“Our molecular and genetic analyses of tga1 show how a simple amino acid change can alter protein function and thereby drive the evolution of a new phenotypic state.”
Reported as: Study shows how a kernel got naked and corn became king
The answer often lies in mutations, the currency of evolution. Sometimes single letters are changed in the genome of a species, while other times, whole paragraphs are lifted or moved around. Sometimes, these changes don’t alter the meaning of the story, while other times they do. When those changes are beneficial, that altered copy survives the test of time. Sometimes that means the creation of a whole new species.
Nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions is the currency of ecological adaptations. My model linked ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all living genera via their biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding, which protects the organisms from virus-perturbed protein folding and genomic entropy caused by mutations. Only one amino acid substitution is required to prevent genomic entropy, and Dobzhansky (1973) placed that fact into its proper context.
“…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla” (p. 127).”
I followed his lead in the series of published works that preceded my 2013 review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
The cause-and-effect relationship was established in mice by comparing the effects of the alanine, which is under selection pressure in humans, via its substitution for valine in mice (Kamberov et al., 2013).
For comparison, others seem to still be following the lead of neo-Darwinian theorists who report their findings in terms of mutations because they cannot differentiate them from RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of their ridiculous theories.
The theorists are perplexed, but continue to theorize — as if they are incapable of learning anything about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Excerpt: Quanta science writer Carl Zimmer, reflecting on an interview with Lässig speculated that “As we collect a few examples of predictability, it changes the whole goal of evolutionary biology.”
Amino Acid Substitutions in Polymerase Basic Protein 2 Gene Contribute to the Pathogenicity of the Novel A/H7N9 Influenza Virus in Mammalian Hosts
My comment: RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions predict how non-living viruses and all living genera adapt to ecological variation via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry that links viruses and mutations to pathology. The conserved molecular mechanisms also link nutrient-dependent microRNAs to heathly longevity via their anti-entropic epigenetic effects on the accumulation of viral microRNAs.
Why would anyone who is biologically informed continue to not report pattern recognition that links nutrients to RNA-mediated cell type differences in plants and animals from viruses via amino acid substitutions?