Biology to a Physicist

Hybridization is not evolution

Beyond the Whole-Genome Duplication: Phylogenetic Evidence for an Ancient Interspecies Hybridization in the Baker’s Yeast Lineage

Excerpt: Interspecies hybridization brings together different physiological properties and isolates sexually the newly formed lineage, hence providing an initial selective advantage to explain observed WGDs in eukaryotes.
My comment: Why is anyone still placing this into the context of evolutionary events? Cell type differentiation is nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated in all genera, and the physiology of reproduction links self vs non-self recognition to sexual orientation and to ecological speciation — even in yeasts. Biodiversity exemplifies the fact that the epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of DNA in species from microbes to man via metabolic networks and genetic networks (not the vague concepts of “evolution.”).
Yeast cells do not hybridize and evolve. Yeast cells optimize their genomes in response to the environment.
So do all organisms. See Gene Splicing in Lice and the Challenge of Clothing
Excerpt: “The investigation of “alternative splice in alternative lice” also provides yet another glorious illustration of the adaptation that could lead to evolutionary change.”
Thanks to Karl Grammer for alterting me to this. Karl was the senior author of our 2001 review: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology
In the article about gene splicing in lice, Ricki Lewis places the information on alternative splicing into the ridiculous context of evolution, instead of into the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological speciation, which we established.
Karl Grammer and Ricki Lewis makes it obvious that no matter how much experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect links ecological variation to ecological adaptations via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events and the physiology of reproduction, theorists will continue to misrepresent biological facts.
The facts link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the conserved molecular mechanisms of nutrient-dependent biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all genera. Theorists will not admit they know nothing about how cell type differentiation occurs, and rarely mention amino acids.
See for comparison: Alternative RNA Splicing in Evolution
Excerpt 1) “…alternative splicing may be the critical source of evolutionary changes differentiating primates and humans from other creatures such as worms and flies with a similar number of genes.”
Excerpt 2) The shapes of the proteins are determined by the DNA code, which determines the amino acids of the protein, the folding and eventual protein shape. But, the determination of the final code that is used is not so simple. As important as the DNA code is, the alternative RNA splicing is equally, or more, important.
My comment: The alternative RNA splicing links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via metabolic networks and genetic networks in all living genera. Nutrient-dependent alternative RNA splicing prevents the accumulation of viruses from linking entropic elasticity to genomic entropy via perturbed protein folding, which is linked to all pathologies.
See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Excerpt: “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.”
The alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes also links the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from ecological variation to ecological adaptation in 4 days via the “re-evolved” flagellum, reported here: Evolutionary Rewiring.
Even when the rewiring and “re-evolution” occurs in 4 days via 2 amino acid substitutions, pseudoscientists continue to use it as an example of one of the irreducibly complex structures that has somehow evolved across billions of years. Evolutionary theorists and theoretical physicists look at bacteria and birds and see bacteria and birds. They rarely look at experimental evidence of how ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to man.
Summary: Primates do not hybidize and evolve.  For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla” (p. 127).  The link opens this pdf: “Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution” — Dobzhansky (1973)
See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease

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