Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (1)

Excerpt: Summaries of mutation categories: The summaries attest to the fact that human interethnic biodiversity can be linked to all biodiversity via the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which link autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Immune Issue

…the findings are “not a show stopper, but the field needs to know about this…

Investors are stopping the Zhang-Church-Doudna show. Some were prepared to invest in energy-dependent RNA interference, which biophysically constrains viral latency.The way forward was predicted in 1999 with publication of RNA-triggered gene silencing and revisited with publication of Get Well in the RNAi Way-RNAi, A Billion Dollar Baby in Therapy

RNAi based drugs have now advanced steps closer towards clinical trials. The powerful in-vivo RNAi machinery and its delicate factors apprehend that RNAi-dependent therapies might create a billion dollar business against the pathogenic organisms and disease for which treatment options are currently restricted conventionally.

Food energy-dependent microRNA-mediated amino acid substitutions biophysically constrain viral latency and all serious scientists know that.
See: The tipping point (revisited): 68,000 publications

The “…miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism…” links the National Microbiome Initiative to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to all healthy longevity or to all virus-driven pathology in all living genera via differences in energy as information.

See for another example: A homozygous founder missense variant in arylsulfatase G abolishes its enzymatic activity causing atypical Usher syndrome in humans

The identified variant affected a fully conserved amino acid that is part of the catalytic site of the enzyme.

Reported as: Biochemists confirm existence of theoretical genetic disorder

Now that the cause of the symptoms is known [i.e., the loss of the conserved amino acid substitution], it is possible to think about an enzyme replacement therapy for the patients [whose symptoms are obviously caused by the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links the missense variation and all other mutations to all pathology via the loss of fixed amino acid substitutions in all living genera].

The enzyme replacement therapy would not be required in the context of what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera. See for examples of what is known about the conserved amino acid substitution on page 19 of this sample report. The creation of CYP enzymes clearly links the food that people eat to healthy longevity. Alternatively, the virus-driven theft of quantized energy can be linked to the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology, which traditional medicine has attempted to treat with pharmaceuticals and/or surgery.
Alpha Genomix download a Sample report
See for details of how biophysically constrained viral latency is linked from the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to all biodiversity in the context of a model that links atoms to ecosystems and refutes all theoretical pseudoscientific nonsense.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems 4/10/14

…the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review [30].

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China.

————————-

30) Kohl, J. V., Nutrient–dependent / pheromone–controlled adaptive evolution: a model. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology 2013, 3. doi: 10.3402/snp.v3i0.20553

162) Kamberov, Yana G.; Wang, S.; Tan, J.; Gerbault, P.; Wark, A.; Tan, L.; Yang, Y.; Li, S.; Tang, K.; Chen, H., et al., Modeling Recent Human Evolution in Mice by Expression of a Selected EDAR Variant. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 691-702. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.016

163 Grossman, Sharon R.; Andersen, Kristian G.; Shlyakhter, I.; Tabrizi, S.; Winnicki, S.; Yen, A.; Park, Daniel J.; Griesemer, D.; Karlsson, Elinor K.; Wong, Sunny H., et al., Identifying Recent Adaptations in Large-Scale Genomic Data. Cell 2013, 152 (4), 703-713. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2013.01.035

The naturally selected food energy-dependent EDAR variant and two amino acid substitutions have since been linked to human interethnic biodiversity in the context of other energy-dependent RNA-mediated fixation of all amino acids in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.
See: Brief report: Geographic variation in EGFR mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma may be explained by interethnic genetic variation  The full article can be downloaded from here:
G180A (aka ABCC11, Gly180Ala) and V370A (aka 1540T/C, 370A or Val370Ala) are established biomarkers of East Asian ancestry. Taken together, the two amino acid substitutions clearly linked rs17822931 and rs3827760 respectively to other food energy-dependent changes in base pairs via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and biophysically constrained interethnic biodiversity in a human population.
Val370Ala is a single nucleotide polynmorphism (SNP) in the ectodysplasin A receptor (EDAR) gene on chromosome 2. The adaptive variant links food energy-dependent changes in immunity from the mouse model to human biodiversity via autophagy, the innate antiphage defense mechanism.
Eighteen years ago, Gly180Ala was linked from the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA and all food energy-dependent  hemoglobin variants via the publication of Rotation of F(1)-ATPase and the hinge residues of the beta subunit

The mean work done by a 120 degrees step was approximately 80 pN nm, a value close to the free energy liberated by hydrolysis of one ATP molecule, implying nearly 100% efficiency of energy conversion. The torque is probably generated by the beta subunit, which undergoes large opening-closing domain motion upon binding of AT(D)P. We identified three hinge residues, betaHis179, betaGly180 and betaGly181, whose peptide bond dihedral angles are drastically changed during domain motion. Simultaneous substitution of these residues with alanine resulted in nearly complete loss (99%) of ATPase activity.

Simply put, the Val370Ala and Gly180Ala substitutions exemplify how the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight is biophysically constrained by the substitution of achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide and the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of other amino acid substitution that differentiate all cell types in all living genera. In humans.
For example, more than 1700 hemoglobin variants have bee linked to interethnic bidiversity and to primate species biodiversity via the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of one or more amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

See for updates: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [INsertions/DELetionS] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

The nucleotide substitutions are food energy-dependent. The virus-driven theft of quantized energy causes the deletions. Ecological variation links the ability to find food to ecological adaptations only in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency during the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy morphological and behavioral phenotypes.
See also: HbVar: A Database of Human Hemoglobin Variants and Thalassemias: Summaries of mutation categories
The summaries attest to the fact that food energy-dependent human interethnic biodiversity can be linked to all biodiversity via the creation of enzymes and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which link autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Re: Monetization of these facts: First, consider short-selling the stocks of companies that have built their capitalization on ridiculous claims that link mutations to evolution. Those claims disappeared with release of the cell biology game “Cytosis.”
Next, buy or lease one — or all three — of the following domains from the owner / founder of the only domains that have continued to disseminate the facts about pheromone constrained viral latency, since 1995 (which is when I founded Pheromones.com). Then RNA-mediated.com. Then Autophagy.pro.
If you have any doubts about what your future holds, see:

 
 

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The "walking fish" walks straight from quantum physics to quantum souls (2)

Summary: Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.

Application of RNAi and Heat-shock-induced Transcription Factor Expression to Reprogram Germ Cells to Neurons in C. elegans 1/01/2018

Summary

This protocol describes how to study cellular processes during cell fate conversion in Caenorhabditis elegans in vivo. Using transgenic animals,allowing heat-shock promoter-driven overexpression of the neuron fate-inducing transcription factorCHE-1 and RNAi-mediated depletion of the chromatin-regulating factor LIN-53germ cell to neuron reprogramming can be observed in vivo.

Cell fate conversion is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which links biophysically constrained viral latency to the differences in C. elegans and P. pacificus, a predatory nematode with teeth.
System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
Food energy arises only in the context of the creation of  The Immensity of the milky way…(video)

The facts that link sunlight on contact with water in this video from pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity on Earth via the physiology of reproduction have been largely ignored since the time this article was published [in Russian] in 1994. [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7995515

Non-human primates are the best example of how subatomic particles protect humans from all pathology in the context of food energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that links microRNAs to fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See: Five reasons we’re excited by how structural biology is advancing cancer research Posted on 15 June, 2017

A protein model is built into an electron density map, amino acid by amino acid. The result is a snapshot of the protein or protein complex at work. Image courtesy of Dr Sebastian Guettler.

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
See also: One amino acid substitution differentiates humans and chimpanzees from gorillas.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla (p. 127).

Humans And Chimps Differ At Level Of Gene Splicing (2007)
Comic relief for the biologically informed. Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear
Comic relief for seniors.
For serious scientists: Single-residue insertion switches the quaternary structure and exciton states of cryptophyte light-harvesting proteins

Using X-ray crystallography, we show that cryptophyte PBPs adopt one of two quaternary structures, open or closed. The key feature of the closed form is the juxtaposition of two central chromophores resulting in excitonic coupling. The switch between forms is ascribed to the insertion of a single amino acid in the open-form proteins. Thus, PBP quaternary structure controls excitonic coupling and the mechanism of light harvesting. Comparing organisms with these two distinct proteins will reveal the role of quantum coherence in photosynthesis.

The fact that a single amino acid substitution links energy-dependent changes in base pairs from electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera continues to be ignored by pseudoscientists and all theorists.
For comparison see: QuEBS 2018: Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems

…has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.

 
For God and Country

Trump challenges the CDC to remember 9/11

Synopsis: If you do not understand the experimentally established facts… use caution if you attempt to compare the President of the USA to Hitler. If you tell me I am being disrespectful or condescending,  you may be more embarrassed than Nobel Laureate, Jack Szostak, and be subjected to more ridicule than Neil deGrasse Tyson, who was politely called a big ass by the research group that published Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA (2015)
Federal Officials and Scientists Respond to Purported CDC Word Ban

…it seems that The Scientist has been highjacked by people that believes that science is fighting Republicans and promoting liberal ideas, right or wrong. For those that were not even born then, most of the advances in medicine and biology occurred during the war of cancer that President Richard Nixon initiated and supported. –dmarciani

Since then, the evolved use of meaningless words, such as evolved, and the use of meaningless phrases by the Center for Disease Control (CDC) has left the citizens of the United States of America (USA) comparatively unprotected from the forthcoming world-wide viral apocalypse. The last one (in 1918) killed ~50 million people.
See: Bill Gates warns that a new kind of terrorism could be coming, and the ‘potential damage is very, very huge’
The biologically uninformed masses know nothing about how viruses kill, or how fast they kill.  Most people know little or nothing about viruses in vaccines, which may be slow killers. That explains why, on the eve of the 100th anniversary of the year of the 1918 viral terror, the Trump administration is being criticized by non-scientists and pseudoscientists. Researchers who are biologically uniformed science idiots have helped to bankrupt the economy of the USA by submitting proposals for research that include meaningless words and phrases. The biologically uninformed masses (who are not idiots) have not learned the difference between pseudoscience and science, because they have been taught to believe in mutation-driven evolution. The difference between a scientific truth about ecological varaiation and ecological adaptation for comparison to pseudoscientific nonsense can be placed into the context of words, such as: “vulnerable,” “entitlement,” “diversity,” “transgender,” “fetus,” “evidence-based” “science-based” “fetus” and “transgender”
With one exception, none of these words or phrases has anything to do with the purpose of the CDC, which is largely to protect the USA from virus-driven pathology. For comparison, the difference between food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions and mutations, which are caused by the virus-driven theft of quantized energy-as-information, clearly shows why USA Patriots for Donald Trump want to change what’s happening at the CDC.
See also: Trump administration forbids CDC officials from using 7 words and phrases

The claims of Trump-haters cut to the heart of the disrespect some people show for the President of the USA — and also the disrespect they show for the serious scientists who support him. As a medical laboratory scientist, I can point out the difference that one letter in one word makes to help other USA Patriots for Donald Trump understand what is known about how to protect us all from the next viral apocaplyse.
 
 
WORD→WORE→GORE→GONE→GENE. Implicit in this analogy is the idea that epistasis constrains evolution—for example, the original parent sequence does not tolerate three of the four eventual changes, as GORD, WERD and WOND are not words.
 
Serious scientists know that proteins do not evolve and that viruses do not automagically mutate! Similarly, the serious scientists known that new words, such as GORD, WERD and WOND are not created outside the context of biophysically constrained viral latency. Simply put, new words are not created, and new genes are not created from changes in base pairs outside the context of biophysically constrained viral latency at the level of energy-dependent base editing of food energy-dependent ACTG-linked changes in amino acid substitutions.
 
 
Trump knows that the CDC has virtually ignored the facts about food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions via the use of these meaningless words: “vulnerable,” “entitlement,” “diversity,” “transgender,” “fetus,” “evidence-based” “science-based” “fetus” and “transgender.”

In the language of serious scientists, these words cannot be linked to what happens when the virus-driven theft of quantized energy causes a change in one base pair that leads to one amino acid substitution in a virus. Simply put, the change in the virus is linked to constraint breaking mutations. And the change in a virus causes all pathology in all cells of all hosts. Eventually, all human hosts die from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.

Trump knows that. He also knows that viruses cause suicide and glioblastoma in veterans who have served overseas. (SARCASM ALERT: That does not mean he is required to tell John McCain.)  But, the facts have been discussed in the context of articles published in the American Legion Magazine.

It is a wonder that everyone does not know about the virus-driven activation of the death gene, since the death gene was discovered about 20 years ago by researchers at Abcam. Since then the discovery has been linked to this report:  Redox-sensitive alteration of replisome architecture safeguards genome integrity.

See also: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene.

Whose going to explain how John McCain gets cured — if he is not sacrificed for the sake of the CDC?

If you are easily bored by details but want to learn about what science advisors are telling President Trump, see: Epigenetic modifications poster (Just kidding. If you are bored by the details you won’t look at the details in the poster.) Instead, you are more likely to compare the President of the United States to Hitler, when Trump knows enough about epigenetics to try and help all serious scientists to protect us from the next viral apocalypse, and to protect us from the practice of corporate medicine, which is an assault on our freedom.

Epistasis biophysically constrains viral latency. The constraints are food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled. All serious scientists have known that since this article was published in 1994. [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)]

Two of Eugene Daev’s subsequent works cited my award-winning publications, yet I have been unfriended on Facebook by many who will continue to not face the facts known to Trump and to all serious scientists in the world.

See for example: Chemosignals from isolated females have antimutagenic effect in dividing the cells of bone marrow from male mice of the CBA strain (2014)

Humans also have various pheromone-induced physiological effects, especially those associated with reproduction [46, 47]. This suggests that the human olfactory system is still an effective pathway for influencing environmental factors on the human nervous system.

[46] is Kohl, J.V., Atzmueller, M., Fink, B., and Grammer, K., Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, Neuroendocrinol. Lett., 2001, vol. 22, pp. 309–321.
See also:  Effect of two pyrazine-containing chemosignals on cells of bone marrow and testes in male house mice (Mus musculus L.)

The induction of genetic instability leading to a higher genetic heterogeneity in cells of vital tissues and organs may differentially change
the fitness of animals and their progeny. Such olfactory effects can affect rates of microevolutionary transformations [5]. With regard to the conservatism and the significant role of the chemical communication in a wide range of mammals, including Homo sapiens [25], we believe extremely promising the study of genetic mechanisms underlying regulation of reproduction and immunity by volatiles that work through the olfactory system.

25 is Kohl, J.V., The Mind’s Eyes, J. Psychol. Human Sexual., 2007, vol. 18, pp. 313–369. (Concurrently published as this award-winning book chapter from the Handbook of the Evolution of Human Sexuality: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences.)
My former FB friends and others have the freedom to claim that I am a crank, because veterans suffered and died to protect your freedom.
See for contrast:  One crank dies, another rises to take his place
I have the freedom to continue to defend the country from the claims of biologically uniformed science idiots (i.e., PZ Myers) and anyone who compares Trump to Hitler.

BANNED: CDC Gets List Of ‘Forbidden Words’ From The Trump Administration

Activists immediately accused the Administration of censorship, even hysterically comparing the Administration’s move to Orwell’s “1984” and Adolf Hitler’s efforts to control information in Nazi Germany.

Despite the CDC’s own director, Dr. Brenda Fitzgerald, insisting the ban did not extend beyond the scope of a handful of budget documents, it was immediately clear to Democrats that the Trump Administration was moving to throttle all scientific research.

Find out who might benefit from a move to throttle all scientific research.
See: Alphagenomix.com and download this sample report. On page 19, the interpretation of results is placed into the context of the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes that are altered by drug therapies. The Trump administration was virtually forced to alter the funding process at CDC by the fact that Jack Szostak’s works with others led to retractions. They thought enzymes could create themselves. Two retractions in 10 years led to the embarrassment of all biologically uninformed theorists.
See “Retraction watch”

  1. A Nobel Laureate has retracted a 2016 paper in Nature Chemistry that explored the origins of life on earth, after discovering the main conclusions were not correct.
  2. In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

The problem with ridiculous complacency-based beliefs has plagued serious scientists for decades. It was recently placed into the context of claims made by the former President of the USA.

Obama warns of complacency, notes rise of Hitler

Despite the democracy of the Weimar Republic, Adolph Hitler rose to power, he continued.

“Sixty million people died. … So, you’ve got to pay attention. And vote.”

While some could see the remark as a veiled jab at President Trump, Obama did not mention Trump by name during the event, according to the newspaper.

Now, the claims others are making link Obama’s claims to complaints about the fact that Trump took actions against the misinformation coming from the CDC. The complaints are predictably linked to Hitler’s censorship via: Godwin’s Law 

(or Godwin’s rule of Hitler analogies)[1][2] is an Internet adage that asserts that “As an online discussion grows longer, the probability of a comparison involving Hitler approaches 1”;[2][3] that is, if an online discussion (regardless of topic or scope) goes on long enough, sooner or later someone will compare someone or something to Adolf Hitler or his deeds.

The former President of the USA was caught in a thinly veiled attack on President Trump, and that attack was based on Obama’s ignorance — or based on his motives. What motives? Godwin’s Law existe only the context of pseudoscientific nonsense. That nonsense includes nothing known to the serious scientists who are physicists, chemists, biologists, or polymaths ( e.g., some medical laboratory scientists).
See for comparison: Caught in the act: Papillomaviruses promote non-melanoma skin cancer November 30, 2017

…papillomaviruses associated with UV light promote the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. The investigators provide an explanation why the viruses can be detected in benign human cancer precursors but not in advanced carcinoma.

Everyone is infected with skin-typical (“cutaneous”) human papillomaviruses (HPV) at some point in their lives, usually in early childhood already. In healthy people, the immune system can fight off the viruses, but this often changes in older age.

Those claims about biophysically constrained viral latency were used as the basis for development and use of the HPV vaccine at a time when all serious scientists knew this: “The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.” Did I mention that before more than 60 times? See: Search Results for “The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site”
The anti-entropic effect of virucidal sunlight links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity. That fact was presciently detailed in “What is Life?” (1944).

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.) (pp. 73 and 74)

The fact that virucidal light links the food energy-dependent biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to epistasis was placed into the context of this 2016 video representation:
What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy (6:37) Published on 30 Mar 2016

Abstract:

The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

If you do not understand the experimentally established facts from this presentation, please use caution if you attempt to compare the President of the USA to Hitler. If you tell me I am being disrespectful or condesending,  you may be more embarrassed than Nobel Laureate, Jack Szostak, and be subjected to more ridicule than Neil deGrasse Tyson, who was politely called a big ass by the research group that published Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA.
All structural diversity is energy-dependent and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links feedback loops from biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity in all living genera.

See also:
Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.
The CDC has failed to link light-harvesting in biological systems from excitons to protection of organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in species from bacteria to humans.
That is why Trump is again being compared to Hitler. The biologically uninformed masses failed to perceive the CDC’s censorship. The CDC censorship of works published by serious scientists who have linked physics, chemistry and biology to healthy longevity via the anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of RNA and enzymes has nearly bankrupted the USA due to the costs of health care.
Who will admit that they were fooled by the use of words? Most people think they are more intelligent than that. But most intelligent people can be fooled by pseudoscientists if the pseudoscientists claim to have reached a consensus. But, what other countries base their healthcare policies on the consensus about theories of neo-Darwinists and “Big Bang” cosmologists? What other agencies can be compared to the CDC and our NIH?
See also: Science’s credibility crisis: why it will get worse before it can get better 

Several other instances of bad science have gained attention in the media. The problems in “priming research”, relevant to marketing and advertising, prompted Nobel Prize winner Daniel Kahneman to issue a publicised statement of concern about the wave of failed replication.

And a study on “power poses”, which claimed that body posture influences a person’s hormones level and “feelings of power” went first viral on TED when it was published – then again when its replication failed.

We are observing two new phenomena. On the one hand doubt is shed on the quality of entire scientific fields or sub-fields. On the other this doubt is played out in the open, in the media and blogosphere.

I dedicate this effort from the blogosphere to an attempt to reduce the tensions among those who have offered their overwhelming support for the efforts of the American Legion and the American Legion Riders who ride for God and Country.
See also The American Legion Magazine. The December 2017 issue contains another article about the stress-linked reactivation of viruses. This time its about the virus that causes shingles. When the issue is available online, see “Reactivation” by Beth W. Orenstein, and link biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity via the food you eat and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.  Ask yourself “What would President Trump do?” And remember, your donations to the American Legion don not support corporate medical practices. They are used to help those who served their country and lived to continue protecting your freedom. Remember them, and everyone who has ever died trying to protect others.
 
–by Wade Youmans (Read 9/09/17 before the 9/11 Memorial Ride of the American Legion Riders–pictured above)
Remembrance
It is a moral obligation, yea indeed, a most solemn moral and spiritual duty.
To remember.
To remember is to hold fast to that which is truly important, that which is precious in the wisdom of the heart and mind.
By remembering and reflecting, upon things, objects, individual persons, anything material and physical, Which is no more, that which is no more in the mortal sense is yet sustained and can endure.
Far better to remember and reflect, even if that is painful for the heart and mind.
To forget, to blissfully disregard and discard, is a disservice to that which is gone, and ’tis a disservice to one’s own heart and mind.
For remembrance is a needful, essential endeavor for the vitality of the heart and mind, for the whole of the human spirit.

See also: ‘Whatever it took to save lives’ 

Black chicken wire over the bus windows. The odor, the heat, the tropical humidity.

“All the wounded are in the emergency room. They’re sending these sick guys to my unit. They were dehydrated. They were dirty. There was vomit. Wounds weren’t visible, but their suffering was acute and there wouldn’t be any Purple Hearts passed out for their near-death experience.

Nature’s magic helps veterans in transition

Nature’s magic” was placed into the context of the evolution of differences in H2. See: https://phys.org/news/2017-11-chemists-reveal-mechanism-dihydrogen-production.html

 
Excerpt: “This work is a critical step toward a mechanistic understanding of the nitrogenase enzyme. There is still work to be done to understand the mechanism of the other H2 evolution process that leads to N2 binding, activation, and reduction to NH3.”
 
Please help serious scientists stop those who are still touting the magic of evolution by learning how autophagy helps to protect all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
 

Autophagy is the link from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the creation of enzymes and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which has been linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.  For example, food energy links error-free DNA repair to all healthy longevity and the virus-driven theft of quantized energy links mutations to all pathology.

Keep in mind that as a member of the American Legion Riders, I ride for God and Country, not for Nature’s magic. Also, with 40 years experience as a medical laboratory scientist, I learned enough about the potential of hydrogen (pH) to realize that the potential did not “evolve.”

See also: https://aeon.co/essays/science-and-metaphysics-must-work-together-to-answer-lifes-deepest-questions
Metaphysics of metamorphosis

The swarming, ever-changing character of the living world challenges our deepest assumptions about the nature of reality

Excerpt: …‘physiologists in general never trouble themselves about such things because they suppose themselves to be above “metaphysics” when in fact they are only a very little above it – being up to the neck in it’.
Those who have failed to link the metaphysics of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency, have failed to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to the death gene by what is known to serious scientists.
For example, see: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166303/
When a member of the American Legion suffers and prematurely dies from the same virus-caused pathology that has not yet claimed the life of John McCain, ask yourself what is known about the life and death of all veterans who served overseas. Stop letting politics kill more veterans.
Support the Trump administrations efforts to make America great, again. They can do it without your support, but that probably will not end well for you. This is not about Trump’s behavior or about the behavior of anyone else.

An antagonist from Canada complained about Trump’s so-called censorship of the CDC and said his “tactics” didn’t work in Canada. I claim that similar tactics are always effective. The truth hurts but it only hurts those who believed they could keep touting pseudoscientific nonsense. Not only did Canadians get rid of the “transgender” nonsense, they helped to nearly stop James Cantor from promoting pedophilia as another form of sexual orientation.
 

See: Infamous Reparative Therapy Clinic For Transgender Youth Set To Close
Two years ago, I wrote:

The misrepresentations of the issues are out of control.

Excerpt: GIC’s “developmental model” was backwards. It blamed symptoms like depression and anxiety on the gender non-conforming behavior itself, rather than on the stigma attached to it or the conflict of not being able to fulfill one’s gender identity. This philosophy allowed the clinic to claim it was treating these negative mental health outcomes without affirming the trans behavior.”

My comment: They never had a developmental model. At best they had a philosophy based on ridiculous theories that never included anything known to serious scientists about the biological basis of cell type differentiation. These clinicians, like most sex researchers, never learned anything about links from nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events to behavior.

For example, RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link sexual orientation in yeasts to sex differences in the morphological and the behavioral phenotypes of humans via conserved molecular mechanisms. We detailed that fact in the context of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review.

Despite the extension of our molecular epigenetics section and the model of hormone-organized and hormone-activated developmental differences across species from insects to other primates, psychologists and many psychiatrists continued to link their philosophies and theories to damaging practices.

Like the practice of medicine, outcomes are more predictable if they are based on what is known about RNA-mediated cell type differences. Fixation of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in some patient populations compared to others allows clinicians to predict whether a medication will do more harm than good in the context of what is known about pharmacogenomics and precision medicine. Fixation of RNA-amino acid substitutions in individuals of different species is also linked to their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproductive sexual behavior in species from microbes to man.

That fact has been known to serious scientists for several decades. It is the reason that other careers will be ruined until people like Ken Zucker accept the our model of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation instead of continuing to ignore details of the biologically-based development of personal preferences published in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996).

 

 

 
 
 
 

 

 

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Mouse morphs and primate diversity in 50 years

Excerpt:

Analysis of the crystal structure of deer mouse Hb at 1.8 Å resolution (24, 25) revealed that each of the eight rHb mutants is characterized by a unique constellation of hydrogen bonds within and between subunits (Table 2 and fig. S2). Additional hydrogen bonds between subunits of the same αβ dimer are formed in the presence of β128Ser (an L-type residue; fig. S2), which contributes to the observed epistasis between allelic α- and β-chain variants.

———————————
Energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency (i.e., silencing of viral elements) protects all organized genomes from the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology. The mutations are caused by nutritional stress and/or social stress. That fact has been known to all serious scientists for at least 50 years. But see:
Silencing of viral elements: A cure for schizophrenia? ARTICLE Provisionally accepted

1. The problem.
Scientific evidence for various infectious agents as cause for psychosis in schizophrenia is not robust. Many pathogens that influence brain development might play a role in disease causation. It has been shown that influenza exposure before birth(Brown, 2012), exposure to herpes simplex during birth(Brown et al., 2011) or exposition to Toxoplasma gondii and other pathogens (Arias et al., 2012) increases risk for schizophrenia and/or compromises cognition. During psychosis viral and also ancient retroviral elements become may activated in the brain(Karlsson et al., 2001; Perron et al., 2012). The implication of this research for use in clinical practice is ambiguous, because a robust virus test is lacking.

Examples of human idiocy are the problem. See for comparison:

QuEBS workshop has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has been developed in Lithuania for more than 20 years already. The beginnings could be associated with a series of “Light-harvesting Physics” international conferences, which were held in Lithuania (in Preila, 1992 and 1994, and in Birštonas, 1996). During these conferences, discussion of notable scientists and pioneers of Quantum Biology, such as Graham R. Fleming, Shaul Mukamel, Rienk van Grondelle, Richard Cogdell, Alfred Holzwarth and others, established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.

Every aspect of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated life on Earth has refuted the pseudoscientific nonsense about emergence and evolution.

As climate warms, mice morph

Biologists document changes in teeth and skull structure in two species in southern Quebec over past 50 years

The ridiculous claim that the fixed amino acid substitutions were adaptive mutations proves how little the authors understand about biophysically constrained viral latency.

Excerpt 1)

“Biologists document changes in teeth and skull structure in two species in southern Quebec over past 50 years

Excerpt 2)

“These changes may be related to a dietary shift caused by climate change, combined with competition for food resources between the two species of mice, according to the researchers.”

All serious scientists know that food energy biophysically constrains the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all living genera.
 
We have now arrived at the claims of biologically uninformed science idiots who tell us that two different species evolved in 50 years.
 

Excerpt 3)

“One question that remains to be settled is whether the changes are genetic, and will be passed on to future generations — actual evolution — or whether they represent “plasticity,” the capacity of some species to adjust to rapid environmental change.”

The facts about the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity for comparison to virus-driven pathology have been exquisitely detailed. All serious scientists have dispensed with the nonsense that questions the capacity of some species to adjust to rapid environmental change. Ecological variation must be linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that link fixation of amino acid substitutions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all individuals and all species on Earth.

See for instance, on the same day that my 2013 refutation of Nei’s pseudoscientific nonsense about Mutation-driven evolution was published, this also was published: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin

Epistasis is food energy-dependent. The energy must be biophysically constrained in the context of the physiology of pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. The creation of energy in a hydrogen atom was linked from the anti-entropic virucidal effect of sunlight to the stability of the organized genome of mice by hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and differences in the hemoglobin molecule of ecologically adapted species.

Analysis of the crystal structure of deer mouse Hb at 1.8 Å resolution (24, 25) revealed that each of the eight rHb mutants is characterized by a unique constellation of hydrogen bonds within and between subunits (Table 2 and fig. S2). Additional hydrogen bonds between subunits of the same αβ dimer are formed in the presence of β128Ser (an L-type residue; fig. S2), which contributes to the observed epistasis between allelic α- and β-chain variants.

See also:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

The fact that every Angstrom is dynamic and the fact that energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance have been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity was placed into the context of this parody:

 See also:


The Mechanical Properties of DNA are food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated

The elastic properties of the DNA molecule determine how it supercoils during replication, how it packs into confined biological structures and how it interacts with proteins during gene expression.

See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
Pattern recognition

Nutrient-dependent atomic-level changes may determine the nucleotide changes in a specific base pair. The nucleotide changes appear to link nutrient-dependent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the availability of fruits and vegetables or fermented milk products to individual differences and to species differences in the need for certain vitamins. For example, cell type determination and differentiation are associated with the nutrient-dependent 3D distribution of amino acid substitutions as they accumulated during a history of ecological adaptations [32] in flies [9] and in humans [33]. Sex differences in behavior also appear to arise from the single-molecule and single cell levels in flies, which suggests that adaptive changes in behavior can be explained in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled genome-environment interactions that alter circuit plasticity via amino acid substitutions [34].

Conclusion from: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.

See for comparison: The evolution of H2
Biohydrogen production from hyperthermophilic anaerobic digestion of fruit and vegetable wastes in seawater: Simplification of the culture medium of Thermotoga maritima
Mechanism of Nitrogenase H2 Formation by Metal-Hydride Protonation Probed by Mediated Electrocatalysis and H/D Isotope Effects
The claims that energy emerged or that differences in hydrogen and differences in species evolved outside the context of the energy-dependent creation of enzymes are among the most ridiculous examples of human idiocy that any serious scientist has ever encountered.
Claims about the emergence of life were again retracted on November 23, 20-17 and reported on December 5, 2017.

”Definitely embarrassing:” Nobel Laureate retracts non-reproducible paper in Nature journal

See: Comment awaiting moderation.

James V. Kohl December 7, 2017 at 4:35 am
The Science Behind the Game “Cytosis,” pits the collaborative efforts of 20 serious scientists against the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists. The serious scientists know how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs.
Resources (e.g., mRNA, ATP) are used to build enzymes, hormones, and/or receptors. Health points accumulate to show why food energy must be linked from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency.
For comparison, Szostak and other theorists have been stuck with their ridiculous misrepresentations of emergence and neo-Darwinian evolution, which failed to consider Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
“Conditions of life” are energy-dependent. The energy is Schrodinger’s anti-entropic virucidal energy. It comes from sunlight and is epigenetically “trapped” in food via the physiology of reproduction.
Board Game:
Cytosis: A Cell Biology Game
Title:
Cytosis – The Science Behind the Game https://boardgamegeek.com/filepage/155090/cytosis-science-behind-game
See also: Two retractions of human idiocy
See also: Routing gene therapy directly into the brain

Once the genetically-engineered HSCs are transplanted into the brain’s ventricles, the crucial enzyme they contain helps to metabolize the materials that were previously building up and causing tissue damage.

A new lineage of cells descended from the transplanted HSCs — a type of cell called a myeloid — begin to scavenge and consume the excess material that is responsible for neurodegeneration.

The pheromone-controlled differentiation of these cell types was predicted in the context of claims that pheromones biophysically constrain all pathology in the mouse to human model, which has been thoroughly detailed since 1994.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)
See also: Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis

See also: Researchers Discover Key to Diseases in Mitochondrial DNA Mutations

Because the primary job of the mitochondrion is to produce energy, most of its genes are involved in pathways in the energy production process. Although it has a small genetic code, mtDNA contains the blueprints for building many of the enzymes and proteins that are needed to function in those pathways.
 
The virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology in all living genera. The speed of light on contact with water has been linked to all energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair in the context of the physiology of reproduction and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity.
Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Light-activated error free DNA repair

Summary: The same set of microRNAs controls expression of the genes for rate-limiting enzymes, which control differences in the hormone production of different hormones in insects and crustaceans. That fact led to this claim in: The secret to safe DNA repair.

…if you don’t have this enzyme, then this error-free repair is stopped. You can’t do it. If you can’t do the error-free repair, among other things that happen is that you expect these cells to be cancer prone.

The Secret to Long Life? It May Lurk in the DNA of the Oldest Among Us

If unusual patterns in their three billion pairs of A’s, C’s, G’s and T’s — the nucleobases that make up all genomes — can be shown to have prolonged their lives and protected their health, the logic goes, it is conceivable that a drug or gene therapy could be devised to replicate the effects in the rest of us.

The unusual patterns exist only in the context of error-free RNA-directed DNA repair. DNA repair is linked from the energy-dependent creation of one enzyme and the metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones.
The secret to safe DNA repair.

…if you don’t have this enzyme, then this error-free repair is stopped. You can’t do it. If you can’t do the error-free repair, among other things that happen is that you expect these cells to be cancer prone.

The pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. In the mouse model, pheromones have repeatedly been linked to epigenetic effects on gene regulation.
See: [Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)] 1994

A study of the influence of pheromone stressor(s) on proliferating germ and somatic cells was performed on laboratory lines of house mouse in the context of the physiological hypothesis of mutation process, proposed by M.E. Lobashev in 1947. Data from experiments are presented, and results obtained during last 10-15 years are discussed. The adaptive role of cytogenetic and other observed pheromonal effects is considered. The possible existence of interorganism systems of genetic regulation is discussed, the search for and study of which may help in more complete understanding of the regularities of functioning of genetic material.
 

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has since been linked to all pathology. Food odors and pheromones biophysically constrain the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of viral latency via the creation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all the cell types of all individuals of all individuals of all species.
When all serious scientists fully disclose what is known about the biophysically constrained energy-dependent links from 1) base editing and 2) microRNA editing to 3) RNA editing and RNA-mediated DNA repair, pseudoscientists will be put out of the business of drug development. Medical practice will be based on what is known about Precision Medicine, which specifically links the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes to healthy longevity and to the metabolism of the drugs that often do more harm than good.
1)
Base Editing Now Able to Convert Adenine-Thymine to Guanine-Cytosine

“Nature conveniently provides us with cytosine deaminase enzymes that operate on DNA,” Liu tells The Scientist.

The creation of quantized energy in sunlight links energy as information from electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The claim that “Nature” provides us with cytosine deaminase enzymes makes it seem that the enzymes emerged and automagically evolved to become purposeful and meaningful in the context of ridiculous theories about mutation-driven evolution.
2)
Conserved microRNA editing in mammalian evolution, development and disease
MicroRNA (miRNA) editing is a site-specific conserved mechanism that links ecological variation to energy-dependent ecological adaptations via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which increases the functional diversity of mammalian miRNA transcriptomes. These authors place microRNA editing into the context of an “evolutionarily stable feature” without explaining how the energy-dependent stability was linked to biophysically constrained viral latency.
3)
RNA Editing Possible with CRISPR-Cas13
Serious scientists moved forward by calling pre-mRNAs “microRNAs.” They linked energy-dependent alternative splicings to all biodiversity via fixation of amino acid substitutions in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Now, Zhang and others make the claim that’s akin to saying they rediscovered the innate immune system, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
The so-called secret to the three-step recognition of the pattern linked to longevity may be as simple as this: Learn how anything you eat or drink may be beneficial and do not take drugs that will kill you by stealing the quantized energy as information that McEwen et al. (1964) linked the light-activated creation of ATP to the food energy-dependent creation of RNA.
Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

Isolated thymus nuclei transport amino acids into an intranuclear pool by a process which seems to depend on energy from nuclear ATP synthesis (20).

See also: Dobzhansky (1964): Biology, molecular and organismic

Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.

See also: Dobzhansky (1973) Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

For example, the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

All serious scientists know that the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy must be linked from ecological variation to ecological adaptations, whether or not they refer to light in the context of evolution. Nothing makes sense when theorists fail to link the speed of light on contact with water from the creation of enzymes to the metabolism of food. And nothing else about food energy makes sense when pseudoscientists fail to link it to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
See: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences (2015)
Reported as:‘Junk DNA’ Used To Sort Species and also as: All in the (bigger) family with my comment:

The 2015 Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (SICB) presenters may not recognize how much progress has been made since the 2013 ecological epigenetics symposium. For example, since then authors claimed “…ctenophore neural systems, and possibly muscle specification, evolved independently from those in other animals.” http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13400
Six months later, other authors traced signaling factors found in vertebrates to the origin of nerve cell centralization via the diffuse nerve net of animals like the sea anemone. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6536 That fact suggests ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptations in morphological and behavioral phenotypes via signaling protein concentrations that differentiate various cell types in body axes and the central nervous system.
Links across species from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in organized genomes appear to have their origins in the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated protein folding. Two weeks after the publication that refuted ideas about independently evolved neural systems or muscle specification — and perhaps refuted the independent evolution of anything else, SICB presenters linked crustaceans to insects.
Apparently, they’ve learned that the same set of microRNAs controls expression of the genes for rate-limiting enzymes that control the hormone production of different hormones in insects and crustaceans.
Why were they left with any questions about how crustaceans and insects could all be part of one big family? They linked RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to what we described in our section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

 

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Pheromones biophysically constrain RNA-mediated biodiversity (1)

Elaine Morgan on paradigm shifts. Her view of the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists is humorous and she accurately represents what’s been happening to me and others like me for the past two decades. It’s what we expect. It’s your choice to keep laughing about it.

See for comparison: Functional screening in human cardiac organoids reveals a metabolic mechanism for cardiomyocyte cell cycle arrest
Reported as: Scientists have identified the metabolic pathway associated with heart repair

Scientists identified the pathway using experiments performed on engineered heart tissues grown from stem cells. Following a study that mapped the pathways found in mouse hearts, this new study correlated those pathways to the human heart, identifying the specific pathway in human heart tissues. By profiling and comparing heart with and without regeneration capacity, the specific pathway was isolated.

See also: Metabolism switch signals end for healing hearts

Dr Hudson’s team is now working with a company to identify drugs that could re-activate the heart’s ability to self-repair.

The pathway is food energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. That fact is obvious and it attests to the fact that the pathway is biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links the fixation of amino acid substitutions to healthy longevity in all living genera. Drug therapies typically do not lead to fixation of amino acid substitutions or to healthy longevity.
For comparison, see: Assessment of Pep, Fndc5, C2c12, Pgc1α Pattern of Genes Expression during Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Heart Cells

The mouse embryonic stem cells as a model for cardiac differentiation induced by ascorbic acid used and the pattern of expression of PEP at certain stages of differentiation were analyzed by Real-Time PCR technique.

This suggests ascorbic acid (vitamin C) may be essential for the biophysical constraints on the creation of amino acids that differentiate cell types. But see: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

For contrast to the claim the amino acid compositions evolve see:
Figures 1-3 are examples of what is known about learning and memory in the context of brain waves and everything else known about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
Figure 1: The amino acid sequence encoded by the gene FNDC5.
Figure 2: Structure of N-terminal and C-terminal gene FNDC5 the region.
Figure 3: How FNDC5 gene and PGC1a neuron in the human brain functions.
In an invited review of nutritional epigenetics, I linked exogenous vitamin C to levels of endogenous vitamin C and differences in the amino acid sequence to human brain functions via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in a population of modern humans in Central China.
See: Sago-Type Palms Were an Important Plant Food Prior to Rice in Southern Subtropical China
See also: Stability of bioactive compounds in butiá (Butia odorata) fruit pulp and nectar

Pulp pasteurization resulted in a reduction in phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid, and ascorbic acid contents.

If the ascorbic acid/vitamin C content of “Sago-Type Palms” was not reduced by pasteurization, Vitamin C and phenolic, flavonoid, carotenoid would be the most likely link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to plant microRNAs, which helped to stabilize the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance in specific human populations. Vitamin C in one population. Phenolics, flavonoids and or carotenoids et al., in others.
In all cases, all populations must eat to reproduce. Dietary phytochemicals have repeatedly been linked to biophysically constrained viral latency by constraints on cell type differentiation.
See also: Regulation of microRNA using promising dietary phytochemicals: Possible preventive and treatment option of malignant mesothelioma.
I typically do not use “case studies” to explain biologically-based cause and effect. However, there are two probable outcomes linked to the two cases of Cytosis that I purchased:

Pathology: An abnormal increase in the number of undifferentiated cell types

Energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency: (aka biologically-based healthy longevity) in the context of the energy-dependent movement of cells between parts of organisms

The link from the creation of sunlight to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA should be clear to all serious scientists. The link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to biophysically constrained viral latency should be equally clear to anyone who plays the cell biology game “Cytosis” and to anyone who reads this review of nutritional epigenetics.

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

Conclusion:

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations exemplify how sensing nutrients and secreting the metabolites of nutrients accomplishes different tasks. Efficient circuits enable the functional flexibility that is required in ever-changing ecologies that cause species diversity. Biophysical constraints on ecological adaptations are exemplified in physical proof which suggests that Kohl’s Laws of Biology (Kohl’s Laws) represent what Darwin called ‘conditions of life.’

Physical proof of species diversity links ecological variations from nutritional epigenetics to 1) biophysically constrained protein folding via 2) atomic level changes in base pairs (i.e., the nucleotides of DNA); 3) amino acid substitutions; 4) changes in the miRNA/mRNA balance; 5) the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that 6) control the physiology of reproduction, and 7) chromosomal rearrangements that link the reciprocity of these interactions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes manifested in species diversity. Across-species examples of biologically plausible ecologically validated cause and effect link the physical proof from conserved molecular mechanisms of DNA uptake that extends these representations of nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects to differences in pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral human phenotypes.

The plausibility and ecological validity of Kohl’s Laws in the context of Darwin’s ‘conditions of life’ can be compared to theories about biologically-based cause and effect in the context of species diversity. In mammals, for example, the explanatory power of a model of ecological variation and biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations became clear with companion papers published in 2013. See for review [30].

The companion papers [162-163] told a new short story of ecological adaptations. In the context of climate change and changes in diet, the story began with what probably was a nutrient-dependent base pair change and a variant epiallele that arose in a human population in what is now central China. Apparently, the effect of the epiallele was adaptive and it was manifested in the context of an effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth. In another mammal, such as the mouse, the effect on sweat, skin, hair, and teeth is probably due to a nutrient-dependent epigenetic effect on hormones responsible for the tweaking of immense gene networks that metabolize nutrients to pheromones. The pheromones appear to control the nutrient-dependent epigenetically-effected hormone-dependent organization and hormone-activation of reproductive sexual behavior in mammals such as mice and humans, but also in invertebrates and in microbes as previously indicated.

The ecological adaptations, which appear to be manifested in the human population are detailed in these two reports [162-163]. The ecological adaptations are likely to be nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. If so, ecological variation probably leads to ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction, which is manifested in increasing organismal complexity and species diversity. If not, there may be something as yet unknown about mutations and evolution that makes sense in the light of what is known about nutritional epigenetics and the molecular biology of species from microbes to man.

 

Cytosis

From base editing to RNA editing (2)

Summary: The link from the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of all living genera is all that is required to claim adaptation for comparison to Koonin’s moronic assertion that the amino acid composition of proteins varies because the composition evolved.
Digital reconstruction of the Ceprano calvarium (Italy), and implications for its interpretation

A “fresh” (i.e., not yet “fossil”) bone can be plastically deformed before it breaks because it is still rich in collagen and because the calcium crystals that constitute large part of the bony matrix are not yet substituted by other minerals, as happens during the process of mineralization34. Such a diagenetic process may occur in environments that are rich in water, like a riverbed or a perilacustrine paleosol; the latter was probably the case in the Ceprano area5.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links the diagenetic process in living tissue links to the fossil record via changes that appear to have occurred during the past 5-10,000 years.
See for instance: MicroRNA-32 promotes calcification in vascular smooth muscle cells: Implications as a novel marker for coronary artery calcification
The increased level of calcification in smooth muscle cells, which is associated with increased rates of coronary artery calcification is a clear indicator that the proliferation of viruses in organized genomes causes the negative supercoiling of DNA, which serious scientists have linked to all pathology.
See also: A Post Mortem Case Study: Diffuse Pulmonary Ossification and Sudden Death
Case studies have no explanatory power outside the context of models that link electrons to ecosystems in all living genera. In this case study, it is clear that the pulmonary ossification and sudden death can be placed into the context of my model of nutritional epigenetics.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

Attempts to support theories about random mutations and evolution have failed miserably and have largely been replaced with facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
See: RNA Editing Possible with CRISPR-Cas13

The tool itself could be further developed, adds computational biologist Eugene Koonin of the National Center for Biotechnology Information who also was not involved in the study. “This paper is not the end of the road,” he says. It’s possible that Cas13b could be fused to a variety of editing enzymes that would allow a range of different sequence changes. The possibilities are numerous, Koonin says, and “the best is still to come.”

This paper is the end of the road for pseudoscientists and biologically uninformed theorists, like Eugene Koonin, who made this ridiculous claim in 2005:
Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve. –Jordan et al., (2005) A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution
See for comparison: The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis… (2015) — Eugene Koonin
See also Koonin’s attack on all models of ecological adaptation: Splendor and misery of adaptation, or the importance of neutral null for understanding evolution (2016)

…population genetic theory, combined with the data of comparative genomics, clearly indicates that such a “pan-adaptationist” approach is a fallacy. The proper question is: how has this sequence evolved? And the proper null hypothesis posits that it is a result of neutral evolution: that is, it survives by sheer chance provided that it is not deleterious enough to be efficiently purged by purifying selection. To claim adaptation, the neutral null has to be falsified.

The link from the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of all living genera is all that is required to claim adaptation for comparison to Koonin’s moronic assertion that the amino acid composition of proteins varies because the composition evolved.
Each time a new claim attests to the facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained cause and effect, remember how long those facts have been placed on hold by people like Eugene Koonin and Jay R. Fiereman, who is the moderator of the International Society for Human Ethology’s Yahoo Group.
See this attempt to discuss mysterious DNA changes with Jay R. Feierman who on 7/25/13 wrote:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

All DNA modifications are energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Publications in Science and Nature attest to the foolishness of those who have tried to link base editing and RNA editing to human cell type differentiation without starting with the fact that RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are food energy-dependent.
Clearly there are no mysterious stress-linked DNA modifications. Nutrient stress and/or social stress cause the proliferation of viruses. Typically the proliferation of viruses is biophysically constrained by food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
See “Cytosis” for the game-ending details that placed the nonsense about neutral null falsification back into the historical perspective of the “Dark Ages.”
See also: Tempo and mode of genome evolution in a 50,000-generation experiment (with my emphasis)

Evidence for beneficial mutations

We sought to understand what proportion of the genomic changes in the non-mutator populations was adaptive, and how that proportion changed over time. One line of evidence derives from the expectation that synonymous substitutions—point mutations in protein-coding genes that do not affect the amino-acid sequence—are neutral and should therefore accumulate at a rate equal to the underlying mutation rate20,35. This expectation is not strictly true owing to selection on codon usage, RNA folding, and other effects, but it is generally thought that such selection is extremely weak, affects only a small fraction of sites at risk for synonymous mutations, or both 36,37.

RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is biophysically constrained. It is nutrient energy-dependent and biodiversity is controlled by the energy-dependent physiology of reproduction. In 2015, Lenski’s group admitted to their lie about the beneficial mutations, with the claim “This expectation is not strictly true owing to selection on codon usage…”
No beneficial mutations have been found by serious scientists. But Lenski’s group clearly indicated they would continue to lie about all aspects of energy-dependent biodiversity. They hoped to make it appear that all energy-dependent biodiversity emerged and then automagically evolved. If they could do that, they knew that their idiot minions were not likely to examine selection for energy-dependent codon usage. But then,
See for comparison: The dynamics of molecular evolution over 60,000 generations
After 10,000 more generations, Lenski’s group reported that standard models of mutation-driven evolution has not been supported by their experimental evidence. Instead, they placed their results into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon usage and long-term adaptation, which obviously occurred outside the context of mutation–selection balance and neutral mutation accumulation.
They clearly indicated that the complexity of ecological variation and energy-dependent ecological adaptation must be considered before reporting anything in the context of natural genetic variation. Simply put, they refuted all the pseudoscientific nonsense their past claims caused to be touted by other biologically uninformed theorists. They reported that ecological adaptation occurs outside the context of the mutations and evolution.
But see: Molecular evolution: No escape from the tangled bank

Ecological interactions emerge spontaneously in an experimental study of bacterial populations cultured for 60,000 generations, and sustain rapid evolution by natural selection.

The claim that there is no escape from the tangled bank is true. Joshua B. Plotkin took Lenki’s group’s refutation of mutation-driven evolution and placed it back into the context of the spontaneous emergence of energy-dependent ecological interactions. And then, he again touted the nonsense about evolution by natural selection.
See also: Rapid and Inexpensive Evaluation of Nonstandard Amino Acid Incorporation in Escherichia coli (2017)

…we developed a toolkit for characterizing any Escherichia coli OTS that reassigns the amber stop codon (TAG). It assesses OTS performance by comparing how the fluorescence of strains carrying plasmids encoding a fused RFP-GFP reading frame, either with or without an intervening TAG codon, depends on the presence of the nsAA. We used this kit to (1) examine nsAA incorporation by seven different OTSs, (2) optimize nsAA concentration in growth media, (3) define the polyspecificity of an OTS, and (4) characterize evolved variants of amberless E. coli with improved growth rates.

Even with the tools available, which have refuted all ridiculous theories of mutation-driven evolution, the claims that variants “evolved” continues to plague all serious scientists. It seems that placing the claims that variants evolved into the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera serves no purpose. However, even if biologically uninformed science idiots are not willing to admit that top-down causation requires first consideration for the energy source, there is hope for the future. Most people intuitively understand that the food energy from what organisms eat must be linked to the metabolism of food and the metabolism of food to species-specific pheromones is the only known link from the physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained biodiversity in the context of viral latency.
Epigenetic effects must be linked to affects on behavior and the difference between an effect on hormones and an affect of hormones on behavior must be considered in the context of how food odors and pheromones are linked to the physiology of human reproduction by serious scientists.
For example, see: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
 
 

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

From base editing to RNA editing

Base Editing Now Able to Convert Adenine-Thymine to Guanine-Cytosine

“Nature conveniently provides us with cytosine deaminase enzymes that operate on DNA,” Liu tells The Scientist.

The creation of quantized energy in sunlight links energy as information from electrons to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. The claim that “Nature” provides us with cytosine deaminase enzymes makes it seem that the enzymes emerged and automagically evolved to become purposeful and meaningful in the context of ridiculous theories about mutation-driven evolution.
See for comparison: All about that base (video parody)
See also: RNA Editing Possible with CRISPR-Cas13

Introducing specific sequence changes into RNA molecules could allow researchers to answer questions about alternative splicing mechanisms, translation, and even editing, he says. “There’s a lot of scope.”

The entirety of that scope was addressed in the context of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in our section on molecular epigenetics from this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans (Adler and Hajduk, 1994; de Bono, Zarkower, and Hodgkin, 1995; Ge, Zuo, and Manley, 1991; Green, 1991; Parkhurst and Meneely, 1994; Wilkins, 1995; Wolfner, 1988). That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.
All biophysically constrained RNA-mediated energy-dependent cell type differentiation has since been linked from the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to supercoiled DNA via the fixation of amino acid substitutions and chromosomal rearrangements.
The facts about the amino acid substitutions in the context of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance link electrons to ecosystems via the cryo-EM technology that won the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
See: Chemists know (video parody)
See also:

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cryo-EM: More than a suggestion

 
Details in the structure not previously seen reveal how various protein subunits of the twin hexamers latch on to the double helix, via tiny loop-like structures.

What are the subunits of protein?

The subunits of proteins are called amino acids.

I will not stop saying that cryo-EM links what is known about energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from electrons to ecosystems via fixation of amino acid substitutions in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which has been linked to all biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity.

 

And, obviously, serious scientists are not going to stop confirming that fact.

See: Noguchi Y et al, “Cryo-EM structure of Mcm2-7 double hexamer on DNA suggests a lagging-strand DNA extrusion model” appears in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of October 23, 2017.

See also:

RNA-mediated molecular epigenetics and virus-driven entropy

The Origin of Information (2)

RNA mediated molecular epigenetics and virus driven entropy (video)