Summary: “The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression” accurately represents what is known about food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans. MicroRNAs are not new players in the hypothalamic control of fertility and the effects of food odors and pheromones on microRNAs link energy-dependent changes in hormones to behavior. That fact was detailed two decades ago in our Hormones and Behavior review.
MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Discovered more than 15 years ago, their functions start to be unraveled. Increasing evidence points to an important functional role of microRNAs in brain development. In particular, miRNAs have recently been established to play a vital role in the mechanisms underlying the infantile rise in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) production by neurons in the hypothalamus, a phenomenon necessary for the onset of puberty in mammals.
The anti-entropic virucidal energy of ultraviolet light links the de novo creation of of microRNAs from flanking sequences that biophysically constrain all biodiversity by protecting the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
After scanning the article that accurately represents what is known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from soil microbes to humans, see this pseudoscientific nonsense for comparison:
Prenatal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Expectations versus Data. Breedlove SM. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 Feb 7. doi: 10.1007/s10508-016-0904-2.
Human Sexual Orientation: The Importance of Evidentiary Convergence. Balthazart J, Court L. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 12. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0997-2.
Proceed with Caution: Interpreting Evidence for Prenatal Influences on Sexual Orientation. LeVay S. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 8. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0996-3
On Possible Hormonal Mechanisms Affecting Sexual Orientation. McFadden D. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 5. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0995-4
Reconsidering Prenatal Hormonal Influences on Human Sexual Orientation: Lessons from Animal Research. Baum MJ, Bakker J. Arch Sex Behav. 2017 May 4. doi: 10.1007/s10508-017-0994-5
Each published work represents the failure of the sex researchers to link energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity via the section on molecular epigenetics from our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
In our section on molecular epigenetics, we linked the quantized energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs from fertilization to adult sexual behavior via this claim.
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating [quantized energy-dependent] alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
The alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA are quantized energy-dependent and they link microRNA flanking sequences to all biodiversity via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The hydrogen-atom transfer was place into the context of the biophysically constrained physiology of reproduction and the role of microRNAs in this published work:
Their relatively slow evolution  also means that they can easily be identified in de novo assemblies of genomes.
Genomes do not automagically assemble themselves. Placing the energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs into the context of the speed of evolution is a horrid error in logic that extends across all disciplines, which is the only way it can continue to be placed into the pseudoscientific claims of sexuality researchers.
At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. GnRH neurons appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.
If you take any time at all to review the published works of sex researchers, you will learn why Feynman referred to all social scientists as pseudoscientists.
Richard Feynman was a Nobel prize winning Theoretical Physicist who popularized physics with his entertaining lecture style. This snippet is taken from one of his lectures in the series “The character of Physical Law” where he complains about all the different units that are used to measure the single concept of Energy.
The human sexualilty researchers whose works were recently published in the Archives of Sexual Behavior represent the worst of pseudoscience. They skip past the facts about food energy and pheromones and link behavior to anything except the role that microRNAs (pre-mRNAs) play in energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which links quantized energy from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the sense of smell in bacteria.
Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria
…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.
See also this: Animation of a particle where the Helicity matches the Chirality.
This appears to be a match made in Heaven so far as young earth creationists are concerned. It links the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic energy to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of what is known about autophagy (Yoshinhori Ohsumi) and chromosomal inheritance (Thomas Hunt Morgan).
But now, all the works of Nobel Laureates can be placed into the context of works by people like Lukin MD
See for example: Symmetry-protected collisions between strongly interacting photons and Lukin MD microRNA no entries found, for comparison
People like Lukin are not going to link microRNA-mediated cause and effect from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biodiversity on Earth via food energy and the pheromone-controlled the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. They are like the biologically uninformed sex researchers who have failed to make sense of anything known to serious scientists.
If symmetry protects collisions between strongly interacting photons, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy clearly can be linked to the assymetry manifested it in conditions where the degradation of messenger RNA can clearly be linked to all pathology via the sense of smell.
See Hormonal correlates of women’s mid-cycle preference for the scent of symmetry
When women are fertile in their cycles, in comparison with when they are in the luteal phase, they are more attracted to masculine facial features (Johnston, Hagel, Franklin, Fink, & Grammer, 2001; Penton-Voak & Perret, 2001; Penton-Voak et al., 1999), darker facial skin color (Frost, 1994), lower voice pitch (Feinberg et al., 2006; Puts, 2005), masculine body odor (Grammer, 1993), the scent of men who are socially dominant (Havlicek, Roberts, & Flegr, 2005), the scent of men displaying developmental stability/bilateral symmetry (Gangestad & Thornhill, 1998a; Rikowski & Grammer, 1999; Thornhill & Gangestad,1999; Thornhill et al. 2003), masculine (or dominant) behavioral displays (Gangestad, Garver-Apgar, Simpson, & Cousins, 2007; Gangestad, Simpson, Cousins, Garver-Apgar, & Christensen, 2004; Gangestad, Thornhill, & Garver-Apgar, 2008), masculine or muscular bodies (Gangestad et al., 2007; Little, Jones, & Burriss, 2007) and creative men (Haselton & Miller, 2006; see Thornhill & Gangestad, in press, for a critical review of these and other cycle effects). Substantial evidence indicates that these shifts are specific to women’s preferences for men evaluated as sex partners and not to their preferences for men as long-term, investing mates (e.g., Gangestad et al.,2004, 2007; Haselton & Miller, 2006; Penton-Voak et al., 1999; Puts, 2005).
All these preferences can be framed in the context of what is known about the sense of smell and the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the GnRH decapeptide. One substitution stabilizes the organized genomes of all vertebrates by preventing nearly all the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which has been linked to all pathology in all living genera.
See: Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor
It is possible that GnRH has an early origin in life history as a regulator of reproduction, since yeast α mating factor has 80% amino acid homology with mammalian GnRH and stimulates gonadotropin release from the mammalian pituitary (Loumaye et al., 1982; King and Millar, 1995). There is a question whether the structure of the GnRHs and their receptors in invertebrates conserved their structure during evolution in a sufficient degree to support the homology with the structure of GnRHs and their receptors in vertebrates.
There is no longer any question about the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. The mechanisms are light energy-dependent in the context of food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
When will all researchers learn to search PubMed for more information about the role of microRNAs before continuing to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense? What do serious scientists say, for comparison?
See: MicroRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 61842
For example: Computational identification of mutually homologous Zika virus miRNAs that target microcephaly genes.
Conclusions We suggest that following infection of fetal neurons ZIKV may modulate the action of various miRNAs, and miR-1304 in particular, resulting in microcephaly.
In reality, they suggest that all theorists are examples of human idiocy, which is the source of all virus-driven pathology.