No experimental evidence of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation supports the claim about “…the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation…” The overwhelming systems complexity of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cause and effect can no longer be placed into the context of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists. Watch Andrea Wagner’s group try to escape from the claims made by losers.
But first see: Kalevi Kull: Censorship & Royal Society Evo Event
Nobody wants to belong to the party of losers. One of the best strategies in such a case is evidently an interpretation of the change as a gradual accumulation of knowledge while their work has always been at the cutting edge. — Kalevi Kull
…nucleic acid binding sites of RNA-mediated gene regulation are less evolvable than those of transcriptional regulation. This observation is consistent with the high levels of mRNA target conservation for RBPs (10, 82, 83) and the evolutionary plasticity of the regulatory regions involved in transcriptional regulation (84⇓–86) as well as their role in the evolution of myriad adaptations and innovations (11, 87, 88).
It is obvious to anyone who has followed the works of Andreas Wagner that his group has reached an impasse.
See: Evolution of Viral Proteins Originated De Novo by Overprinting (2012)
We found that young de novo genes have a different codon usage from the rest of the genome.
There is no such thing as a de novo gene.
See: From de novo to “de nono”: most novel protein coding genes identified with phylostratigraphy represent old genes or recent duplicates
I collectively refer to the putative de novo genes that failed to pass the validation criteria as the ‘de nono’ genes.
The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations only in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. That fact is now perfectly clear in the context of more than 71,000 indexed published works that link the energy-dependent creation of ATP synthase to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA in the context of McEwen et al., (1964) and Frohlich (1968).
People like Andreas Wagner are stuck with their ridiculous claims about evolution, when all serious scientists know that only the hecatombic evolution of virus-driven pathology is possible. Healthy longevity requires food energy-dependent biophysically constrained polycombic ecological adaptations. The metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones links RNA-mediated autophagy to all biodiversity. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to all pathology.
Andreas Wagner reversed every aspect of what is known in: Arrival of the Fittest: Solving Evolution’s Greatest Puzzle (2014)
…he has found that adaptations are not just driven by chance, but by a set of laws that allow nature to discover new molecules and mechanisms in a fraction of the time that random variation would take.
See for comparison: Kohl’s Laws of Biology in Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
Life is nutrient-dependent. That is a Biological Law. The ecological origin of all biological laws is apparent 1) in the context of systems biology (P. Kohl, et al., 2010); 2) in the context of the metabolism of nutrients by microbes (K. D. Kohl, 2012); and 3) in the context of how the metabolism of nutrients results in species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction (J. Kohl, Ostrovsky, Frechter, & Jefferis, 2013). Taken together, the systems biology of nutrient metabolism to species-specific pheromones, which control the physiology of reproduction, can be expressed in a summary of Kohl’s Laws of Biology: 1) Life is nutrient-dependent. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2012; M. Lynch, 2007). The physiology of reproduction is pheromone-controlled. See for review (J. V. Kohl, 2013). In the context of nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected human reproduction, it is clearer that the epigenetic effects of human pheromones integrate neuroendocrinology and behavior (J. V. Kohl, et al., 2001), which includes the neuroendocrinology of mammalian behavior associated with the development of sexual preferences (J.V. Kohl, 2007).
Andreas Wagner, and others like him, will probably continue to misrepresent what is known about how the creation of sunlight must be linked to food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction by natural selection for codon optimality. But the facts about how energy must be linked to increasing organismal complexity are not going to change.
See: Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
and/or Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!