked to the physical landscape of DNA outside the context of aqueous epigenetic landscape.
See also: Beyond neo-Darwinism—an epigenetic approach to evolution and The Rainbow and the Worm: The Physics of Organisms
Excerpt: This much-enlarged third edition includes new findings on the central role of biological water in organizing living processes; it also completes the author’s novel theory of the organism and its applications in ecology, physiology and brain science.