Organization of biological sequences

The organization of biological sequences into constrained and unconstrained parts determines fundamental properties of genotype–phenotype maps


Biological evolution is characterized by the inheritance, mutation and translation of biological information.

My comment: Genome organization is nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Nutrient-dependent RNA mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link RNA-mediated protein folding  chemistry from supercoiled DNA to protection against virus driven genomic entropy via the physiology of reproduction.
Virus-driven genomic entropy is typically not considered by evolutionary theorists because they usually do not know anything about how cell type differentiation occurs.
See also:
Watch: The science of genetic inheritance is weirder than we thought

In every living cell, there’s a genetic code, and according to the information it holds, certain proteins are produced to carry out vital processes. Chemical switches called epigenetic tags are attached to the DNA, and can turn genes on or off, or crank them up or down, so the cells know which proteins to produce and in what quantities.
These switches are epigenetic tags are called that for a reason – they can be altered by factors other than the genetic code. So in the case of the rats, the fathers’ bad experience with the fruity smell caused the epigentic tags related to neuron growth in the nose and brain to kick into overdrive, and this was passed on to their offspring, and their offspring’s offspring.

See also:
The tardigrade genome has been sequenced, and it has the most foreign DNA of any animal

So what’s foreign DNA and why does it matter that tardigrades have so much of it? The term refers to genes that have come from another organism via a process known as horizontal gene transfer, as opposed to being passed down through traditional reproduction.
Horizontal gene transfer occurs in humans and other animals occasionally, usually as a result of gene swapping with viruses…”

My comment: Portraying horizontal gene transfer as if it occurred outside the context of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair is one way to keep framing cell type differentiation in the ridiculous context of mutations and evolution.

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