Our results show that distinct bacterial communities inhabit individual organs of Axolotl and undergo substantial restructuring through metamorphosis.
The restructuring during metamorphosis is biophysically constrained by feedback loops that link olfaction from food odors and pheromones to the creation of enzymes in bacteria and the secretion of the vertebrate decapeptide hormone GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone).
See: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist binding in tiger salamander nasal cavity (1993)
The authors presciently linked food odors and pheromones from epigenetic effects on feedback loops to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and microRNA-mediated morphological and behavioral diversity, and also to differences in the behavior of monogamous and polygamous prairie voles.
See: The prairie vole vomeronasal organ is a target for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (2001)
For comparison, Larry Young claimed that the evolution of viruses caused the differences in prairie vole behavior. He linked the virus-driven differences from three other hormones to the evolution of heterosexual love. See: Virus Evolution Amazing Documentary Full HD National Geographic Documentary 2015
Others, who are like Larry Young, have failed to link anything known to serious scientists from sensory input to energy-dependent changes in the creation of enzymes, receptors and hormones. The anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of enzymes by bacteria links the creation of receptors and hormones in vertebrates to protection of organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
See for comparison: 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing
Originally a zoology major, Asimov switched to chemistry and earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in biochemistry in 1948. In 1977, he contracted HIV from a blood transfusion. He was president of the American Humanist Association, which suggests that his atheism led to his death via his ignorance.
For example, in 1964, Dobzhansky wrote:
“The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.”
If Isaac Asimov was the last polymath of our civilization, we are doomed. Clearly his ridiculous beliefs have led to the teaching of pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution despite the claims of Schrödinger (1944) and those who will link the anti-entopic virucidal energy of sunlight from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
See for comparison: How One Child’s Sickle Cell Mutation Helped Protect the World From Malaria
Once again, so-called science journalist Carl Zimmer shows that he does not know the difference between a mutation and an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations
Single nucleotide substitutions or indels can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.
Hemoglobin variants alter the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. They are clear indicators of how ecological variation must be linked to ecological adaptation via food energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
There are more than 1700 human variants. Anyone who claims that the variants are mutations should be required to link them from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes in all living genera to ecologically adapted human populations.
The alternative is sexist and racist. Much more is needed than a new definition of heredity. All intelligent people must dismiss the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution. Then, we can start over with accurate representations of top-down causation and biophysically constrained viral latency.
But first see: EPA’s Scott Pruitt Doesn’t Buy Evolution
Andrew Rosenberg, director of the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, counters that Pruitt should not act as “the nation’s pastor.”
Andrew Rosenberg should become familiar with the extant literature or play the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+. There is no excuse for his level of ignorance.
Cytosis is a board game that details what takes place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses! In the context of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, a new tool is now available to help theorists link cause and effect via a mathematical model.
See: VarQ: a tool for the structural analysis of Human Protein Variants. The mathematical model has replaced neo-Darwinian theories with facts about how the energy-dependent structure of functional supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains viral latency.
See also: Inhibition of the Host Translation Shutoff Response by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Triggers Nuclear Envelope-Derived Autophagy (2013)
and Role of bacterial efflux pumps in biofilm formation
Only a few people I know would link antibiotic resistance from Escherichia coli to Acinetobacter baumannii via the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Until they are willing to do it in a public forum, see: Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system.
Pseudoscientists and most other theorists are still focused on mutation-driven evolution. Isaac Asimov’s “humanist” influence has prevailed across more than one generation of students who learned how to link nothing to everything from people like Neil deGrasse Tyson, Lawrence Krauss, and Carl Zimmer.