Schrodinger conference

The birds and the bees; olfaction and pheromones

Product sales have been virtually eliminated by the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and Big Bang cosmologists. I may revisit their ridiculous claims here, but prefer to continue moving forward via my other domains: and

Summary: 2018 Update: Sympatric speciation has been linked to species diversity as an example of an ecologically validated proof-of-concept in all living genera.

I have neglected this domain during the past 7 years because it became clear that pseudoscientists were not going to let people know that all aspects of sympatric speciation have been detailed in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction, which is required to biophysically constrain viral latency.

That fact was placed into the context of the cell biology game “Cytosis,” which was delivered to backers in October 2017.

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See also: A transmissible RNA pathway in honey bees (2018)

The authors link my model of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained sympatric speciation from atoms to ecosystems in all living genera via my 2013 published review and my unpublished invited review of nutritional epigenetics.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model (2013)

…the epigenetic ‘tweaking’ of the immense gene networks that occurs via exposure to nutrient chemicals and pheromones can now be modeled in the context of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, receptor-mediated intracellular signaling, and the stochastic gene expression required for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution. The role of the microRNA/messenger RNA balance (Breen, Kemena, Vlasov, Notredame, & Kondrashov, 2012; Duvarci, Nader, & LeDoux, 2008; Griggs et al., 2013; Monahan & Lomvardas, 2012) in adaptive evolution will certainly be discussed in published works that will follow.

2018 Update: Sympatric speciation has been linked to species diversity as an example of an ecologically validated proof-of-concept in all living genera.

For a historical perspective, see: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014 preprint)

Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

The facts about sympatric speciation for comparison to the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution have been placed in to the context of 3 more recently published works.

A 360 degrees view of circular RNAs: From biogenesis to functions (2018)

Circular RNAs: Unexpected outputs of many protein-coding genes (2017)

The Output of Protein-Coding Genes Shifts to Circular RNAs When the Pre-mRNA Processing Machinery Is Limiting (2017)

It is no longer possible to put the facts about sympatric speciation back into the context of ridiculous theories about the emergence of energy and evolution of all life on Earth. Anyone who returns to the links or to the published works I have posted here, will realize that pseudoscientists know virtually nothing about food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in any species.

In 2011, I wrote:

A recent report says that homing pigeons depend on their sense of smell to find their way home. This report helps to confirm that olfaction is essential to behavioral development in species  from insects to vertebrates.

Several other articles also have recently reported on how pheromones are involved in

1. sexual arousal in birds, and

2. mate choice in birds.

The cause and effect that is missing from earlier works on avian behavior is addressed in these articles.

It has become obvious that visual and auditory signals are not the most salient cues involved in avian species, which suggests we quit comparing bird-brained behaviors that are driven by relatively insignificant cues (i.e., compared to pheromones) to human behavior. Research on birds has allowed us to be led to believe that our sexual behavior is based on visual and auditory input.  Supposedly, olfactory input and pheromones play lesser roles.  But no scientific data suggest this.

Nevertheless, as we approach the celebration of Valentine’s Day, you will no doubt read that humans are primarily visual creatures. The series of articles on love that appear each year in the mass media are a testament to the fact that we can easily led to believe that we are not like other animals, which helps to keep us blind as bats when it comes to love.

Even animals that have the visual acuity of  eagle-eyed avians depend on their sense of smell and pheromones to drive the neurophysiological mechanisms of behavioral development, sexual arousal, and mate choice. It’s the pheromones in every species from yeasts to you.

1. Ball, G. F. and J. Balthazart (in press). “Sexual arousal, is it for mammals only?” Hormones and Behavior In Press, Accepted Manuscript.

2. Whittaker, D. J., H. A. Soini, et al. (2010). “Songbird chemosignals: volatile compounds in preen gland secretions vary among individuals, sexes, and populations.” Behavioral Ecology 21(3): 608-614.

see also Caro, S. P. and J. Balthazart (2010). “Pheromones in birds: myth or reality?” J Comp Physiol A Neuroethol Sens Neural Behav Physiol 2010: 21.