The cost of protein production is commonly attributed to protein translation (Andrews and Hegeman, 1976, Emilsson and Kurland, 1990, Kurland, 1992, Marr, 1991, Molin et al., 1974, Scott and Hwa, 2011, Scott et al., 2010, Vind et al., 1993). A major fraction of the cellular GTP pool is used for amino acid polymerization, while significantly lower quantities are invested in other processes including gene transcription and protein folding (Russell and Cook, 1995, Schimmel, 1993).
Reported as: The Cost of Protein Production
Excerpt: “Attempts to model cellular physiology are limited by the scarcity of experimental data defining the molecular processes limiting protein expression.”
RNA-mediated theory killers (6)
My comment: The bioenergetic cost of protein production is nutrient-dependent and RNA-mediated. The thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation are perturbed by viruses, which are linked from constraint-breaking mutations to all pathology in the context of what is currently known to serious scientists about how ecological variation and ecological adaptation link atoms to ecosystems in the context of the biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent physiology of reproduction (e,g, in all living genera).
The cost of biophysically constrained protein folding is what neo-Darwian evolutionary theorists want removed from consideration, because the cost exposes their pseudoscientific nonsense. What’s worse is when they try to bury their attempt to remove the cost of energy in the rhetoric used to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense.
See: The bioenergetic costs of a gene
…population genetic arguments based on both the mutational-hazard hypothesis (2) and on the observed features of cellular energetics lead to the conclusion that passive increases in genome size are expected to naturally arise in organisms with increased cell sizes (which, by correlation, have reduced effective population sizes). This supports the view that variation in the power of random genetic drift has played a central role in the historical diversification of genome and possibly cellular architecture across the tree of life.
See also: Mutation-Driven Evolution
…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements (p. 199).
My comment: In that ridiculous view of life, there is no reason to consider nutrient energy-dependent changes in morphological and behavioral phenotypes that are RNA-mediated in all living genera.
RNA-mediated theory killers (7)
RNA-mediated cell type differentiation is portrayed in the ridiculous context of evolution.
Large nervous systems evolved independently in animals like us and in octopuses. This raises questions about whether our brains do things the same way as their brains, or differently. One of the results in the new paper concerns how nervous systems are built within the lifetime of each individual. There has been independent evolution, on our side and the octopus side, of a family of molecules (protocadherins) that are used to stick cells together in precise ways when building a nervous system. Similar tools seem to be used in both cases.
My comment: The similar tools used in all living genera link microRNAs to adhesion proteins and supercoiled DNA that protects organized genomes from virus-driven entropy via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that we detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review.
The molecular mechanisms have since been used by serious scientists to link all invertebrates to all vertebrates from the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria to cell type differentiation in all living genera via base pair substitutions and amino acid substitutions that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of supercoiled DNA.
Everything about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera has been revealed in the context of what is known about biophotonics.
The challenge is how to extend the information obtained in animal models to human models. The invention of revolutionary noninvasive or low invasive technolgies will be needed and God knows when that will happen. — Susumu Tonegawa (Noble Laureate, Physiology or Medicine (1987)
My comment: God knows that animal models of learning and memory were extended to humans in the early 90’s. Some scientists also know that the works of two 2004 Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine linked a published work that Linda Buck co-authored to our 1996 model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Anna Di Cosmo‘s group linked our model and the works of at least two Nobel Laureates from microbes to octopuses in Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction I suppose that means Anna Di Cosmo will win Nobel Prizes in Physics, Chemistry, and Physiology or Medicine, since she has already linked atoms to ecosystems via the octopus model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that has just been linked to cancer prevention and the treatment of all pathology by the strategic cellular defense mechanism of all cells, which is called NORAD.
RNA-mediated theory killers (8)
“What do you foresee for bee populations in the U.S.?
If intensive agricultural areas continue to expand, without any conservation and restoration efforts, then I expect more mismatched areas of pollinator supply and demand.”
My comment: The honeybee already serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reaction, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, the development of the brain and behavior, mental health, longevity, diseases of the X chromosome, learning and memory, as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli (Kohl, 2012).
RNA-mediated theory killers (9)
Mutations that confer resistance to colistin had been reported previously. Many soil bacteria are also known to be resistant, because the drug is widely used in agriculture to fatten up pigs and prevent disease in farm animals. China, in particular, uses 12,000 tonnes of colistin a year in agriculture.
But the latest findings show that genes conferring resistance to colistin have been identified on loops of DNA called plasmids, which bacteria share readily with one another.
My comment: If it takes these biologically uninformed researchers very much longer to learn how RNA-mediated ecological variation is linked to cell type differentiation and ecological adaptations in species from microbes to man, virus-driven genomic entropy may lead to the death of us all, not from antibiotic resistance. Will will die from neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory as we always have since it was invented.
RNA-mediated theory killers (10)
RNA emerges as a new partner of metabolic enzymes with far-reaching possible consequences to be unraveled in the future.
My comment: RNA-mediated cell type differentiation was reported in the context of the conserved molecular mechanisms that linked sex differences in the cell types of yeasts to sex differences in cell types of humans and to to the development of sexual orientation and food preferences in all invertebrates and all vertebrates in our 1996 review.The only thing emerging now is information on the amount of ignorance displayed by neo-Darwinian theorists who thought that all extant biodiversity emerged in the context of mutation-driven evolution.