The events depicted are now portrayed in the context of Genome Dynamics Events, which are biophysically-constrained RNA-mediated events. RNA-mediated events lead to amino acid substitutions that differentiate the cell types of species. For example: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” Dobzhansky (1973)
Excerpt: “Since Darwin, however, we have come to understand that an entirely natural and undirected process, namely random variation plus natural selection, contains all that is needed to generate extraordinary levels of non-randomness.”
My comment: Only those taught to believe in pseudoscientific nonsense continue to claim, like many unenlightened theorists, that “…random variation plus natural selection…” leads to the evolution of biodiversity. They ignore the Laws of Physics and what is known about the biophysically constrained chemistry of cell type differentiation.
For contrast, serious scientists understand that
1) RNA-directed DNA methylation leads from ecological variation and
2) nutrient-dependent thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation to
3) RNA-mediated events such as
4) amino acid substitutions that
5) differentiate all cell types of
6) all individuals of
7) all species via
8) conserved molecular mechanisms of
10) pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations.
The ecological adaptations link ecological variation to to nutrient-dependent ecological speciation, which is biophysically constrained, via the production of species-specific pheromones that epigenetically control the nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man.
Pseudoscientists skip the steps that link creation from nutrient-uptake to controlled reproduction and claim that “…random variation plus natural selection, contains all that is needed to generate extraordinary levels of non-randomness.”
That’s where their ridiculous ideas about mutations, natural selection, and the evolution of biodiversity came from: IGNORANCE! Serious scientists continue to add experimental evidence of each successive step in the linear series of RNA-mediated events that refutes the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theorists each step of the way (e.g., from Let there be Light-induced amino acid substitutions in plants and animals to ecological speciation.)
Pseudoscientists skip the “Let there be light” part, and proceed with claims that species evolve via random variation plus natural selection. However, they have not described any biologically-based evolutionary event that links one species another. Instead, they look at morphological phenotypes and claim that morphological and behavioral phenotypes must have evolved outside the context of the Laws of Physics.
For consideration of physics, chemistry, and the molecular biology of ecological speciation see my 5.5. minute-long ISHE 2013 poster presentation video:
Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: (a mammalian model of thermodynamics and organism-level thermoregulation)