Summary: The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)
…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.
Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system (2015) with my emphasis. As a service to the community this article is available to view for free.
After 96 hours of incubation of AR2 and Pf0-2x at room temperature on SMM, two breakout mutations were visible, conferring first slow (AR2S and Pf0-2xS) and then fast (AR2F and Pf0-2xF) spreading over the agar surface (Fig. 1A). The AR2F strain produces flagella, but we could not detect flagella in electron microscopy samples for AR2S (Fig. 1B). Genome resequencing revealed a single-nucleotide point mutation in ntrB in strain AR2S, causing an amino acid substitution within the PAS domain of the histidine kinase sensor NtrB [Thr97→Pro97 (T97P)] (13). The fast-spreading strain AR2F had acquired an additional point mutation in the σ54-dependent EBP gene ntrC, which alters an amino acid (R442C) within the DNA binding domain (Table 1 and table S2).
The claim that two mutations led to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum cannot be supported with the claim that only one amino acid substitution differentiates the cell type of two different primate species (gorillas and humans) from two similar species (chimpanzees and humans). The fact that mutations are not amino acid substitutions can be supported in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans.
See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model for comparison to: Mutation-Driven Evolution
The cell biology game “Cytosis” will help to end the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense touted in the context of mutation-driven evolution.
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!
The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology. Protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled. In Dobzhansky’s example, the alpha chains of hemoglobin differ “… in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” Pseudoscientists must now try to place that fact back into the context of their ridiculous theories without linking a single amino acid substitution in the organized genomes of all other species to all biodiversity on Earth, which is what some Young Earth Creationists (YEC) have done.
Watch as the pseudoscientists try and fail to account for more than 1200 nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled hemoglobin variants in human populations.
The pseudoscientists must ignore the facts about the hemoglobin variants: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations (2014) with my emphasis
Hemoglobinopathies are the commonest single-gene genetic disorders in humans, resulting from pathogenic genome variants in the human α-like and β-like globin gene clusters (reviewed in 1). Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.
See for comparison: In the Light of Evolution
In this cross journal series, BMC Biology, BMC Evolutionary Biology and Biology Direct bring together a collection of articles exploring how evolutionary principles applied across the spectrum of biology can shed light on a diverse range of topics from molecules to ecosystems, and with a particular emphasis on human genetics, interactions with the environment, and health and disease. Selected research articles will be included in addition to invited reviews and comment.
We will consider Research manuscripts of exceptional interest on the following topics (with my emphasis)
• Evolution of morphological change
• Understanding and treating disease in the light of evolution
• Origins of evolutionary complexity
• Human evolutionary biology in a post-genomic era
• Anthropogenic effects on evolution
• Evolutionary insights into genome variation, and vice versa
• Host-parasite interactions
• Evolutionary lessons from large-scale genomics
• Insights from ancient DNA on human origins
• Molecular mechanisms of evolution
• Applied microbial evolution
• Evolutionary ecology
• Genomics and the evolution of development
The only consideration of the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links RNA-directed DNA methylation from atoms to ecosystems via fixation of amino acid substitutions in organized genomes may be the articles about Host-parasite interactions. The interactions involve energy-dependent ecological adaptations or extinction. Virus-driven energy theft causes the extinctions via the theft oif quantized energy as information. Theft comes after the creation of virucidal light, which is the ultraviolet light that comes from sunlight. That fact, which indicates “agency” in the context of “creation” is not likely to be considered in the context of Insights from ancient DNA on human origins.
Clearly, Dobzhansky (1973) knew that all neo-Darwinian theorists were biologically uninformed science idiots and that they always would be. The fact that he placed the virucidal energy of ultraviolet light into his expressed “Creationist” views with a title that refuted all the pseudoscientific nonsense attests to his sense of humor, and the inability of theorists to “get the joke.”
…organic diversity becomes, however, reasonable and understandable if the Creator has created the living world not by caprice but by evolution propelled by natural selection. It is wrong to hold creation and evolution as mutually exclusive alternatives. I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation. Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.
There is no support for the ridiculous claim that Creation is a “process” that began some 10 billion years ago. There is a model that places all human biodiversity into the context of food energy-dependent ecological adaptations that protect all organisms from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in the context of their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Watch as the facts about Creation are removed from consideration because the focus of these articles is on support for ridiculous theories. Remember this:
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
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See also: Evolution outside the context of “the light of evolution” (2)