Under irradiation with visible light, the nicotinamide-dependent enzyme known as ketoreductase can be transformed from a carbonyl reductase into an initiator of radical species and a chiral source of hydrogen atoms.
Physicists, mathematicians, and my Facebook friend Paul Harrington, have said nothing about the obvious direct link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy, which is the source of hydrogen atoms that links the speed of light on contact with water, to the reactivity of existing enzymes via the excited states of photons as common biological co-factors.
This direct link from the sun helped serious scientists link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. But the facts used by serious scientists represent a dramatic departure from theories about light-driven biocatalysis.
The facts start with differences in the energy of two photons. The difference in the energy of the photons can be placed into the context of co-factor regeneration only if virus-driven energy theft is biophysically constrained by the availability of nutrients and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See also: Chemical biology: A radical change in enzyme catalysis
The key is to excite the enzyme’s cofactor using light — an approach that might work for other enzymes.
Paul Harrington went to great lengths to obfuscate the fact that all protein-protein folding interactions are energy-dependent, RNA-mediated, and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.See for example: Paul Harrington
After reading most of the published literature on NAD metabolome, and pharmacokinetics – these NAD precursors yield equivalent NAD** (AUC*):500 mg Niacin (NA) [not Niacinamide]
200-250 mg Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)
NMN the direct precursor of NAD:
http://news.harvard.edu/…/harvard-scientists-pinpoint-criti…**’The human NAD metabolome: Functions, metabolism and compartmentalization’:Andrey Nikiforov, Veronika Kulikova & Mathias Ziegler
http://www.tandfonline.com/…/…/10.3109/10409238.2015.1028612**’Nicotinamide riboside is uniquely and orally bioavailable in mice and humans’:
http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms12948#Niacin Niacin (NA) [not Niacinamide] #Tryptophan
#NR Nicotinamide Riboside (NR)
#NAD+def. of AUC: *https://www.boomer.org/c/p3/c02/c0210.htmlFig. 1
Overview of the NAD metabolome in humans. NAD can be synthesized from five precursors: tryptophan (Trp), the pyridine bases nicotinamide (Nam) and nicotinic acid (NA) or the nucleosides Nam riboside (NR) and NA riboside (NAR), which [enter cells by different transport mechanisms]:
You could look through all the information he provides and never realize that sunlight is the direct link to the ATP-dependent biosynthesis of RNA. That fact links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of ultraviolet light from constraints on the formation of galaxies to constraints on the de novo creation of genes.
Physicists and mathematicians tend to obfuscate cause and effect via their failure to start with the sun’s energy. They failed to link hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solutions like seawater and blood to all biodiversity. Simply put, physicists and mathematicians prevent scientific progress via their failure to cross disciplines.
Most serious scientists know that mathematicians and physicists cannot be trusted because they have never made any reasonable attempt to link their findings to biologically-based cause and effect.
Their plague on humanity was placed into the context of the conclusion from Physiology is rocking the foundations of evolutionary biology
Perhaps the elegant mathematics and the extraordinary reputation of the scientists involved blinded us to what now seems obvious: the organism should never have been relegated to the role of mere carrier of its genes.
See for comparison: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game
A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!