Trichome, a Functional Diversity Phenotype in Plant
Trichomes play a very important role in the process of evolution for plant which are epidermal appendages covering the surface of plants. In this paper, some progress concerning the genes responsible for trichome formation is presented for monocots and dicotyledons plants. Meanwhile, the special structures and physiological functions of trichome are briefly introduced, such as reflectance, energy balance, ultraviolet protection, drought resistance, gas exchange, insect resistance and disease resistance. The review provides a theoretical basis for the further study of other trichome related traits in plants.
The review links the process of evolution from the energy balance to ultraviolet protection without mention of where the energy came from or how the energy balance is biophysically constrained by the chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding in the context of fixed amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. They should simply claim that evolution is an automagical process that they cannot explain in terms that might be used by serious scientists to link physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics and all biologically-based cause and effect.
Trichomes, as a plant protective barrier against natural hazards such as herbivores, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, pathogen attacks and excessive transpiration, play a key role in development of plants and occur widely in various plants.
Trichomes are a model system for cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity and cell expansion…
Trichomes cannot be a model system because cell differentiation it is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Light reflectors and energy balance
Studies have shown that trichomes can be reflectors of broadspectrum radiation, and play a physiologically significant role in modulating the plant energy balance [57,65,66]. When leaves are exposed in environments, this can regulate heat balance via transpiration cooling, which requires an adequate water supply or through reduced leaf absorption .
All physiologically significant roles played in the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation in all living genera must link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems. Now that those links have been established, they can be used to virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Clearly, nothing evolves without an anti-entropic virucidal energy source, which means that no species has ever evolved into another species via natural selection for anything except energy-dependent codon optimality.
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the essence of precision medicine. See:
See for comparison: The histone demethylase KDM3A regulates the transcriptional program of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells
Methylation of histone lysine residues is a significant component of epigenetics and is associated with control of gene expression . Specifically, methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) has been recognized as hallmark of transcriptionally suppressed genes .
“The essence of precision medicine is to understand, which drug targets are effective given each person’s unique genetic and epigenetic makeup,” Filipp said.
Methylation is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Nutrient energy-dependent viral latency links lysine residues (amino acid substitutions) to all healthy longevity in all living genera via natural selection for differences in the energy of photons, which has been linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Each person’s unique genetic makeup arises only in the context of epigenetic effects on supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
For more pseudoscientific nonsense about cancers and metastases, see: Cancer Cells Conversations About Metastasis
My comment: Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
Mitochondria as a Favourite Organelle for Invading Viruses
ER-alpha 36, A Novel Biomarker for ER-Negative Breast Cancer
DNA Repair Mechanisms in ESCs and iPSCs
If pseudoscientists consistently fail to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via fixation of amino acid substitutions, do not expect them do discover that the energy for DNA repair is essence of precision medicine.
See also my comments on: Ben Carson and the Power of the Hippocampus
Do you realize that Ben Carson and others like him have linked energy to the experience-dependent near-infinite capacity of the brain, and linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944)
All of Carson’s claims about the hippocampus link what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent RNA methylation and experience-dependent cell type differentiation, which is biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: “Experience-Dependent Accumulation of N6-Methyladenosine in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Memory Processes in Mice” June 22, 2016
The repository of non serious scientists is found among neo-Darwinian theorists. Also, Dobzhansky (1964) made claims about the difference between serious scientists and “serious intellectuals,” who he would probably also refer to as biologically uninformed.
For example, Neuroskeptic concludes that “It’s not a totally crazy approach, but it makes a lot of assumptions.”
Ben Carson did not make any assumptions about the claims that link ATP from the energy-dependent de novo creation of RNA to all biodiversity via links from RNA methylation to learning and memory in all living genera. See: Dobzhansky’s claims (1973) about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all living genera. The energy clearly must be linked from what organisms eat to the physiology of reproduction. See for comparison:
Biology, molecular and organismic (1964) Excerpt: “The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology. ”
For an example of some intelligent men, see: DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION” (1964)
The essence of precision medicine: drug targets or healthy longevity?