5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

2018 March for Science vs microRNAs (2)

The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight on contact with water has been linked from the creation of ATP synthase to the creation of ATP and to the creation of RNA. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair has been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency via the creation of microRNAs and feedback loops linked to the food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated physiology of reproduction. The physiology of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction biophysically constrains viral latency in the context of the creation of the innate immune system and autophagy.
See: miRNA regulation of innate immunity (4/14/18)
None of the facts about the energy-dependent creation of the microRNAs or the microRNA-mediated regulation of innate immunity are included in: The Transcription Factor Runx3 Establishes Chromatin Accessibility of cis-Regulatory Landscapes that Drive Memory Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Formation (4/17/18)
The regulatory landscape that drive memory cytotoxic T lymphocyte formation might just as well be framed in the context of magic or in the equally ridiculous context of gene-centric theories.
See this report: Your immune system holds the line against repeat invaders, thanks to this molecule

Runx3’s control of T cell differentiation is important because when our bodies fight off viruses and cancers—and our T cells burst into action—the vast majority tend to become effector cells. These effector cells are short-lived and do not persist once the infection resolves.

The control of all cell type differentiation is energy-dependent, RNA-mediated and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+ teaches the facts that link Schrödinger (1944) What is Life? to Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
In 1944, Schrödinger wrote:

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

See for comparison (this gene-centric pseudoscientific nonsense):
– Part I: FINDING THE CODE (Run time: 12:10
The race to sequence the human genome was also billed as a race to end disease. What happened?

– Part II: FIXING THE CODE (Run time: 13:07)
CRISPR — and the promise and pain of gene therapy that came before it. 

– Part III: SELLING THE CODE (Run time: 10:55)
Genetic testing has moved out of the labs into the masses. But even with your genome in hand, what can you believe?
The gene-centric pseudoscientific nonsense does not start with the creation of energy.  But every aspect of biophysically constrained life on Earth starts with the quantized energy-dependent creation of microRNAs. The epigenetically effected energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation of the “Code” and the microRNA-mediated fixing of the “Code” is missing from the claims of biologically uninformed theorists who link beneficial mutations from natural selection to evolution. They have sold their gene-centric pseudoscientific nonsense to many people.
For example, some gene-centric biologically uninformed theorists share beliefs about abiogenesis for comparison to quantized energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis in articles like this: DNA Denaturing through UV-C Photon Dissipation: A Possible Route to Archean Non-enzymatic Replication
Conclusion:

Many of the fundamental molecules of life, those common to all three domains; bacteria, eukaryote, and archea, including RNA and DNA, amino acids, enzymes, vitamins, cofactors, and protoporphyrins, absorb photons in the UV-C 1. RNA or DNA in complexes with these molecules act as acceptor quenchers, providing the electronically excited pigment donor molecule with an extremely rapid (sub picosecond) non-radiative dexcitation channel, through internal conversion into vibrational energy of the nucleic acid and surrounding water molecules2.

See John Hewitt’s comment: You have just described the founding principle and thermodynamic function of life
In a classic example of human idiocy (See Feynman: food energy), biologically uninformed science idiots linked the dissipation of quantized energy to the origin of life via abiogenesis. The creation of biophysically constrained biophotonicaly based life in the context of the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs was reported in the context of photon dissipation and entropy as: Abiogenesis: A Theory on The Origins of Life

By now, we all know how evolution works. At least, most of us have a basic understanding of how it functions. At its most fundamental level, evolution is change over time. More specifically, it is changes within a biological population over successive generations.

Ultimately, biological complexity is one of the most important things to come out of evolution. Things started simple. Then genes mutated, cells interacted with their environment, mitochondria stopped being living organisms and started being part of a cell and—Tada—complex life.

A conflict arose between John Hewitt’s accurate representations of biophysically constrained life in The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win  and few months ago, Hewitt blocked me from seeing his tweets.

The same kinds of amino acid substitutions that control the separations and interactions of side chains in fluorescent proteins also play an essential role in tuning the proposed mechanism for vibration detection—inelastic electron tunneling. Life literally runs on electron tunneling through the respiratory chain complexes in mitochondria. These proteins employ complicated mechanisms including esoteric-soundings things like electron bifurcation and confurcation to pump protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane. When mitochondria go dark, cells can often continue to run for a short while, but it is only in the dim glow of the battery backup metabolism.

Here are some links to the reason for the conflict. Simply put, John Hewitt put everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis back into the context of abiogenesis.
2005 MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing
2015 Dysregulation of microRNA biogenesis and gene silencing in cancer
2015 RNA-mediated degradation of microRNAs: A widespread viral strategy?
Claims about abiogenesis exemplify what Richard Feynman referred to as human idiocy. So does John Hewitt and anyone else who believes in Michaelian’s pseudoscientific nonsense.
See other examples of Michaelian’s pseudoscientific nonsense and human idiocy by clicking here.
The energy-dependent creation of one domain of life links the physiology of reproduction in bacteria to biophysically constrained viral latency. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA is linked to the destruction of all life on Earth.
The degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to the creation of archaea and L-forms via entropy, which clearly links the weakening of the proton motive force to the elimination of the cell wall in L-forms (the last remnants of creation).
See also: Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
If you cannot link the miRNA regulation of innate immunity to all extant biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and fixation of energy-dependent microRNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, thank a biologically uniformed science idiot.
 

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Anti-entropic sunlight: Schrödinger’s Creationist Secret? (4)

Summary: Antagonists such as John Hewitt have exhausted my patience. Now see this:

The authors invented the term “phosphate steering”  in an attempt to obfuscate what has been known to all serious scientists about oxidative phosphorylation for more than 50 years.

See: “oxidative phosphorylation” microRNA  (105 entries); “oxidative phosphorylation” (21955 entries) and “phosphate steering” (1 entry)

Compare the nonsense about phosphae steering to facts in the context of Modern diversification of the amino acid repertoire driven by oxygen (2017)
Reported on February 1, 2018 as: Quantum chemistry solves mystery why there are these 20 amino acids in the genetic code
Conclusion:

…we could characterize oxygen as the author adding the very final touch to the genetic code,” stated Moosmann.

Also reported on Feburary 2, 2018 as: Origin of Life: Quantum Chemistry Solves One of Genetics’ Biggest Mysteries Using Amino Acids From Space

Moosmann and his colleagues created a quantum chemistry model that compared amino acids on Earth to amino acids from space that had arrived via meteorites.

Conclusion:

The newer aminos’ reactivity still didn’t account for their presence in the genetic tool box to begin with. The researchers conducted additional experiments which verified their theoretical results. They found that at least three of the newer aminos—methionine, tryptophan and selenocysteine—were included in response to the rising levels of oxygen in our atmosphere. Since oxygen encourages the production of toxic-free radicals, we needed additional, nimbler amino acids to react to those free radicals and help our cells repair themselves.

Last month I advised John Hewitt against attemptng to link the creation of selenocysteine to biodiversity outside the context of the biophysical constraints on viral latency. Hewitt and many other biologically uninformed science journalists like the idea of neo-Darwinian evolution.
See why: On the unique function of selenocysteine — Insights from the evolution of selenoproteins

These evolutionary studies stem from the realization that patterns of amino acid conservation and substitution in proteins may provide important functional information.

The magic of evolutionary studies is easy compared to understanding the functional structure of supercoiled DNA in the context of the report from 2009. Hewitt likes that simple-minded ignorance compared to the difficulty of placing the structure and function of supercoiled DNA into the context of my model from 2013.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Conclusion:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

But, I digress. My point is that no experimental evidence of biophysically constrained top-down causation suggests that amino acids from space arrived on Earth via transport in meteorites. The fact that the creation of the amino acids must be linked to biophysically constrained viral latency has repeatedly been reported at every level of examination by serious scientists.
See for instance: Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
Reported as:Researchers may have solved origin-of-life conundrum

…the conditions that produce nucleic acid precursors also create the starting materials needed to make natural amino acids and lipids. That suggests a single set of [light activated] reactions could have given rise to most of life’s building blocks simultaneously.

John Hewitt’s claims can now be placed into the context of my model.
On February 3, 2018, John Hewitt tweeted:

“all the substitutions were figured out long ago by bacteria”

I replied:

Do you realize how ridiculous that sounds in the context of any other claims that you have accurately represented?

On February 4, 2018, John Hewitt wrote:

“slander me again James and you are blocked. those silly viruses were artificially engineered that way”

I’ve placed his comments about slander into the context of his past claims about viruses and energy.
1) MIT team genetically engineers a quantum virus for efficient energy transport (2015)

Although the virus has demonstrated the ability to capture and transfer light energy…

John Hewitt failed to put his reported fact about the capture of light energy into the proper context of my works. He has since been denigrating my model and peer-reviewed publications in a month-long escalation of “twitter” attacks.
Like others, he has resorted to attacks via social media, because that’s where the ignorance is. The ignorance of other theorists has typically been in his favor. But see two other news reports from John Hewitt.
2) The Excitable Mitochondria (2016) http://inference-review.com/article/the-excitable-mitochondria

By fine-tuning their fusion and fission rates, each cell maintains a large centralized mitochondrial syncytium that dispatches and recalls mitochondrial quanta to different parts of the cell.

John Hewitt joined the ranks of others who have claimed the fine-tuning is automagical. He removed consideration for the creation of  quantized energy and the virus-driven capture of quantized energy. That is how he bastardized everything known to serious scientists about energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency and healthy longevity in species from microbes to humans. But wait, he almost helped other serious scientists make progress.
3) The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win (2017)

In addition to these discoveries, Turin also just published a much more sweeping treatise on molecular recognition in olfaction in the journal Advances in Physics: X. In it, he and his co-authors delve into more of the specifics of olfactory receptors, including particular amino acid motifs, metal binding capacities, and disulphide bridge redox status. It turns out that amino acid side chains alone frequently pull off some rather interesting electron transfer effects without the need for fancy co-enzymes or prosthetic groups. Although there are only a few cases in which this has been proposed, we can take a brief anecdotal look at how this mechanism operates in other proteins.

John Hewitt likes Turin’s theory, but ignores my model, which links the creation of sunlight from the creation of quantized energy as information to the creation of ATP. Conserved molecular mechanisms in microbes link the creation of ATP to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via the creation of amino-acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of all living genera in the context of the physiology of reproduction.
See the the initial prescient support for the claims in my mode, which came from the first person who ever critiqued it:, Bruce McEwen.
Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

See also: Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems (1968) published in International Journal of Quantum Chemistry

The supplied [quantized] energy is thus not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion.

Clearly, energy-dependent biophysical constraints on the well-ordered stability of organized genomes is required for the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavioral phenotypes.
Quantum chemistry solves mystery why there are these 20 amino acids in the genetic code makes that fact perfectly clear.
But see also: Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment (2003)
and Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)
and Stability of the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype (2016)

…higher levels of these PSFs may be predictive of poor patient outcome. Finally, based on these specific examples, we deduce certain network motifs that can stabilize the hybrid E/M phenotype. Our results suggest that partial EMT, i.e. a hybrid E/M phenotype, need not be ‘metastable’, and strengthen the emerging notion that partial EMT, but not necessarily a complete EMT, is associated with aggressive tumor progression.

If you looked only at the works published by the late Eshel Ben-Jacob and his group, you would learn the difference between all serious scientists and all biologically uninformed theorists and their idiot minions: the biologically uninformed science journalists.
But for another 50-year-old historical perspective see: Non-singular general-relativistic collapse (1968) as cited in Absorption and Scattering Cross Section of Regular Black Holes Journal of Gravity (2014)
Reported as: What If the Big Bang Wasn’t the Beginning? New Study Proposes Alternative December 5, 2017

There is no empirical evidence for bouncing cosmologies today,” he said. “But there is no evidence for the initial singularity as well.

That’s two strikes against “Big Bang” cosmology before serious scientists start.
See for comparison: Non-singular quantum-inspired gravitational collapse (2013)
Biologically uninformed journalists continue to display their epic failure to understand any aspect of pattern recognition. For example, all patterns appear to be energy-dependent and the energy appears to be physically constrained in the context of gravity and and biophysically constrained in the context of all  biodiversity.
I placed that fact into the context of part three of this series.
Anti-entropic sunlight: Schrödinger’s Creationist Secret? (3)
The fact that two articles published in 1968 attest to the facts about the energy-dependent creation of ATP and RNA in McEwen et al., (1964) , links claims about human idiocy to science journalists — with John Hewitt as the best example of idiocy.
But, two days later, In an attempt to support the nonsense touted by John Hewitt, Nik Willmore added:

Replying to @jvkohl @jhewitt123

Stringing together walls of general science buzzword salad as an excuse to hurl quack insults makes you the poster boy for Pink Floyd’s album The Wall.

My response: See Andrew Jones unpublished thesis on abiogenesis and the editor’s comments on his criticisms: “…subjected to standard peer review and the revised version was accepted by me after it had been accepted by both reviewers.” Find your friends on The Dark Side of the Moon.
People like @nikwillmore and @jhewitt123 might claim that they want to see “Science” only after peer review. Most of them do not want to see anything published that refutes the pseudoscientific nonsense of their ridiculous theories. But see also: Universal Alternative Splicing of Noncoding Exons
Compare claims that “…noncoding exons are functionally modular, with alternative splicing generating an enormous repertoire of potential regulatory RNAs and a rich transcriptional reservoir for gene evolution.” See: our section on molecular epigenetics From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism…

We did not forget to mention the emergence of energy, abiogenesis, and evolution.
All serious scientists dismiss ridiculous claims. For comparison, all pseudoscientists and biologically uninformed science journalists dismiss the experimental evidence of energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency as if the experimental evidence was optional. See:  Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
See also: The real reason behind The Big Bang Theory’s ratings drop

So how come Big Bang isn’t popping the way it used to?

It’s getting eclipsed by Young Sheldon

As Cheers begot Frasier and Buffy begot Angel, The Big Bang Theory has spawned Young Sheldon. It chronicles the oft-spoken of adventures of Sheldon when he was a socially oblivious, one-of-a-kind, once-in-a-generation genius growing up in a small town with a family that didn’t understand him. Enjoying a lead-in from The Big Bang Theory, Young Sheldon was a hit right out of the gate.

This appears to be proof that most people would rather be entertained to death rather than examine the facts about the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and biophysically constrained viral latency.
See also: “You are blocked from following @jhewitt123 and viewing @jhewitt123’s Tweets. Learn more”
I do not need to learn more: See: A Few Good Man “You Can’t Handle the Truth”
See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to… autophagy.

People like John Hewitt and Nik Willmore consistently test the patience of serious scientists until the ignorance of their ridiculous theories is exposed.
See also: Phosphate steering by Flap Endonuclease 1 promotes 5′-flap specificity and incision to prevent genome instability

Phosphate steering mutations could thus be the trans-modifiers of repeat expansions during either somatic, or intergenerational transmissions in human disease65. Moreover, as the basic residues implicated in phosphate steering are largely conserved in the 5′-nuclease superfamily, control over the +1 and −1 phosphates may be a superfamily-conserved mechanism.

The authors invented the term “phosphate steering”  in an attempt to obfuscate what has been known to all serious scientists about oxidative phosphorylation for more than 50 years.
See: “oxidative phosphorylation” microRNA  (105 entries)
“oxidative phosphorylation” (21955 entries) and “phosphate steering” (1 entry)
See for comparison: Gamma oscillations organize top-down signalling to hypothalamus and enable food seeking

Cortical cognitive processing9, 10 involves gamma oscillations11, 12, 13, 14, 15, which support memory16, 17, attention18, cognitive flexibility19 and sensory responses20. These functions contribute crucially to feeding behaviour by unknown neural mechanisms. Here we show that coordinated gamma (30–90 Hz) oscillations in the lateral hypothalamus and upstream brain regions organize food-seeking behaviour in mice.

Reported as: Gamma oscillations coordinate food seeking

“Preferential and selective control of feeding-related cells by rhythmic inputs to hypothalamus demonstrates a beautiful interaction of structure and function in the brain” says Alexey Ponomarenko. “Here we see how fast synchronization, combined with a precise information transfer between brain regions and cells types, drives behaviors crucial for survival.”

The behaviors linked to species survival can be viewed in the context of this report from 2005: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
But first, serious scientists must start with the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight, which is what Schrödinger did 75 years ago.

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Predicting who wins the 2017 Nobel Prizes (7)

Conclusion: The biggest threat to humanity is not the “Big Bang” theory of creation or the “Big Bang” theory of how life on Earth might end after an explosion of cosmic proportions. The biggest threat has always been “human idiocy.”

2017 Nobel Peace Prize Awarded to International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons

“for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons.”

I am reminded of the treaties our forefathers drafted to end the wars with American Indians. See for comparison: Bill Gates warns tens of millions could be killed by bio-terrorism

“The next epidemic could originate on the computer screen of a terrorist intent on using genetic engineering to create a synthetic version of the smallpox virus … or a super contagious and deadly strain of the flu.”

On October 2, 2017 I wrongly predicted this: Bruce McEwen wins the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize  I placed my prediction into the proper context of nuclear energy and the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Although some Nobel Prize committee members may not know this, many people have since realized that the creation of energy as information links the energy of ATP to the creation of RNA. Some people also realize that the energy-dependent creation of RNA links what organisms eat from the creation of enzymes that metabolize food to the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity on Earth.
See for instance: Atomic structure reveals how cells translate environmental signals

The team identified an amino acid sequence in the leaflet that is conserved in parasites, suggesting structural insights that may assist in drug discovery for these devastating conditions.

Awarding the Nobel Peace Prize to a group that focuses on prevention of a nuclear holocaust — instead of awarding it to at least one or more people who have tried for more than 50 years to prevent the forthcoming viral apocalypse — seems to be another example of what Richard Feynman referred to as “human idiocy.”  Feynman complained about the different measures used by theorists to link energy to the ability of organisms to do work and the ability of machines to do the work that humans design and/or program them to do. His work on the “Manhattan Project” qualified him to speculate on what would become known about atomic energy and biologically-based cause and effect.
For example, the metabolism of what some bacteria eat has been linked from their biophysically constrained physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to the energy-dependent creation of uranium isotopes. When engineered and programmed to do so, uranium isotopes can be used to kill the cells that were created during energy-dependent biogenesis.
Energy-dependent biogenesis can also be compared to the ridiculous claims about abiogenesis that have been made by evolutionary theorists. Some people still claim that energy emerged from nothing and everything on Earth evolved after that. In the context of Feynman’s claim about “human idiocy,” I refer to people like that as biologically uninformed science idiots.
See for comparison: Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits
Reported as: Biologists discover electric bacteria that eat pure electrons rather than sugar, redefining the tenacity of life July 18, 2014
Subsequently reported on June 1, 2017 as: A new twist on uranium’s origin story, by CSU scientists
The biogenesis of uranium isotopes was linked to the estimates of pseudoscientists who claimed that most of the uranium they found in that unmined site is ~ 3 million years old. They also claimed it was formed by microbes that eat something that allows them to respire not on oxygen, but on uranium.
Every aspect of biophysically constrained biologically based biodiversity on Earth can be linked from what organisms eat to their energy-dependent physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction via respiration, which is akin to the human ability to breathe. For comparison, the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links the theft of quantized energy from the half-life of atomic energy to the biophysically constrained energy in soil bacteria. The biophysically constrained energy in soil bacteria has been linked to the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy.
Virus-driven fescue toxicosis links theft of quantized energy as information from the bull sperm microRNAome from to all pathology.
See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
In the last few decades, sperm have been reported to carry both RNA and microRNA to the fertilized zygote [17], [18]. MicroRNA (miRNA) are important regulators in translation, and their altered expression often leads to disease or cancer. As such, they have become popular biomarkers for diseases, cancers, or altered cellular functionality.
If the 2017 Nobel Peace Prize had been awarded to anyone who worked for the good of humanity, it would have been awarded to one of the serious scientists who has tried for at least several decades to prevent unnecessary suffering and premature death. The unnecessary suffering and premature death is caused by virus-driven energy theft and altered cellular functionality in all living genera that fail to successfully reproduce in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.
Conclusion: The biggest threat to humanity is not the “Big Bang” theory of creation or the “Big Bang” theory of how life on Earth might end after an explosion of cosmic proportions. The biggest threat has always been “human idiocy.”

Lethal virus kills 5 billion people?

Entertaining yourself to death

Summary: Food energy is required for the creation of enzymes that metabolize the food, which links the metabolism to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs, which are now called microRNAs in more than 65,000 published works. The horrid tradjedy of of yet another preventable death by suicide extends those works to preventing the cause of death of those killed by Stephen Paddock.
Vegas gunman transferred $100K, set up cameras at hotel room
Excerpts with my emphasis:

Lombardo said he is “absolutely” confident authorities will find out what set off Paddock, a 64-year-old high-stakes gambler and retired accountant who killed himself….

…speculated that there was “some sort of major trigger in his life — a great loss, a breakup, or maybe he just found out he has a terminal disease.”

…a “psychological autopsy” may be necessary to try to establish the motive. If the suicide didn’t destroy Paddock’s brain, experts may even find a neurological disorder or malformation

He said there could be a genetic component to the slaughter…

“The genetics load the gun, personality and psychology aim it, and experiences pull the trigger, typically,” Clemente said.

He later worked for a defense contractor.

“No affiliation, no religion, no politics. He never cared about any of that…

Two former facebook friends are among those who claim that “nobody cares” that I have detailed the facts about the virus-driven cause of death for Stephen Paddock and his victims. When will others learn why there was no obvious motive to his madness?
The excerpts above clearly indicate that virus-driven epigenetic drift led to the deadly constraint-breaking mutations via everything known to serious scientists about epitranscriptomics and biophysically constrained viral latency.
Simply put, like most people, Stephen Paddock failed to protect himself from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that serious scientists have linked to all pathology in all living genera. Psychiatrist/antagonist Jay R. Feierman put that fact into the context of this post to the “Evolutionary Psychology” Yahoo Group.

168958 Origin and Evolution of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase OPEN ACCESS

I find this article interesting because of the “object of study.” We are used to thinking about evolution at hierarchical levels above that of protein enzymes. Yet, protein enzymes are “structural design features” and follow the same principles of evolution by natural selection as structural design features at higher hierarchical levels, such as certain kinds of behaviors and even species. Compared to other kinds of evolution, protein enzyme evolution is very conservative in that it does not change much through phylogeny. We essentially have the same enzymes for metabolizing glucose as do bacteria and other single cell animals.

The death of Stephen Paddock and his victims can now be attributed to medical professionals, like Jay R. Feierman, and anyone else who claims: “We are used to thinking about evolution at hierarchical levels above that of protein enzymes.”
The creation of protein enzymes requires an energy source. That fact refutes every aspect of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by biologically uninformed science idiots. [An idiot is someone with no professional expertise: A biologically uninformed science idiot is someone like Feierman, who has professional expertise but no common sense.] Feierman linked to this article: Origin and Evolution of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase (with my emphasis)

With the emergence of a variant with properties of reverse transcriptase, and subsequently a DNA polymerase, a fundamental step occurred to originate the first genomes based in DNA, being the bridge to move from a RNA/Protein World to a DNA/RNA/Protein World (Gilbert, 1986; Müller, 2006). When DNA molecules emerged, by variation, other classes of polymerases appeared. With the complexification of the biological system, functions such as replication, repair, and recombination emerged, very high error rates were selected against, and the new variants arose to work in specific processes.

My summary: The authors eliminate the energy-dependent creation of enzymes (1) reverse transcriptase and (2) a DNA polymerase. In the second act of their tragic comedy routine, they eliminate the biophysical constraints that link the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction from natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to the creation of enzymes and food energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair via feedback loops.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
The feedback loops link the sense of smell in bacteria from the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity. These findings point to a neuronal network in the right temporal cortex that executes flexible temporal filtering of upstream visual inputs based on olfactory information. Moreover, they collectively indicate that the very process of sensory integration at the stage of object processing twists time perception, hence casting new insights into the neural timing of multisensory events.

Virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links alterations in the timing of multisensory events to the suicide of Stephen Paddock and to the unnecessary suffering and premature death of his victims. That fact was placed into the context of Feierman’s thinly veiled attack on the practice of Precision Medicine.
See: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference, which was presented during the Labroots: Precision Medicine Virtual Conference February 22-23. 2017
Description:

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes

Stephen Paddock killed 59 people and more than 500 people were injured. On 10/4/17, there were only 637 views of my 7 minute-long presentation. With release of the cell biology game “Cytosis,” which is scheduled to be available later this month, everyone who is not dead yet will be able to learn how to protect themselves from the cause of death by suicide: viruses. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA will also be the cause of death for people who have not learned the difference between energy-dependent healthy longevity and the virus-driven energy theft that will kill them either directly or indirectly.

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See also this comment to the human-ethology Yahoo group (reproduced below)

See for comparison: Transcription factor clusters regulate genes in eukaryotic cells

Attempts continue to link epigenetic drift and epitranscriptomics to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation outside the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. All past attempts have failed.

The reason for those attempts and the reason all past attempts have failed may require more clarification from people like Jay R. Feierman. Others realize that the enzymes linked from metabolism to survival of all species did not create themselves and did not evolve, which means that no species evolved via natural selection for beneficial mutations. Pseudoscientists have been left behind with their hypothetical scenarios.’

See for example: Origin and Evolution of RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase

“Based in the present results, we suggest a hypothetical scenario where initially a ribozyme with polymerase activity could have enhanced its activity by the binding of a simple cofactor, as magnesium (Shechner et al., 2009; Horning and Joyce, 2017), thus, exerting the functions of replication of some information stored on RNA molecules (Kim and Higgs, 2016; Tagami et al., 2017).”

See for comparison: Lipid Encapsulation of Self Replicating Ribozymes

“Despite their challenges, ribozymes have made an interesting niche for themselves in the field of abiogenesis. The evolution of a successful RNA polymerase ribozyme is a lofty goal. While its discovery would not be the be-all and end-all of abiogenesis research, it would represent an important stepping stone between prebiotic chemistry and life. The encapsulation of such a ribozyme is also an important step, as it would enable a system of heredity and evolution through natural selection. Based on progress in current research, it is only a matter of time before that ribozyme is discovered.”

I have discussed the claims about abiogenesis and ribozymes in the context of “…a system of heredity and evolution through natural selection…” with scientists who have repeatedly assured me that the claims are nothing more than examples of what Richard Feynman placed into the context of “human idiocy.” Food energy is required for the creation of enzymes that metabolize the food, which links the metabolism to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs, which are now called microRNAs in more than 65,000 published works.

See for example: miRNA as viral transcription tuners in HPV-mediated cervical carcinogenesis

Discovery of microRNAs (miRs) in recent years and differential expression of a set of specific miRs in HPV infection and cervical lesions indicate that among various regulatory mechanisms, role of these differentially expressed miRs in the post-transcriptional control is pivotal.

When will people like Feierman and Jones begin to examine the extant literature that links energy-dependent biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect as detailed in the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 review:
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
How many more people will needlessly suffer and/or die prematurely due to the ignorance and arrogance of biologically uninformed science idiots?

Hard Science vs the neo-Darwinian "magic box"

Summary: Identical nucleotide sequences link energy-dependent changes in binding sites to different amino acids in different proteins. The binding sites are conserved in the orthologous mammalian genes.

  1. The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains
  2. Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria
  3. Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

As presciently predicted in the works of Richard Feynman and Bruce McEwen, bacteria feed on something that allows them to produce uranium isotopes in the context of their food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. The link from a light-activated endogenous substrate in all cell types must be viewed in the context of energy-dependent feedback loops that link sunlight to the anti-entropic constraint of atomic energy in uranium isotopes. Chromosomal inheritance prevents the evolution of one species into another.


at futurism.com

See:  Scientists Have an Experiment to See If the Human Mind Is Bound to the Physical World

What it could mean is this: that the human mind (consciousness) isn’t made up of the same matter governed by physics. Furthermore, it could suggest that the mind is capable of overcoming physics with free will. This could potentially be the first time scientists gain a firm grasp on the problem of consciousness. “It wouldn’t settle the question, but it would certainly have a strong bearing on the issue of free will,” said Hardy.

The idea that the mind isn’t made up of matter, which is governed by the Laws of Physics is ridiculous. You cannot take such a ridiculous idea and make it meaningful via experiments. The experiment would be meaningless. All experiments must start with a rational hypothesis or something that is known. Then you must attempt to add scientific support for extending what is known to something that becomes known via your experiment. Otherwise, you start with a theory and add nothing more than another theory. You don’t get answers to any questions.
See for example: Did humans evolve in Europe rather than Africa? We don’t have the answer just yet

Charles Darwin believed that humans evolved in Africa, because that’s where our closest ape relatives the chimpanzees and gorillas live. And during the twentieth century he was vindicated through a combination of fossil and genetic discoveries.

Darwin placed his energy-dependent “conditions of life” first. .

While our place in the tree of life is now well established – chimpanzees being our closest relatives – the beginning of the human line millions of years ago continues to be shrouded in mystery.

Charles Darwin had a theory about how his “conditions of life” might be linked to biodiversity via natural selection. Others thought that his theory could be linked from natural selection to the evolution of humans from ape relatives. They claimed that Darwin thought humans evolved during millions of years of natural selection for small changes. De Vries (1902) defined the small changes as mutations. Biologically uninformed neo-Darwinian theorists still claim that mutation-driven evolution is supported by the fossil record and genetic discoveries.
See for comparison: Natural Selection on the Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in Humans and Chimpanzees
Svante Paabo is one of the paleoanthropologists who has a grasp of cell biology, which links energy to RNA-mediated biodiversity via the sense of smell. When someone with his level of expertise refutes all neo-Darwinian nonsense with experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect, how can others justify their lack of acceptance for the facts? Paabo’s facts link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to all biodiversity via the claims in Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.

See also: Engineering RGB color vision into Escherichia coli reported as: Bacterial Photography Goes Technicolor

Genetically engineered “disco bacteria” sense and respond to different colors of light, creating both stunning art in the culture dish and new possibilities for synthetic biology.

See for comparison:Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates
Who engineered the energy-dependent acquisition of RGB color vision in E. coli and full trichromatic RGB color vision in primates? What prevents the biophysically constrained loss of the engineered receptors for RGB color vision in E. coli that are linked from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to the loss of the genes that coincides with the advent of RGB (Trichromatic) color vision in primates?
Pseudoscientists might claim that evolution engineers the acquisition of all morphological and behavioral traits, but they won’t make verifiable claims about biophysical constraints or loss of the genes after the genes are created. Instead, see: Mutation-Driven Evolution.
Theorists start with genes that were somehow created and then claim:

…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations…

After the energy-dependent de novo creation of genes, genomic conservation continues to be nutrient energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. Chromosomal inheritance prevents the evolution of one species into another — unless it occurs via magic traits. In the context of mutation-driven evolution species must have magic traits.
See for example: Evolution on the fast lane—One flounder species became two

“The answer may lay in so called magic traits, meaning traits that are under selection which at the same time cause reproductive isolation as a byproduct. In theory, selection on such traits could play a central role in rapid speciation events. The mating strategies and reproductive traits of the two flounder species could act as magic traits,” clarifies Momigliano.

See for comparison: Molecular regionalization of the developing amphioxus neural tube challenges major partitions of the vertebrate brain

Reported as: Living fossil challenges thinking on brain evolution

Despite its appearance, amphioxus is not a fish. It has a primitive spinal cord which runs down its back, but no clearly defined face, no bones or jaws and a small brain with a single light-sensing “frontal eye”. It has changed so little for hundreds of millions of years that it has been described as a “living fossil”.

See for comparison to the report of a hundreds of million years-old “living fossil:” Bacteria evolve over a weekend  (video)
Serious scientists know that the bacteria that reportedly “evolved” adapted to ecological variation in their food supply. Adaptation is nutrient energy-dependent and pheromone controlled via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. It occurs over-the-weekend in P. fluorescens, but it is still reported to be mutation-driven evolution by biologically uninformed theorists.
Biologically uniformed theorists also make claims like those found here: The Physics of Everything

For comparison: This is the Physics of Everything, outside the context of the magic of evolution in the context of magic traits.

See: The in vivo structure of biological membranes and evidence for lipid domains

This approach relies on tuning the isotopic content of hydrogen within the membrane, and other parts of the bacterium, to generate neutron scattering spectra exclusively from the membrane. Using this approach, we confirmed that the structure of the B. subtilis membrane is lamellar and has an average hydrophobic thickness of 23.9 ± 0.9 Ångstroms (Å).

Average hydrophobic thickness cannot be linked from energy-dependent changes in the cell membrane to biophysically constrained cause and effect via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in any organism.
See for comparison: Scientists investigate how the sense of smell works in bacteria

…the signaling and inactive states differ only very slightly at the nitrate-binding site – by 0.5-1 angstroms, which is approximately one fifth of the size of the ion itself (1 angstrom is 10-10 meters). However, when this ion binds to the sensor, it causes huge changes in the protein: The helices of different monomers begin to move in different directions, like pistons. These “pistons” transmit the small change of 0.5-1 angstroms through the membrane, and their outer ends shift by approximately 2.5 angstroms in different directions. Inside the cell, in the HAMP domain, these shifts are converted into the rotation of two parts of NarQ relative to each other. Ultimately, the positions of the output helices change by as much as 7 angstroms, thus completing the signal transmission.

Serious scientists do not link average hydrophobic thickness from the sense of smell in bacteria to all biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans. Serious scientists link the energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in the context of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
See: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

Our data provide relative comparisons of supercoiling-dependent twisted, writhed, curved, and kinked conformations and associated base exposure. Each of these structural features may be differentially recognized by the proteins, nucleic acids, and small molecules that modulate DNA metabolic processes.

The metabolic processes are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained.

For another example of biogenic metabolic processes, see: Biogenic non-crystalline U(IV) revealed as major component in uranium ore deposits

This was reported as: A new twist on uranium’s origin story, by CSU scientists

In recent years, scientists had uncovered new evidence that bacteria – living microorganisms – could generate a different kind of reduced uranium that is non-crystalline and has very different physical and chemical properties.

…using new techniques including synchrotron radiation-based spectroscopy and isotope fingerprinting. They found that up to 89 percent of the uranium from their 650-foot-deep samples wasn’t crystalline uraninite at all, but rather, a non-crystalline uranium that was bound to organic matter or inorganic carbonate. Most of the uranium they found in that unmined site is estimated to be 3 million years old, and formed via reduction by microorganisms – microbes that respire not on oxygen, but on uranium.

They linked the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria and all other living genera to the creation of differences in the 238U to 235U isotope ratio. The differences in the 238U to 235U isotope ratio discriminate between the abiotic and biotic transformation of uranium. But, they placed their findings on abiogenesis into the context of ridiculous theories of evolution and ignored everything  known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent biotic transformation of uranium and all energy-dependent biogenesis.

For any example of how placing their results into the context of abiogenesis supports ridiculous theories about emergence and evolution, see: Uranium–lead dating

The method relies on two separate decay chains, the uranium series from 238U to 206Pb, with a half-life of 4.47 billion years and the actinium series from 235U to 207Pb, with a half-life of 710 million years.

For comparison, see: Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system

This was reported as: Evolutionary Rewiring: Strong selective pressure can lead to rapid and reproducible evolution in bacteria

NtrC shares 30 percent amino acid identity with FleQ… the re-evolved flagella enabled the bacteria to access food supplies…

Natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality links ultraviolet light (UV) to the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in P. fluorescens, which links UV light to the weekend resurrection of the flagellum because P. fluorescens fluoresces with exposure to UV light.

Differences in the nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link differences in supercoiled DNA to the protection of all organized genomes from viruses. Virus-driven energy theft causes the degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.

See Feynman’s comments about food energy:

Could any other physicist but Feynman have guessed that bacteria feed on something that allows them to produce uranium isotopes in the context of their food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction?

Could any other molecular biologist but Bruce McEwen have linked an endogenous substrate from the energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity in all living genera?

See also: The Binding Sites of miR-619-5p in the mRNAs of Human and Orthologous Genes

Binding sites of miR-619-5p in the 3’UTRs of all human target genes are also present in the 3’UTRs of orthologous genes of mammals. The completely complementary binding sites for miR-619-5p are conservative in the orthologous mammalian genes.

CONCLUSIONS:(with my emphasis)

The majority of miR-619-5p binding sites are located in the 3’UTRs but some genes have miRNA binding sites in the 5’UTRs of mRNAs. Several genes have binding sites for miRNAs in the CDSs that are read in different open reading frames. Identical nucleotide sequences of binding sites encode different amino acids in different proteins. The binding sites of miR-619-5p in 3’UTRs, 5’UTRs and CDSs are conservative in the orthologous mammalian genes.

To help differentiate between evolution and adaptation in the context of natural selection for food energy-dependent codon optimality in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduciton, see: Metrics of assay accuracy

Neo-Darwinian evolution occurs only in the context of this “Magic Box” example. Each time you look at the “+” sign on the box, you are taught to believe in evolution.

For comparison, see: The Emerging View of Aging as a Reversible Epigenetic Process

This evidence supports the idea that progressive epigenetic dysregulation may be the key driver of organismal aging and challenges the conventional view of aging as an irreversible process. The model of aging as an epigenetic process provides an elegant explanation of a number of age-related processes difficult to explain by conventional theories of aging.

Conventional theories of aging have failed to link the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biodiversity via biophysically constrained chromosomal inheritance. That’s how conventional theories left all of humanity waiting for cures that will never become available. Biologically uninformed theorists still do not know how protein folding chemistry is linked from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity via cell type differentiation or from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology.
See: Genome editing: That’s the way the CRISPR crumbles
Review of A Crack in Creation: Gene Editing and the Unthinkable Power to Control Evolution This title will be released on June 13, 2017.

Not since the atomic bomb has a technology so alarmed its inventors that they warned the world about its use.

June 14, 2013 Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’.

 June 14, 2013 Mutation-Driven Evolution

(1) Mutation is the source of all genetic variation on which any form of evolution is dependent. Mutation is the change of genomic structure and includes nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion, segmental gene duplication, genomic duplication, changes in gene regulatory systems, transposition of genes, horizontal gene transfer, etc. (2) Natural selection is for saving advantageous mutations and eliminating harmful mutations. Selective advantage of the mutation is determined by the type of DNA change, and therefore natural selection is an evolutionary process initiated by mutation. It does not have any creative power in contrast to the statements made by some authors.

 

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Hypothesis free pseudoscience vs facts (3)

Nobel-Winning DNA Research Challenges Evolutionary Theory

In 2015, three scientists won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for decades of research into DNA—research that reinforces the idea that evolution is mythology and makes the modern evolutionary theory of abiogenesis seem more and more indefensible. It turns out that DNA is inherently unstable, and the preservation of genetic information requires a complex symbiotic relationship between the cell and DNA that is so interdependent that neither could have arisen independently of the other.

See also: Announcements of the 2016 Nobel Prizes
Physiology or Medicine:
Monday 3 October, 11:30 a.m. at the earliest
Physics:
Tuesday 4 October, 11:45 a.m. at the earliest
Chemistry:
Wednesday 5 October, 11:45 a.m. at the earliest
See the latest information on the cure for all pathology. Injecting live virus in brain tumors may fight cancer, study suggests
This is akin to “RNA-guided human genome engineering

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

The links from physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation force cell types to respond, if at all possible, with energy-dependent DNA repair. For example, the innate immune system links nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from fixation of amino acid substitutions in bacteria to the structure and function of human supercoiled DNA, which protects our organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
The injection of a live virus is one of the best examples of an evolutionary theory killer I have seen. It can be placed into the context of “Arrowsmith” by Sinclair Lewis (1925). The Pulitzer Prize winning novel was published in the same year that neo-Darwinian theorists won the right to continue bastardizing Darwin’s theory and represent it as an example of mutation-driven evolution instead of Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
Darwin’s “conditions of life” support the representations of how energy-dependent viral latency is achieved and how a new human subspecies might arise from other primates in the context of ecological variation, which obviously must be linked to ecological adaptation of increasing organismal complexity via facts about conserved molecular mechanisms.
See for contrast this attempt to discuss biologically-based cause and effect.
See also: Frizzled proteins are colonic epithelial receptors for C. difficile toxin B
Reported as: Researchers reveal how dangerous intestinal toxin enters cells
See also: Research sheds light on mechanism that leads to drug-resistant superbugs
See also: Targeting the Noncoding Genome with CRISPR
My comment to the Scientist (one of 365)

The promoter and enhancer elements that regulate these genes are of interest because loss-of-function mutations related to each have been previously linked to resistance to vemurafenib, a drug used to treat BRAF V600E-mutated metastatic melanoma.

Loss of function mutations that link virus-driven energy theft in bacteria to all pathology in all living genera were reported to be the link to all biodiversity in this 2013 textbook. Mutation-Driven Evolution

Conclusion:  “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world. In this view of evolution there is no need of considering teleological elements (p. 199).”

Viruses steal quantised energy from cells to replicate. One amino acid substitution is all that is required to increase the thermodynamic stability of a virus. That requires a nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution to be fixed in the organized genomes of any species that survives the energy theft.The survivors are examples of biophysically constrained viral latency until stress-linked constraint-breaking mutations finally overcome the innate immune system’s ability to constrain the viruses.I could continue to repeat myself and link quantised energy from chemical ecology to the biophysically constrained energy-dependent creation of the soul. Alternatively, others will keep telling you parts of what is known to all serious scientists, which is that there is no such thing as mutation-driven evolution.
In any case, the 2016 Nobel Prizes are going to be announced soon. We can all be relatively certain we will continue to see more neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory killers. No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has ever supported the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinism. And I don’t know if the Prize in Physiology or Medicine has been awarded to a theorist since the time of Lorenz and Tinbergen, but it certainly has not bee since Axel and Buck (2004).
I haven’t followed the prizes, just the experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect.
See for example:


See also this message from my attempt to respond to comments on the FB page of pseudoscientist Andrea Kuszewski, who blocked me for challenging her and others on their anti-Trump sentiments. Some of the same experimental evidence I just cited was included in my posts to her page. But no one seemed to understand why I mentioned the 2015 and 2016 Nobel Prizes as an indicator of how far pseudoscientific politicians have fallen behind the evidence that supports the beliefs of creationists such as Dr. Ben Carson.
 

amino acid homeostasis

Checkpoint checkmate: viruses lose if conditions of life win

Akt Kinase-Mediated Checkpoint of cGAS DNA Sensing Pathway

Introduction:

Innate immune receptors detect pathogens through pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and then elicit an immune response (Elinav et al., 2011, Medzhitov and Janeway, 2000). These germ-line-encoded pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) monitor extracellular, endosomal, and intracellular compartments for molecular signatures of microbial infection or the sometimes overlapping molecular triggers produced by abnormal, damaged, or dying cells (Latz, 2010).

Reported as: Anti-viral immune response mechanism!
Excerpt:

This study identifies an Akt kinase-mediated checkpoint to fine-tune hosts’ immune responses to DNA stimulation.

My comment: The idea of “DNA sensing” should be placed into the context of how sensing “evolved.”
Viruses could then be linked to signals across the breadth and depth of metabolic networks to genetic networks in all living genera.
Ideas about biologically-based cause and effect could then be compared in the context of the magic of evolution. For example, neo-Darwinian theorists assume that conserved molecular mechanisms of signaling, secreting, and DNA sensing that link atoms to ecosystems concurrently arose and that life automagically emerged via abiogenesis.