Watering Young Plant - Vintage Effect

Laws of Biology / Rules of Life

Summary: Slide number 6 clearly states the “Levels of Biological Organization” that the “NSF’s 10 Big Ideas” finally places into the context of what has been known to all serious scientists for more than a century. Simply put, Hugo de Vries definition of mutation (sudden energy jumps) should never have been accepted as anything besides the claim of a biologically uninformed science idiot. Instead, the definition bastardized every aspect of what is now known about biophysically constrained viral latency and all epigenetically-effected biodiversity on Earth.
The epigenetic effects start with the creation of quantized energy as information carried in sunlight.
Understanding the Rules of Life: Predicting Phenotype

Rules of Life projects… may have these characteristics:

Addresses a fundamental question in the life sciences

Crosses different scales (spatial, temporal, levels of biological organization and complexity)

Generates results that will be broadly generalizable beyond the system under investigation, so that a rule can be formulated

Enables the forecasting or prediction of change in a biological system

The characteristics of the so-called “Rules of Life” were predicted in the context of Darwin’s “conditions of life,” and in What is Life? (1944)
Biologically uninformed science idiots took this claim from 1944 and placed it into the ridiculous context of mutation-driven evolution:

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

See for comparison: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Kohl’s Laws of Biology

…summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2012; M. Lynch, 2007). The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2013). In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior (J. V. Kohl, et al., 2001), which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences (J.V. Kohl, 2007).

Kohl’s Laws help to explain what was missing from Darwin’s ‘conditions of life.’ Darwin knew nothing about genetics, which means he knew nothing about the epigenetic effects of food odors or pheromones.

M. Lynch (2007) is The frailty of adaptive hypotheses for the origins of organismal complexity

…emergent biological features such as complexity, modularity, and evolvability, all of which are current targets of considerable speculation, may be nothing more than indirect by-products of processes operating at lower levels of organization.

See for comparison:  Evolutionary determinants of genome-wide nucleotide composition (2018) with senior author Michael Lynch
Reported as: Scientists explore mysteries behind diversity of DNA composition among species

…mutation drives the overall pattern, but selection for G’s and C’s over A’s and T’s boosts the genome content above the neutral mutational expectation.

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the driving force that links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to  biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
I reiterate:

“…selection for G’s and C’s over A’s and T’s boosts the genome content above the neutral mutational expectation.”

Selection is quantized energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. The energy comes from sunlight!
See also: Cytosis and Subatomic
See also: Human Pheromones: Linking Neuroendocrinology and Ethology (revisited) (2010)
Slide number 6 clearly states the “Levels of Biological Organization” that the “NSF’s 10 Big Ideas” finally places into the context of what has been known to all serious scientists for more than a century. Simply put, Hugo de Vries definition of mutation (sudden energy jumps) should never have been accepted as anything besides the claim of a biologically uninformed science idiot. Instead, the definition bastardized every aspect of what is now known about biophysically constrained viral latency and all epigenetically-effected biodiversity on Earth.
The epigenetic effects start with the creation of quantized energy as information carried in sunlight.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

NSF's parrot and other parrots

Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

“Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).”

The energy must be biophysically constrained: Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems (1968)
Human Pheromones: Linking Neuroendocrinology and Ethology (revisited) (2010)
Slide # 6 attests to the fact that the levels of biological organization have been known to all serious scientists for more than 50 years.
See for comparison: NSF’s Big Ideas: Understanding the Rules of Life and The Quantum Leap

Thursday, April 12, 2018 at 2-3 pm ET

Recently the National Science Foundation unveiled a set of “Big Ideas” that are bold, long-term research and process ideas that all scientists should be aware of if they seek funding opportunities for their research.

For instance, a half-century after the discovery of the double helix, new DNA sequencing methods began our feverish race towards more and more data on the linear sequences of genomes, from microorganisms to humans. In 2018 there is potential uncover deeper codes embedded in DNA—those involving non-Watson-Crick bases like the epigenome and non-Watson-Crick folding like G-quadruplexes—in order to fully translate the code into a cellular symphony.

In addition to the former research opportunity, many of today’s technologies like lasers, computers, GPS, and LEDs rely on the interaction of matter and energy at extremely small and discrete dimensions. That said how do we control the behavior of particles and energy at dimensions at least a million times smaller than the width of a human hair? There could be great impact with a new approach toward spectroscopic investigations with non classical light, where a new view of electronic states may be possible with the consideration of entangled states of light.

Join Angela Wilson of NSF, Cynthia Burrows of the University of Utah, Theodore Goodson of the University of Michigan, and Glenn Ruskin of ACS for an introduction of two of the most impactful “Big Ideas” as well as an overview of this innovative NSF program that will advance prosperity, security, health, and well-being in the United States.

What You Will Learn

  • What are the National Science Foundation’s “Big Ideas” and how to learn more about funding opportunities
  • How a combination of methylation and oxidation of DNA bases can ‘write’ markers onto the genome that are later ‘read’ and ‘erased’
  • Why oxidative stress, a normal process in cells responding to their environment, sets up a DNA response that can be considered not just as ‘DNA damage’ but also as a form of epigenetics
  • How guanine-rich sequences may be positioned in the genome to act as sensors of oxidative stress by impacting the folding of G-quadruplexes
  • What are entangled states of light and why they can be used to probe electronic processes in molecules
  • Why Quantum entangled processes may play a role in our understanding of biological processes
  • What are some of the new spectroscopic methods being developed to probe molecules with non classical states of light

 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Psychophysical Laws of Biology: RNA-mediated nutritional psychiatry (3)

Psychophysical Laws and the Superorganism  (open access)

…superorganisms may also exhibit such behaviour, suggesting that these laws arise from fundamental mechanisms of information processing and decision-making.

Reported on Jun 14, 2013 as Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

and again on: Mar 27, 2018 as Honeybees may unlock the secrets of how the human brain works

The study… found that superorganisms may obey the same laws as the human brain.

Kohl’s “Laws of Biology” and Darwin’s “conditions of life” can now be compared in the context of how quantized energy as information was linked to biodiversity in this invited review of nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
See also for review:

Functional and evolutionary aspects of chemoreceptors (2012)
Sensory receptors—design principles revisited (2013)
Moving forward: See: Tuning Insect Odorant Receptors (in press)

Among the insect olfactory receptors the odorant receptors (ORs) evolved in parallel to the onset of insect flight. A special property of this receptor type is the capability to adjust sensitivity of odor detection according to previous odor contacts. This article presents a current view on regulatory processes affecting the performance of ORs and proposes a model of mechanisms contributing to OR sensitization.

Future attempts to place psychophysical laws of biology back into the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense will continue to pit ridiculous theories about experience-dependent tuning of odor receptors against everything known to serious scientists about RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency and supercoiled DNA.
See for comparison:
Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment (2003)
Seeking the foundations of cognition in bacteria: From Schrödinger’s negative entropy to latent information (2006)
Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)
Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype (2016)

Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse – Mesenchymal to Epithelial Transition (MET) – are hallmarks of cellular plasticity during embryonic development and cancer metastasis.

Cellular plasticity was linked from the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception (2017)

The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity.

See also: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
The scheduled speakers will undoubtedly link the Science Behind the Game “Cytosis” to the Science Behind the Game “Subatomic” via everything known to all serious scientists based on Schrodinger’s prescient claims in What is Life? (1944).
See also: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

See also “Outer Membrane Vesicles” microRNA (4 of 4 from a 3/27/18 search)

How Our Other Genome Controls Our Epi-Genome (2016)

Secretable Small RNAs via Outer Membrane Vesicles in Periodontal Pathogens (2017)

Tiny RNAs and their voyage via extracellular vesicles: Secretion of bacterial small RNA and eukaryotic microRNA (2017)

Molecular Paths Linking Metabolic Diseases, Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis and Enterobacteria Infections (2018)

See also: March 28, 2018 sponsored by System Biosciences
Webinar: Deciphering how bacteria utilize outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) to communicate and infect
 
Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) are membrane vesicles secreted by bacteria that contain DNA, RNA, proteins and endotoxins. Bacteria respond to many environmental factors by secreting specifically-enriched OMVs, which makes these bacteria more fit for their environment. For example, OMVs may be enriched with invasion proteins at the host-pathogen interface. OMVs have recently gained attention as a novel mechanism for transmission of molecular information within bacteria as well as between bacteria and mammalian cells. Owing to their similarities to well-studied extracellular vesicles (EVs), OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines. This webinar will give an overview of recent studies on the role of OMVs in host-pathogen interactions and discuss their bioengineering potential as vehicles for cargo delivery. We will also introduce our new & revolutionary ExoBacteria™ OMV Isolation Kit, which will enable you to achieve faster, simpler & better OMV isolation.
Learn how OMVs are being utilized by researchers to study host-bacterial interactions in pathogenesis, cancer therapy, host immune response modulation, as well as bacterial OMV engineering for use as vaccines.
Caption: Contemporary analyses of cell metabolism have called out three metabolites: ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA, as sentinel molecules whose accumulation represent much of the purpose of the catabolic arms of metabolism and then drive many anabolic pathways. Such analyses largely leave out how and why ATP, NADH, and acetyl-CoA (Figure 1) at the molecular level play such central roles. Yet, without those insights into why cells accumulate them and how the enabling properties of these key metabolites power much of cell metabolism, the underlying molecular logic remains mysterious. Four other metabolites, S-adenosylmethionine, carbamoyl phosphate, UDP-glucose, and Δ2-isopentenyl-PP play similar roles in using group transfer chemistry to drive otherwise unfavorable biosynthetic equilibria. This review provides the underlying chemical logic to remind how these seven key molecules function as mobile packets of cellular currencies for phosphoryl transfers (ATP), acyl transfers (acetyl-CoA, carbamoyl-P), methyl transfers (SAM), prenyl transfers (IPP), glucosyl transfers (UDP-glucose), and electron and ADP-ribosyl transfers (NAD(P)H/NAD(P)+) to drive metabolic transformations in and across most primary pathways. The eighth key metabolite is molecular oxygen (O2), thermodynamically activated for reduction by one electron path, leaving it kinetically stable to the vast majority of organic cellular metabolites

Odor activation of ATP (2)

Metabolic Regulation of Cytoplasmic DNA Synthesis (1974)

The curve that results when the rate of DNA synthesis is plotted as a function of ATP concentration is sigmoidal, suggesting that more than one site on the enzyme interacts with ATP and that these sites are acting cooperatively.

Odor activation of ATP is the obvious link to RNA-mediated feedback loops that control the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction via the rate of DNA repair in species from microbes to humans.
See: “ATP activation
See for comparison: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
See also: “ATP activation” microRNA
See also: Mapping malaria by combining parasite genomic and epidemiologic data

Here, we discuss the spatial epidemiology of malaria in the context of transmission-reduction interventions, and the challenges and promising directions for the development of integrated mapping, modeling, and genomic approaches that leverage disparate data sets to measure both connectivity and transmission.

The sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy has been linked to protective food energy-dependent hemoglobin variants via 1700+ examples. The variants link interethnic similarities and differences to all extant human populations.
HbVar: A Database of Human Hemoglobin Variants and Thalassemias
SNPs or indels [insertions/deletions] link amino acid substitutions to hemoglobin variants. Molecular defects [mutations] in regulatory or coding regions of the human genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.
What can be said about so-called scientists and so-called science journalists who do not know the difference between how a food energy-dependent amino acid substitution is linked to ecological adaptations and how a mutation is linked to diseases?
Who was the first to say it?

Who will be the next to disagree:
7/25/13
Jay R. Feierman:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

Darwin repeatedly asserted that “conditions of life” must be placed before natural selection. Without the sun’s anti-entropic energy, no species on Earth can adapt to ecological variation.

Biology to a Physicist

MicroRNA-activated / RNA-mediated gene expression

Summary:
All patterns exist only in the context of the de novo creation of  enzymes and energy-dependent microRNAs that link light-activated endogenous substrates from what is known about particle physics to biophysically constrained viral latency in the cell biology game: Cytosis.
See also: miRNA activation is an endogenous gene expression pathway
Moving forward:
Few people are likely to ask about the origin (i.e., the de novo creation) of energy-dependent microRNAs. Fewer still will link the creation of quantized energy as information from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to viral latency via autophagy, which biophysically constrains the diversity of  ecologically adapted life.
That fact provides the opportunity for Philip C. Ball, a British science writer, to take the information from my blog posts and present it in his book: “Beyond Weird.”
Excerpt from the description:

Over the past decade it has become clear that quantum physics is less a theory about particles and waves, uncertainty and fuzziness, than a theory about information and knowledge—about what can be known, and how we know it. Discoveries and experiments over the past few decades have called into question the meanings and limits of space and time, cause and effect, and, ultimately, of knowledge itself.

Kindle edition
Historical Perspective:
In the summer of 2017, I reported this claim from Philip C. Ball, and placed it into the context of childish beliefs about Santa Claus (video):  To turn quantum to classical…

…we don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look; we just need an environment full of stuff. With or without us, the Universe is always looking.

By plagiarizing my life’s works on biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, Philip C. Ball may now appear to have suddenly become a serious scientist. But he has already shown the world an unparalleled level of human idiocy. (See Feynman’s claim about Philip Ball’s idiocy).
See for comparison: Patterns in Nature: Why the Natural World Looks the Way It Does 1st Edition

By exploring similarities such as those between a snail shell and the swirling stars of a galaxy, or the branches of a tree and those of a river network, this spectacular visual tour conveys the wonder, beauty, and richness of natural pattern formation.

All patterns exist only in the context of the de novo creation of  enzymes and energy-dependent microRNAs that link light-activated endogenous substrates from what is known about particle physics to biophysically constrained viral latency in the cell biology game: Cytosis.
See also: miRNA activation is an endogenous gene expression pathway

Transfection of small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) molecules has become a routine technique widely used for silencing gene expression by triggering post-transcriptional and transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) pathways. Moreover, in the past decade, small activating (saRNA) sequences targeting promoter regions were also reported, thereby a RNA-based gene activation (RNAa) mechanism has been proposed. In this regard, Turner and colleagues recently discovered an endogenous microRNA (miRNA) which binds its promoter in order to upregulate its own expression. Interestingly, several miRNA-induced RNA activation (miRNAa) phenomena have since then been identified. My objective here is to introduce the reader into the emergent miRNAa research field, as well as bring together important discoveries about this unexplored transcriptional activation pathway.

The claim that this is an unexplored transcriptional activation pathway can be placed into the context of how the pathway links light-activated endogenous substrates in all cell types to biophysically constrained energy-dependent changes that link atoms to ecosystems.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

See: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (figshare, 2017) (video) (audio/visual narrative with citations to published works)
Abstract:

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

The facts about the viral hecatomb link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information to all pathology. Science writers like Philip C. Ball have ignored that fact for several decades. Their ignorance has been the cause of unnecessary suffering and premature death, which could have been prevented if they had learned about the energy-dependent biophysically constrained ecological adaptations that link what is known about species from bacteria to humans. Simply put, food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction link what is known about microbes to all biodiversity on Earth.
That fact is not “Beyond Weird.” It is simply beyond the ability of Philip C. Ball to grasp.
See my book (with co-author, the late Robert T. Francoeur): The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002)

See his books for comparison:
  • Designing the Molecular World: Chemistry at the Frontier (1994)
  • Made to Measure: New Materials for the 21st Century (1997)
  • The Self-made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature (1999)
  • H2O: A Biography of Water (1999) (published in the U.S. as Life’s Matrix)
  • Stories of the Invisible: A Guided Tour of Molecules (2001), (republished as Molecules: A Very Short Introduction (2003)
  • Bright Earth: The Invention of Colour (2001)
  • The Ingredients: A Guided Tour of the Elements (2002) (republished as The Elements: A Very Short Introduction (2004)
  • Critical Mass: How One Thing Leads to Another (2004)
  • Elegant Solutions: Ten Beautiful Experiments in Chemistry (2005)
  • The Devil’s Doctor: Paracelsus and the World of Renaissance Magic and Science (2006)
  • The Sun and Moon Corrupted, a novel, Portobello Books Ltd, (2008)
  • Universe of Stone: A Biography of Chartres Cathedral (2008)
  • Shapes, Nature’s Patterns, a Tapestry in three Parts (2009)
  • Flow, Nature’s Patterns, a Tapestry in three Parts (2009)
  • Branches, Nature’s Patterns, a Tapestry in three Parts (2009)
  • The Music Instinct (2010)
  • Unnatural, The Heretical Idea of Making People (2011)
  • Why Society is a Complex Matter: Meeting Twenty-first Century Challenges with a New Kind of Science (2012)
  • Curiosity: How Science Became Interested in Everything (2013)
  • Serving the Reich: The Struggle for the Soul of Physics under Hitler (2014)
  • Invisible: The Dangerous Allure of the Unseen (2015), University of Chicago Press (2014), Random House
  • Patterns in Nature: Why the Natural World Looks the Way It Does (2016)
  • The Water Kingdom: A Secret History of China (2017)

Remember: Philip C. Ball and others like him failed to link the speed of light on contact with water to all biodiversity on Earth in the context of the energy-dependent creation of the enzyme ATP synthase, the creation of ATP, and the biophysically constrained creation of RNA, which links autophagy to the protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in all living genera. Watch for reviews of his book by others who know nothing about biophysically constrained viral latency.
See for comparison: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

See also: Subatomic: An Atom Building Board Game (September, 2018)

A deck-building game where particle physics & chemistry collide! Use quarks to build subatomic particles & particles to build Atoms!

Witzhany2018

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: From Asimov to Bear (5)

Summary: Neil deGrasse Tyson and Lawrence Krauss are among those who have continued to substitute pseudoscientific nonsense for legitimate facts, which is what Hawking did in every book he ever wrote, and each time he made a spurious claim based on his abilities as a conniving theorist whose works still have not been confirmed-and-validated. Now that he is gone, others may proclaim the greatness of his intellect and lionize the magnitude of his influence because they also are biologically uninformed science idiots. Like Hawking, they refused to learn how Darwin’s “conditions of life” have been linked to the prevention of all virus-driven pathology.

Renowned Physicist Stephen Hawking Dies

The comments by Neil deGrasse Tyson and Lawrence Krauss can be linked to this discussion: 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing and to the 2017 representation of biomolecules in On the Difference between Physics and Biology: Logical Branching and Biomolecules.
The food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled creation of the biomolecules will be discussed during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018 after the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology is discussed during Evolution – Genetic Novelty/Genomic Variations by RNA Networks and Viruses
For comparison, Stephen Hawking gained fame by collaborating with Roger Penrose and with George FR Ellis, who co-authored The Large Scale Structure of Space-Time.
In the forward to the reprint edition of What is Life?, Roger Penrose wrote

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy? (8 August 1991)

In the cell biology game Cytosis, anyone age 10+ can learn that the creation of energy as ATP protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which all serious scientists since Schrödinger have linked from mutations to all pathology.That’s all you need to know about Roger Penrose.
George FR Ellis is the co-author of On the Difference between Physics and Biology: Logical Branching and Biomolecules. He helped to link the food energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to biophysically constrained viral latency, but is determined to undermine the works of other serious scientists with his use of the ambiguous term biomolecules.
Taken together, Stephen Hawking, Roger Penrose, and George FR Ellis have done more than most to bastardize Darwin’s claims about the need to start with food energy-dependent  “conditions of life.” Their unproven ideas from physics should never have been substituted for experimental evidence.
The evidence links the premise of the game “Subatomic” from what is known about particle physics to biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity via this claim, which was made by Schrödinger.

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

Neil deGrasse Tyson and Lawrence Krauss are among those who have continued to substitute pseudoscientific nonsense for legitimate facts, which is what Hawking did in every book he ever wrote, and each time he made a spurious claim based on his abilities as a conniving theorist whose works still have not been confirmed-and-validated. Now that he is gone, others may proclaim the greatness of his intellect and lionize the magnitude of his influence because they also are biologically uninformed science idiots. Like Hawking, they refused to learn how Darwin’s “conditions of life” have been linked to the prevention of all virus-driven pathology.
See: DNA Tumor Virus Regulation of Host DNA Methylation and Its Implications for Immune Evasion and Oncogenesis
Reported as: Here’s How Viruses Inactivate the Immune System, Causing Cancer

“Ultimately viruses are causing these tumors to form and are further manipulating the immune system to allow tumors to keep growing,” Kuss-Duerkop says. “But these same mechanisms may be key in combating tumors with immune-based therapies or in keeping cancer from developing in the first place.”

If not for the bastardization of Darwin’s claims by theorists, Kuss-Duerkop and others like her probably would have learned that sunlight is the source of energy for the growth of food that links food energy to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. The energy links changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from virus-driven energy theft to all unnecessary suffering and premature death.The fact that Stephen Hawking suffered throughout his life with a neurodegenerative disease may be fitting in the context of his ignorance.
The 4 Scientific Lessons Stephen Hawking Never Learned

  1. We have a tendency, when we turn people into heroes, to lionize their achievements and ignore their failings, but to do so cheats humanity out of recognizing all the facets of a complicated character.
  2. May we memorialize him in the best way possible: by increasing our own knowledge and curiosity to live better lives.

Until then, see: Prominent Neuroscientist Fired by Columbia, HHMI
This is the first clear indicator of how the Trump administration will drain the academic swamp.
Jessell is the serior author of: Activity Regulates the Incidence of Heteronymous Sensory-Motor Connections

The positioning of newly born neurons is a tightly regulated process that is critical for the assembly of the nervous system. In the spinal cord, nuclear organization of motor neurons into pools is an elaborated morphogenetic feature at the basis of the wiring of spinal sensory motor circuits (Sürmeli et al., 2011, Hinckley et al., 2015, Bikoff et al., 2016). The events controlling motor neuron positioning during development have yet to be clearly defined.

The activity is food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of sensory input and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency in species from microbes to humans.
See for example: Meet the creature that can regenerate its brain and resist cancer.(video) The superimposed electron cloud over the yin yang symbol of Chinese philosophy and medicine is a clear representation of the complexity. If neuroscientists cannot link energy-dependent changes in electrons to ecosystems in all living genera, they will be dismissed and replaced with serious scientists.
For example, the facts about regenerating the brain and resisting cancer suggests Jessell’s termination occurred due to his ongoing failure to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to loss of motor control in all neurodegenerative diseases.
See for comparison: “Blood Music” (1985) by Greg Bear, who presciently linked energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to the creation of an advanced human species via naturally occurring biophysically constrained viral latency.
See also: Actor Steven Kearney reads excerpts from Greg Bear’s 1985 novel Blood Music.

Bear was one of the first sci-fi authors to delve deep into the possibilities of synthetic biology. In this section, a biologist named Michael Bernard is infected with a killer virus that has wiped out most of North America. The virus is made up of tiny biological computers called “noocytes,” where were intended to improve the human body — giving it routine maintenance and maximizing human potential. Instead, it wiped out most of North America.

Remember, without the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated DNA repair that biophysically constrains viral latency:
Image may contain: text

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (2)

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (1)
See also: Search results for virus-driven energy theft
Summary: The creation of enzymes, such as ATP synthase is energy-dependent. The energy biophysically constrains viral latency via the creation of microRNAs and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.
Modifying Other’s Originality without Quote is an Act of Piracy

A writer who does not cite the sources in h/h feature article is committing piracy. Piracy is plagiarism… high level quality requires originality and creativity… these inattentions…should be strongly condemned… Accordingly, the originally contributing author may preserve the honor worthily and endeavor to further contribution in scientific study.

See for comparison: Here’s how viruses inactivate the immune system, causing cancer

It’s no new news that viruses cause cancer.

The full text of the article is free: DNA Tumor Virus Regulation of Host DNA Methylation and Its Implications for Immune Evasion and Oncogenesis

…virus-associated cancers show highly increased levels of DNMT expression [75,76,77,85,94,95,96,97,98,99]. In HBV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), DNMT expression is inversely correlated with levels of tumor suppressor microRNAs (miRNAs), including miR-152 targeting DNMT1 [97] and miR-101 targeting DNMT3A [99]. Virus-induced DNA hypermethylation is commonly found on several tumor suppressor genes…

RNA-directed DNA methylation links the energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation of tumor suppressor genes to biophysically constrained viral latency via the proton motive force. The proton motive force links differences in the energy of photons from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the light-activated endogenous substrates of RNA-mediated DNA repair.
See also: “There is no honor among thieves” is a pithy saying that captures Solomon’s observation concerning the wicked and those who choose their company.
A Twitter search returned several interesting comments related to what is known to serious scientists about the proton motive force and the claim that “There is no honor among thieves.” For instance, writers who modify the claims and questions about the proton motive force are plagiarists and/or thieves. See:

  1. 12 Sep 2010

What do proton motive force driven multidrug resistance transporters have in common?

2. 19 Jun 2010

The H+ gradient is called the proton-motive force. This force drives the H+ back across the membrane through H+ channels. ATP synthases aids

The creation of enzymes, such as ATP synthase is energy-dependent. The energy biophysically constrains viral latency via the creation of microRNAs and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of all living genera.

 Philip Ball @philipcball Mar 2

This was filmed tonight, so you’ll soon get to see why Nick Lane thinks the key to the origin of life is not amino acids or RNA but proton gradients. (I think he may be right.)

See for comparison: snippet from our June 24, 2017 conversation about the claims of Philip C. Ball.

See also: The legacy of Frankenstein: A series of events celebrating 200 years of Frankenstein

The origin of life

Dr Frankenstein aimed to create new life from inanimate parts. But how did life first arise on Earth? Join Nick Lane in conversation with Phil Ball as they discuss the latest ideas, from warm ponds to space rocks and hydrothermal vents.

Ask when Nick Lane and/or Philip C. Ball first learned about proton gradients. See how much longer it takes them to link the creation of sunlight  from differences in the energy of photons to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and this model: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)

Abstract:

This angstroms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptation links nutrient energy-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity. Species-specific pheromones link quorum-sensing in microbes from chemical ecology to the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection for codon optimality links nutritional epigenetics to the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. All biodiversity is an ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. Simply put, olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

See for comparison: On the Difference between Physics and Biology: Logical Branching and Biomolecules

In my model, microRNAs are the biomolecules that link the creation of sunlight to all energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency. Viral latency is required to link the physiology of reproduction to all biologically-based diversity in all species.

Claims about proton gradients that link physics to biology without starting with the creation of sunlight are made by biologically uninformed theorists.

An evolutionary theory killer

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (1)

Summary: In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency.
Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
See: Conceptual Insights, Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002)

View this media module for an animated, interactive summary of how electron transfer potential is converted into proton-motive force and, finally, phosphoryl transfer potential in oxidative phosphorylation.

See: Section 18.4A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
Place what is known to all serious scientists about the proton motive force into the context of energy-dependent electron transfer potential.
See also: Chemiosmosis

…the term proton-motive force (PMF)… can be described as the measure of the potential energy stored as a combination of proton and voltage (electrical potential) gradients across a membrane. The electrical gradient is a consequence of the charge separation across the membrane (when the protons H+ move without a counterion, such as chloride Cl).

See: Search results for proton motive force
On February 2, 2018 and on February 26, 2018 I linked the claim that Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase (2017) to findings on RNA-RNA interactions in The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14  (1993) This link opens the to free pdf

Two small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were identified in C. elegans and found to contain sequences complementary to a repeated sequence element in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA, suggesting that lin-4 regulates lin-14 translation via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction.

The small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were subsequently referred to as pre-mRNAs before the term pre-mRNA became microRNA as the number of nucleotides (nt) was reduced to 22 in the context of more than 70,000 published works on microRNAs. See: microRNA
In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency. Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
For instance see: Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants (2012) and Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes (2012)
Reported May 17, 2012 as: Humans riddled with rare genetic variants
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants (2013)
Reported November 28, 2012 Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
See also: The splicing code (Feb 2018)

…except for very few and marginal variations, it is the same from bacteria to man, the RNA stretch: 5′ GUGUUC 3′ reads as the dipeptide: Val-Phe in bacteria, in yeast, in Arabidopsis, in zebra fish, in mouse and in human. A degree of ambiguity is possible if mutations are introduced in the tRNAs in a way that the anticodon reads one amino acid but the aminoacyl-transferase attaches a different one onto the tRNA.

See also: Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors
Sensory input must be linked to energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency.
See: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

In 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate:The Existence of Nothing, Neil deGrasse Tyson made this spurious claim:

Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”

A polymath should be required to link quantum physics from quantum chemistry to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity. Wide-ranging knowledge should include what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms that link the food energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans.
Eshel Ben-Jacob and Greg Bear are polymaths. Isaac Asimov was not.
Eshel Ben-Jacob presciently linked Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)  to the biophysically constrained viral latency Greg Bear placed into the context of the creation of a new human species in two books reviewed in Nature:
Evolution rising from the grave (2000)
Living with the Neanderthals (2003)
See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
Polymaths should be able to recognize patterns that link photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation from the creation of enzymes to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated DNA repair, which links ecological variation from phytoremediation to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Anyone who fails to do that in the context of the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens should be called a biologically uninformed theorist or a science journalist who has no excuse for reporting pseudoscientific nonsense.
The only way to resurrect the bacterial flagellum over-the-weekend involves what is known as the proton motive force. Fro example: A twitter search for “proton motive force” led me to this claim, thanks to Nigel Ten Fleming

Enzyme-bound ATP forms readily in the absence of a proton-motive force.

In the context of Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002), that claim was followed by this claim:

…the role of the proton gradient is not to form ATP but to release it from the synthase.

See also:

If the aspartate residue is protonated to its neutral form, the c ring can now rotate, but only in a clockwise direction. Such a rotation moves the newly protonated aspartic acid residue into contact with the membrane, moves the charged aspartate residue from contact with the matrix half-channel to the cytosolic half-channel, and moves a different protonated aspartic acid residue from contact with the membrane to the matrix half-channel. The proton can then dissociate from aspartic acid and move through the half-channel into the proton-poor matrix to restore the initial state. This dissociation is favored by the positive charge on a conserved arginine residue ( 210) in the a subunit.

The difference in the energy of photons was linked from protons to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The energy-dependent biophysically constraints link microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differences in all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See also: 18.4.5. ATP Synthase and G Proteins Have Several Common Features (with my emphasis)

In Chapter 15, we learned that the signaling properties of other members of this family, the proteins, depend on their ability to bind nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates with great kinetic tenacity. They do not exchange nucleotides unless they are stimulated to do so by interaction with other proteins. The binding-change mechanism of ATP synthase is a variation on this theme. The three different faces of the γ subunit of ATP synthase interact with the P-loop regions of the β subunits to favor the structures of either the NDP- or NTP-binding forms or to facilitate nucleotide release. The conformational changes take place in an orderly way, driven by the rotation of the γ subunit.

See for comparison:Jay R. Feierman:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

An evolutionary theory killer

How to create biologically uninformed theorists

Summary: On March 2, 2018, Philip C. Ball and Nick Lane started making claims about proton gradients. Their claims are based on my model of quantized energy as information. This post includes added support for what is known to all serious scientists about the light-activated endogenous substrates that link molecular epigenetics to RNA-mediated autophagy.
See first: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (audio/visual aid 2017)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

Added support for the light-activated molecular epigenetics of autophagy:
Light-powering Escherichia coli with proteorhodopsin (2007)

…we quantify the coupling between light-driven and respiratory proton currents… and show that light-driven pumping by PR can fully replace respiration as a cellular energy source in some environmental conditions.

Structure of the Deactive State of Mammalian Respiratory Complex I (2018)

…the deactive state arises when critical structural elements that form the ubiquinone-binding site become disordered, and we propose reactivation is induced when substrate binding to the NADH-reduced enzyme templates their reordering. Our structure both rationalizes biochemical data on the deactive state and offers new insights into its physiological and cellular roles.

Global collective motions in the mammalian and bacterial respiratory complex I (2018)

…we identify here transitions between experimentally resolved structures of the mammalian complex I as low-frequency collective motions of the enzyme, highlighting similarities and differences between the bacterial and mammalian enzymes. Despite the reduced complexity of the smaller bacterial enzyme, our results suggest that the global dynamics of complex I is overall conserved.

The conservation of light-powered functional structures and energy-dependent proton gradients link the deactive state in critical structures to the active state via the creation of enzymes in species from bacteria to mammals. The energy-dependent creation of the enzymes links metabolism of the energy (e.g., food energy) from pheromones to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction.
The pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans links our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptations in all living genera.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

Our perception of the world builds upon dynamic inputs from multiple senses with different temporal resolutions, and is threaded with the passing of subjective time. How time is extracted from multisensory inputs is scantly known. Utilizing psychophysical testing and electroencephalography, we show in healthy human adults that odors modulate object visibility around critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF)-the limit at which chromatic flickers become perceived as a stable color-and effectively alter CFF in a congruency-based manner, despite that they afford no clear environmental temporal information. The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity. These findings point to a neuronal network in the right temporal cortex that executes flexible temporal filtering of upstream visual inputs based on olfactory information. Moreover, they collectively indicate that the very process of sensory integration at the stage of object processing twists time perception, hence casting new insights into the neural timing of multisensory events.

See also: Odors Alter Subjective Time Experience Author: Dr. ZHOU Wen’s Research Group Update time: 2017/05/15

The brain is not a timepiece. Whereas it is equipped with senses like vision, audition, touch, smell, and taste, it has no direct access to or measure of the physical time (unless you read from a clock). Rather, it constructs the subjective “time” of an event from the dynamic multisensory inputs associated with that event. Yet different senses come with different temporal precisions. For instance, when standing near an apple tree, you can detect the falling of an apple much better with your eyes or ears than the nose. How does the brain coordinate multisensory signals entering different brain regions with different temporal resolutions, and come up with the subjective time?

A team at the Institute of Psychology at Chinese Academy of Sciences tackled this issue using odors and images. Specifically, Dr. Bin Zhou, the study’s lead author, and his colleagues examined whether odors could modulate one’s temporal sampling and subjective duration of visual objects. In their study, participants viewed two series of flickering isoluminant images in red and green (Figure 1A). One of the series contained opposite images of an apple or bananas; the other contained only images of red and green fields. When the images alternated at a frequency beyond 20 Hz, the participants started to have difficulty reporting which series contained an object. Indeed, for most people, chromatic flicker fusion frequency (CFF), the limit at which alternating colors become perceived as a stable fused color, falls somewhere between 20 and 25 Hz. Interestingly, the participants’ object detection accuracies around CFF were improved under the exposure of a congruent, as opposed to an incongruent, odor. In other words, the participants detected a rapidly flickering apple better when they smelled an apple odor rather than a banana odor, and vice versa (Figure 1B, left panel). In effect, the presence of a congruent odor facilitated the brain’s temporal sampling of a visual object and elevated its CFF (Figure 1B, right panel). Based on electrical activities recorded from the participants’ scalp, the researchers found that the integration between smell and vision strengthened the signals of the corresponding object in a brain region heavily implicated in object representations called the right temporal cortex, about 150-300 ms after object onset. They further showed that such integration lengthened one’s subjective duration of the corresponding object in a duration comparison task. The researchers concluded that subjective time is warped by the neural energy involved in representing multisensory inputs at subsecond scales.

Until Philip C. Ball mentioned that Nick Lane believed proton gradients came before the energy-dependent creation of RNA, I did not realize how little they knew about this link from differences in the energy of photons to consciousness.
See: What Affective Neuroscience Means for Science Of Consciousness (2013)

The coupling of the two circuits promotes an endogenous feedback that supports conscious processes. Within this framework, we present the defence that detailed study of both affective and cognitive processes, their interactions, as well of their respective brain networks, is necessary for a science of consciousness.

The coupling of the two circuits links differences in the energy of photons from the proton motive force to the light-activated endogenous feedback loops and Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.
It is extremely difficult for intelligent people to not link this experimental evidence to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of reports that claim “Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors.”
But, see for comparison: David Attenborough on creationsim May, 2015

My comment on his nonsense: First steps to neutralizing Zika: How highly potent antibody neutralizes Zika infection discovered

This is framed within the context of energy-dependent changes in pH, which facilitate receptor-mediated entry of nutrients or viruses into specific cell types of species-specific tissues via stress-linked changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs.

Virus-driven energy theft has been linked to all pathology in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated polycombic protein folding chemistry compared to the hecatombic evolution of pathology manifested first in the differences between archaea and bacteria. Admitting that Carl Woese was wrong about the different domains of life is the first step towards understanding the difference between healthy longevity and the evolution of all virus-driven pathology.

Carl Woese was wrong

God did not create the viruses. He created the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy. Only the choices of our ancestors could have led to the increasing amout of virus-driven pathology during the past ~6000 years that pseudoscientists place into the context of millions of years of evolution. Then, they blame God, like these two pseudoscientists do. Darwin knew they would do that, which is why he insisted that others put conditions of life before natural selection. But they bastardized his theory anyway and taught their revision to anyone who was foolish enough to believe in it. It’s called the “Modern Synthesis” and was based on de Vries 1902 definition of “mutation.”

Celebrate Your Inner Virus

It is important that we understand the design present in viruses because God made them.

It is no wonder that Sir David Attenborough and many others like Philip C. Ball and Nick Lane are confused about the energy-dependent creation of healthy longevity and consciousness. Even some young earth creationists have failed to link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from changes in electrons to ecosystems via the proton motive force. That leaves every aspect of creation to be placed back into the context of ridiculous theories. The theories start with the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information. The energy theft links mutations to all virus-driven pathology. The theft of quantized energy as information cannot be linked by serious scientists from beneficial mutations to the evolution of one species from another.
For comparison, pseudoscientists have no problem touting this confusing nonsense:
Sign of selection on mutation rate modifiers depends on population size (
1)  Genetic variation—the raw material for evolution—is ultimately generated by mutation.
2). …beneficial alleles never become deleterious and deleterious alleles never become beneficial.
Conclusion:

Whether these phenomena can be united in a single theoretical framework remains an open question that we are actively exploring. In any case, our results add to a growing appreciation of nonclassical population size dependence in evolution by natural selection (41, 42).

Funding for research that attempts to link natural selection to evolution via mutation-driven genetic variation should be used to link food odors and pheromones from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptations. It is time to stop creating more biologically uninformed theorists.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

From photons to the proton motive force (1)

Conclusion: If you would like to learn how to link quantized energy-dependent changes in atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction, join others age 10+ who will be playing this game in September 2018.
Fly’s Blood-Brain Barrier Has Circadian Rhythms

“the anatomic characteristics of insect and vertebrate BBB structures are quite distinct.”

The molecular mechanisms are conserved.
My comment to The Scientist:

Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels (1990)

The levels of complexity have since been placed into the context of how energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via feedback loops.

For instance, see: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

When theorists fail to start with energy-dependent changes they are forced to use de Vries 1902 definition of mutation in attempts to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to evolution. Two forthcoming conferences will place that pseudoscientific nonsense into its proper perspective.

Evolution – Genetic Novelty/Genomic Variations by RNA Networks and Viruses

Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

See also:  Here Comes Single-Cell Optogenetics

.. two-photon excitation with computer-generated holography (a way to precisely sculpt light in 3D) allow light to be focused tightly enough  to hit one cell.

OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy….

Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase

Production of ATP depends on the oxidation of energy-rich compounds to produce a chemical potential difference for hydrogen ions, the proton motive force (pmf), across the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM).

Researchers who have not linked differences in the energy of photons to the proton motive force are not likely to be among those who are presenting in September: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology
See for comparison: Subatomic

Subatomic is a deck building game where players are competing to build a number of available Elements, which score them points. Each player starts with the same small deck of cards that consist of Proton, Neutron, and Electron Cards. They use these cards to build upon their current Atom (by playing these cards face-up as Subatomic Particles) in an attempt to construct one of the available Element Cards. Or players may use their hand of cards to purchase more powerful cards for later use (by playing them in combinations of face-down as energy and face-up as Subatomic Particles!) Subatomic introduces a unique variation on deck building with a highly accurate chemistry theme, with the ultimate goal of building Elements to score points, but allowing many varying types of strategies.

If you would like to learn how to link quantized energy-dependent changes in atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction, join others age 10+ who will be playing this game in September 2018.