Plenty of Room at the Bottom

Environmental selection is natural selection (2)

I believe that if you put enough biologically uniformed theorists in the same room, they will invent more theories to support the pseudoscientific nonsense they have touted in the past. See for example:

Environmental selection during the last ice age on the mother-to-infant transmission of vitamin D and fatty acids through breast milk

Acknowledgments

The synthesis presented here is a product of the American Association for the Advancement of Science’s 2017 annual meeting, as the ideas came together in the session entitled “Beringia and the Dispersal of Modern Humans to the Americas.”
 

Every aspect of every level of biophysically constrained food energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect is placed back into the context of a ridiculous theory of human migration and evolution. The theory accurately attests to the link from one food energy-dependent base pair change to biodiversity in human populations via fixation of one amino acid substitution. But then, something goes horribly wrong.

The theory requires the fixation of the amino acid substitution to automagically occur in the context of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy. The theory fails to mention the fact that the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and the microRNA-mediated creation of all cell types in all living genera is required.

See for comparison: Anything published since the time I learned about the importance of microRNAs during the 2012 Society for Neuroscience annual meeting in New Orleans, LA.

From 2000/10/15 to 2012/10/15 microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 19910

From 2012/10/15 to 2018/04/26 microRNA Items: 1 to 20 of 53458

The number of biologically informed serious scientists who have linked the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria continues to rapidly increase.

This begs the question: When will biologically uninformed science idiots stop attending meetings that facilitate their attempts to invent more ridiculous theories?

For God and Country

Abiogenesis vs microRNA biogenesis (2)

All serious scientists learned about Schrödinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944).  All serious scientists have since linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to “negentropy” and healthy longevity.

See also: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

…paving the way for the definitive rejection of the non-recombination dogma for human mtDNA.
 

Recombination is quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.

See the works of those who are scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Duane Gish never published anything that is indexed on the PubMed database. If you claim that he or anyone else like him, including Henry M. Morris (1918–2006)  is a bonafide scientist, please try to support your ridiculous claims in the context of the historical record of more than 72,000 published works that mention “microRNA.”

If you do not start with the creation of microRNAs (microRNA biogenesis), do not try to explain how natural selection for beneficial mutations links evolution to biodiversity. All serious scientists will make fun of you.

See:

Some will continue to use you as an example of human idiocy.

See why: Signatures of negative selection in the genetic architecture of human complex traits

Reported as: Natural selection still at work in humans

“In natural selection, or ‘survival of the fittest’, characteristics that improve survival are more likely to be passed on to the next generation,” Professor Yang said.

“The opposite also occurs, when DNA mutations with a detrimental effect on fitness are less likely to be passed on, by a process called negative selection.

Mutations link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, not from negative selection to evolution.
Case report: detection of the identical virus in a patient presenting with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome encephalopathy and the tick that bit her (April 17, 2018)

Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the SFTSV from the patient and the tick was identical. The patient gradually recovered with treatments of corticosteroids and immunoglobulin.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide further evidence of SFTS viral transmission from H. longicornis to human.

Researchers in South Korea may already know how to protect human populations from the transmission of viruses, which has been linked from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of pathology to the viral hecatomb in the deep sea.
See also: virus south korea
After the USA fought two land-wars in Asia, the uselessness of vaccine in South Korea and the senseless loss of life has been linked from the “creationist capital of the world” to denuclearization via seemingly futile cycles of protein biosynthesis and the virus-driven driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair extend across species in the context of hearing loss and all other pathology via the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+

Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Science, state, and spirituality: Stories of four creationists in South Korea

Supposedly, Duane Gish and Henry M. Morris (1918–2006) were responsible for making South Korea the “creationist capital of the world.”

Hashem Al-Ghaili pits all creationsts claims against his pseudoscientific nonsense in Memories can pass between generations through DNA (video)

If you wish to pit the claims about evolved instincts against my claims about microRNA biogenesis and biophysically constrained viral latency against the the claims of serious scientists from South Korea, start by explaining how Duane Gish linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biodiversity. 

All serious scientists learned about Schrödinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944).  All serious scientists have since linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to “negentropy” and healthy longevity.

See also: Reappraising the human mitochondrial DNA recombination dogma

…paving the way for the definitive rejection of the non-recombination dogma for human mtDNA.
 

Recombination is quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction.

See the works of those who are scheduled to present during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018

Duane Gish never published anything that is indexed on the PubMed database. If you claim that he or anyone else like him, including Henry M. Morris (1918–2006)  is a bonafide scientist, please try to support your ridiculous claims in the context of the historical record of more than 72,000 published works that mention “microRNA.”

If you do not start with the creation of microRNAs (microRNA biogenesis), do not try to explain how natural selection for beneficial mutations links evolution to biodiversity. All serious scientists will make fun of you.

See:

Some will continue to use you as an example of human idiocy.

See why: Signatures of negative selection in the genetic architecture of human complex traits

Reported as: Natural selection still at work in humans

“In natural selection, or ‘survival of the fittest’, characteristics that improve survival are more likely to be passed on to the next generation,” Professor Yang said.

“The opposite also occurs, when DNA mutations with a detrimental effect on fitness are less likely to be passed on, by a process called negative selection.

Mutations link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology, not from negative selection to evolution.
Case report: detection of the identical virus in a patient presenting with severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome encephalopathy and the tick that bit her (April 17, 2018)

Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the SFTSV from the patient and the tick was identical. The patient gradually recovered with treatments of corticosteroids and immunoglobulin.

CONCLUSION:

These findings provide further evidence of SFTS viral transmission from H. longicornis to human.

Researchers in South Korea may already know how to protect human populations from the transmission of viruses, which has been linked from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of pathology to the viral hecatomb in the deep sea.
See also: virus south korea
After the USA fought two land-wars in Asia, the uselessness of vaccine in South Korea and the senseless loss of life has been linked from the “creationist capital of the world” to denuclearization via seemingly futile cycles of protein biosynthesis and the virus-driven driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The facts about energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair extend across species in the context of hearing loss and all other pathology via the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+

Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Indeed, the role of quantized energy as information in information-dependent naturally occurring RNA interference may soon be linked to denuclearization in North Korea (and everywhere else) by the factual representations of researchers from the Republic of South Korea.

See: A Single Amino Acid at the Polymerase Acidic Protein Determines the Pathogenicity of Influenza B Viruses (2018)
The looming threat of the next viral apocolypse is far greater than the nuclear threat, and researchers in South Korea are probably prepared to defend their population of modern humans.
Bill Gates, for comparison, is still touting the use of relatively useless vaccines.
See: Emergence of Human G2P[4] Rotaviruses in the Post-vaccination Era in South Korea: Footprints of Multiple Interspecies Re-assortment Events (April 16, 2018)

Compared to the G2 RotaTeq vaccine strain, 17-24 amino acid changes, specifically A87T, D96N, S213D, and S242N substitutions in G2 epitopes, were observed. These results suggest that multiple interspecies re-assortment events might have contributed to the emergence of G2P[4] rotaviruses in the post-vaccination era in South Korea.

If researchers in the so-called “creationist capital of the world” decide to genetically engineer a virus and wipe out the less-well ecologically adapted population of modern humans in North Korea, there would be virtually no loss of physical resources. The population of Seoul would benefit most by expanding into more rural areas.
Although this could lead to the futility of another land-war in Asia, it has become clear that everything ends badly. If that was not true, nothing would end. The current threat to anything that might otherwise be considered eternally significant was predicted in the science fiction novel “Quantico” by Greg Bear. It’s not funny any more, but see: Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear
See also: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution (2013) This author’s comment was recently removed:

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

But see the editor’s summary:  Koel et al. (p. 976) show that major antigenic change can be caused by single amino acid substitutions.
The energy-dependent fixation of single amino acid substitutions in viruses has since been linked to all pathology in all living genera via the failure of virus-infected cell types to repair their damaged supercoiled DNA. The late Timothy J. Cunningham knew that as well as anyone. Sadly, he vanished without a trace and was found dead a river near his home several weeks later.

Since then, I was asked to comment on the eternal significance of the Vietnam Memorial Wall. I did not yet mention that thermal cycles have been linked to cracks in the Vietnam Memorial Wall because the article was about the American Veterans Traveling Tribute’s Wall.

I wrote:

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall (The Wall) was built with private contributions from the American people. It stands as a symbol of America’s honor, and to recognize the men and women who served and sacrificed their lives in the Vietnam War. The Wall was designed by the daughter of Chinese intellectuals who fled their homeland before the 1949 Communist takeover. She lives in Athens, Ohio.

The Wall is made up of two panels 246 feet 9 inches long. At it’s highest point the wall is over 10 feet tall. The names of more than 58,000 men and women who gave their lives or remain missing are inscribed on the black granite walls. Names are added when more remains are found.

The Vietnam Veterans Memorial wall stirs emotion. It can even be somewhat overwhelming to visit. When people looks into the polished volcanic rock of the wall, it reportedly “looks back:” It envelops its visitors in the names of those who lost their lives in a war which lasted nearly two decades.

For the hundreds of thousands of Vietnam veterans who are still alive, it is a place of eternal significance.

The Traveling Vietnam Veterans wall is a 80% sized replica of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall in Washington, D.C.

Whether or not you have visited The Wall in Washington, D.C. and/or visited other places of ‘eternal significance,’ you may want to take advantage of the opportunity to see the American Veterans Traveling Tribute’s Traveling Vietnam Wall from May 16-20, 2018 at the Lions Club Fairgrounds 1729 S. Main Street, Ellijay, Georgia 30540.

American Legion Post 82 and the Ellijay Lions Club are the sponsors. American Legion Post 82 will have guides, counselors, and security 24 hrs a day and a computer list to locate where the veterans names are inscribed.

There is no cost to see The Traveling Vietnam Veterans wall. Pencil rubbing of the names can be made just as it can be with the Wall in D.C.

Donations to the American Legion Post 82 Ellijay will be used to help our Veterans and our community.

Biologically uninformed theorists do not understand how researchers in the “creationist capital of the world” have linked the Laws of Thermodynamics to biophysically constrained viral latency. Virus-driven constraint-breaking mutations or nuclear war will almost undoubtedly lead to the death of us all.

Who do you think might save you in a “worst case” scenario? If not for the American Legion, you probably would not have been warned.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Autophagy in health and disease (1)

Novel Treatment Strategies for the Nervous System: Circadian Clock Genes, Non-coding RNAs, and Forkhead Transcription Factors

Each of these pathways have an intimate relationship with the programmed death pathways of autophagy and apoptosis and share a common link to the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) (SIRT1) and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Circadian clock genes are necessary to modulate autophagy, limit cognitive loss, and prevent neuronal injury. Non-coding RNAs can control neuronal stem cell development and neuronal differentiation and offer protection against vascular disease…

The author includes what is known about the links from biophysically constrained RNA-mediated energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in yeasts to mammals.
See also this comment by Frank Xavier on Eat Yourself to Live: Autophagy’s Role in Health and Disease

Amino acids are not all the same, EAA and NEAA messages epigenetically control sometimes univocal responses, but more often they rule opposing effects.

I wrote:

Thanks for mentioning that. In a recent interview about his forthcoming book, Carl Zimmer claimed

…we need to be much more skeptical about other forms of heredity, like epigenetics.

(edited) Food energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera via autophagy, in the context of fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and game play in Cytosis, for ages 10+.

In that context, we included a section on molecular epigenetics in this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Our claims have since been supported at every level of examination that now links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from electrons to ecosystems via cryo-EM technology and the creation of microRNAs.

See: Regulation of Luteinizing Hormone Receptor mRNA Expression in the Ovary: The Role of miR-122 and Regulation of FSH expression by differentially expressed miR-186-5p in rat anterior adenohypophyseal cells and Modulation of miRNAs by Vitamin C in Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells
The microRNA-mediated link from Vitamin C to ecological adaptations in a modern human population in China established the facts about alternative splicings of pre-mRNA that we included in our 1996 review. See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
See also:  Reproductive role of miRNA in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis
See also: Chemistry at the nexus of water and energy

Our ability to harness reactions that absorb or release energy is often contingent on water as a mediator. We can appreciate this simply by considering the steam that drives our electricity-generating turbines, the rivers that flow through our hydroelectric plants, and the freshwater–saltwater interface from which we can harvest blue energy. Whether we split water (as plants do), make it (as a product of combustion) or just drink it, this compound is inexorably tied to energy. Chemistry is at the heart of these topics and this collection brings together content from across Nature Research that focuses on the chemistry of energy production and water treatment.

Philip C. Ball and Carl Zimmer continue to display their overwhelming ignorance of cell biology in two books:
Beyond Weird

We now realise that quantum mechanics is less about particles and waves, uncertainty and fuzziness, than a theory about information…

See for comparison: Life is physics and chemistry and communication and What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy
See also: She Has Her Mother’s Laugh: The Powers, Perversions, and Potential of Heredity

We need a new definition of what heredity is…

Both so-called science journalists have ignored everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained viral latency. They reach a very large target audience of others who are biologically uninformed.
In the context of those who are equally uninformed, so-called science journalists have the power to contribute to increasing amounts of  unnecessary suffering and premature deaths. Only the emergence of Timothy J. Cunningham as director of the CDC is likely to stop them. May God help us all if Timothy J. Cunningham has somehow vanished without a trace and fails to return to put pseudoscientists and their idiot minions into their proper place.

An evolutionary theory killer

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (1)

Summary: In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency.
Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
See: Conceptual Insights, Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002)

View this media module for an animated, interactive summary of how electron transfer potential is converted into proton-motive force and, finally, phosphoryl transfer potential in oxidative phosphorylation.

See: Section 18.4A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
Place what is known to all serious scientists about the proton motive force into the context of energy-dependent electron transfer potential.
See also: Chemiosmosis

…the term proton-motive force (PMF)… can be described as the measure of the potential energy stored as a combination of proton and voltage (electrical potential) gradients across a membrane. The electrical gradient is a consequence of the charge separation across the membrane (when the protons H+ move without a counterion, such as chloride Cl).

See: Search results for proton motive force
On February 2, 2018 and on February 26, 2018 I linked the claim that Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase (2017) to findings on RNA-RNA interactions in The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14  (1993) This link opens the to free pdf

Two small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were identified in C. elegans and found to contain sequences complementary to a repeated sequence element in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA, suggesting that lin-4 regulates lin-14 translation via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction.

The small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were subsequently referred to as pre-mRNAs before the term pre-mRNA became microRNA as the number of nucleotides (nt) was reduced to 22 in the context of more than 70,000 published works on microRNAs. See: microRNA
In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency. Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
For instance see: Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants (2012) and Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes (2012)
Reported May 17, 2012 as: Humans riddled with rare genetic variants
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants (2013)
Reported November 28, 2012 Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
See also: The splicing code (Feb 2018)

…except for very few and marginal variations, it is the same from bacteria to man, the RNA stretch: 5′ GUGUUC 3′ reads as the dipeptide: Val-Phe in bacteria, in yeast, in Arabidopsis, in zebra fish, in mouse and in human. A degree of ambiguity is possible if mutations are introduced in the tRNAs in a way that the anticodon reads one amino acid but the aminoacyl-transferase attaches a different one onto the tRNA.

See also: Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors
Sensory input must be linked to energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency.
See: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

In 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate:The Existence of Nothing, Neil deGrasse Tyson made this spurious claim:

Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”

A polymath should be required to link quantum physics from quantum chemistry to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity. Wide-ranging knowledge should include what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms that link the food energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans.
Eshel Ben-Jacob and Greg Bear are polymaths. Isaac Asimov was not.
Eshel Ben-Jacob presciently linked Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)  to the biophysically constrained viral latency Greg Bear placed into the context of the creation of a new human species in two books reviewed in Nature:
Evolution rising from the grave (2000)
Living with the Neanderthals (2003)
See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
Polymaths should be able to recognize patterns that link photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation from the creation of enzymes to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated DNA repair, which links ecological variation from phytoremediation to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Anyone who fails to do that in the context of the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens should be called a biologically uninformed theorist or a science journalist who has no excuse for reporting pseudoscientific nonsense.
The only way to resurrect the bacterial flagellum over-the-weekend involves what is known as the proton motive force. Fro example: A twitter search for “proton motive force” led me to this claim, thanks to Nigel Ten Fleming

Enzyme-bound ATP forms readily in the absence of a proton-motive force.

In the context of Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002), that claim was followed by this claim:

…the role of the proton gradient is not to form ATP but to release it from the synthase.

See also:

If the aspartate residue is protonated to its neutral form, the c ring can now rotate, but only in a clockwise direction. Such a rotation moves the newly protonated aspartic acid residue into contact with the membrane, moves the charged aspartate residue from contact with the matrix half-channel to the cytosolic half-channel, and moves a different protonated aspartic acid residue from contact with the membrane to the matrix half-channel. The proton can then dissociate from aspartic acid and move through the half-channel into the proton-poor matrix to restore the initial state. This dissociation is favored by the positive charge on a conserved arginine residue ( 210) in the a subunit.

The difference in the energy of photons was linked from protons to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The energy-dependent biophysically constraints link microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differences in all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See also: 18.4.5. ATP Synthase and G Proteins Have Several Common Features (with my emphasis)

In Chapter 15, we learned that the signaling properties of other members of this family, the proteins, depend on their ability to bind nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates with great kinetic tenacity. They do not exchange nucleotides unless they are stimulated to do so by interaction with other proteins. The binding-change mechanism of ATP synthase is a variation on this theme. The three different faces of the γ subunit of ATP synthase interact with the P-loop regions of the β subunits to favor the structures of either the NDP- or NTP-binding forms or to facilitate nucleotide release. The conformational changes take place in an orderly way, driven by the rotation of the γ subunit.

See for comparison:Jay R. Feierman:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

Plenty of Room at the Bottom

Cryo-EM: Linking spatial and conformational constraints

On Darwin Day (2018) Carl Zimmer suggested use of the twitter hashtag #Istudyevolution to report whatever aspect of biology people were studying. For example, Richard Lenski reported that he studied adaptation in E. coli. When I told others that ecological adaptation is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in species from microbes to humans, he blocked me from seeing his comments. Evidently he did not want people to know that he had been studying ecological adaptation for more than 2 decades but reporting the adaptations in the context of neo-Darwinian theories about mutations and evolution. For further clarification of that fact see:
Cryo-electron tomography reveals that dynactin recruits a team of dyneins for processive motility

…the mechanisms responsible for increased transport activity are not well understood, largely owing to limited structural information. We used cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize the 3D structure of the MT-bound dynein–dynactin complex from Mus musculus and show that the dynactin–cargo adaptor complex binds two dimeric dyneins. This configuration imposes spatial and conformational constraints on both dynein dimers.

This spatial and conformational constraints were reported as: Microscopic chariots deliver molecules within our cells

This discovery was totally unexpected, and will change how this motor complex is represented in cell biology and biochemistry text books,” says Saikat Chowdhury, PhD, a TSRI research associate and co-first author of the study.

“There had been years of biophysical experiments and biochemical experiments, and it was always assumed that there was just one dynein molecule,” Lander adds.

Assuming there was just one dynein molecule is something that only a biologically uninformed theorist would do. An energy-dependent difference in two molecules is required for movement and for biophysical constraints on movement. For comparison, all discoveries that link energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems were anticipated by Richard P. Feynman in his claims about Plenty of Room at the Bottom.He linked his claims about the size of letters in a code from atoms to ecosystems in the context of Food Energy and denigrated the works of all theorists in The key to science (Cornell, 1964)
See also McEwen et al., (1964) Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”
Everything known to serious scientists links cryo-ET and cryo-EM technology from ecological niche construction to socio-cognitive niche construction via food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions in the microtubules, which link differences in animal behavior to human consciousness.
See: Untangling Neurodegenerative Diseases using Cryo-Electron Microscopy
Everything known about prevention of all pathology starts with the creation of sunlight.
See: Far-UVC light: A new tool to control the spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases

In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that very low doses of far-UVC light efficiently inactivate airborne viruses carried by aerosols. For example, a very low dose of 2 mJ/cm2 of 222-nm light inactivates >95% of airborne H1N1 virus. Our results indicate that far-UVC light is a powerful and inexpensive approach for prevention and reduction of airborne viral infections without the human health hazards inherent with conventional germicidal UVC lamps. If these results are confirmed in other scenarios, it follows that the use of overhead very low level far-UVC light in public locations may represent a safe and efficient methodology for limiting the transmission and spread of airborne-mediated microbial diseases. Public locations such as hospitals, doctors’ offices, schools, airports and airplanes might be considered here. This approach may help limit seasonal influenza epidemics, transmission of tuberculosis, as well as major pandemics.

Reported as: Special UV light safely kills airborne flu virus, finds study

In the study, aerosolized H1N1 virus—a common strain of flu virus—was released into a test chamber and exposed to very low doses of 222 nm far-UVC light. A control group of aerosolized virus was not exposed to the UVC light. The far-UVC light efficiently inactivated the flu viruses, with about the same efficiency as conventional germicidal UV light.

They confirmed the fact that UV light biophysically constrains the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
See also: Photon-Mediated Quantum Gate between Two Neutral Atoms in an Optical Cavity

Quantum logic gates are fundamental building blocks of quantum computers. Their integration into quantum networks requires strong qubit coupling to network channels, as can be realized with neutral atoms and optical photons in cavity quantum electrodynamics. Here we demonstrate that the long-range interaction mediated by a flying photon performs a gate between two stationary atoms inside an optical cavity from which the photon is reflected. This single step executes the gate in 2μs. We show an entangling operation between the two atoms by generating a Bell state with 76(2)% fidelity. The gate also operates as a cnot. We demonstrate 74.1(1.6)% overlap between the observed and the ideal gate output, limited by the state preparation fidelity of 80.2(0.8)%. As the atoms are efficiently connected to a photonic channel, our gate paves the way towards quantum networking with multiqubit nodes and the distribution of entanglement in repeater-based long-distance quantum networks.

Reported as: Light controls two-atom quantum computation

This interaction is the basis for performing characteristic gate operations between the atoms, for example the operation as a CNOT gate or the generation of entanglement. The new method offers a variety of advantages: for example, the gate operations take place within microseconds which is an asset for quantum information processing.

Quantized energy is the information that must be biophysically constrained and transferred from hydrogen-atoms in DNA base pairs in solution. That fact seems to have escaped the attention of biologically uninformed pseudoscientists and most so-called science journalists. The pseudoscientists and other theorists linked the emergence of the energy to the evolution of all biodiversity outside the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
See for comparison to what serious scientist have done:Experimental Evidence of Radiation Reaction in the Collision of a High-Intensity Laser Pulse with a Laser-Wakefield Accelerated Electron Beam

The dynamics of energetic particles in strong electromagnetic fields can be heavily influenced by the energy loss arising from the emission of radiation during acceleration, known as radiation reaction. When interacting with a high-energy electron beam, today’s lasers are sufficiently intense to explore the transition between the classical and quantum radiation reaction regimes. We present evidence of radiation reaction in the collision of an ultrarelativistic electron beam generated by laser-wakefield acceleration (ϵ>500MeV) with an intense laser pulse (a0>10). We measure an energy loss in the postcollision electron spectrum that is correlated with the detected signal of hard photons (γ rays), consistent with a quantum description of radiation reaction. The generated γ rays have the highest energies yet reported from an all-optical inverse Compton scattering scheme, with critical energy ϵcrit>30MeV.

Reported as: Intense laser experiments provide first evidence that light can stop electrons

“One thing I always find so fascinating about this is that the electrons are stopped as effectively by this sheet of light, a fraction of a hair’s breadth thick, as by something like a millimetre of lead. That is extraordinary.”

The data from the experiment also agrees better with a theoretical model based on the principles of quantum electrodynamics, rather than Maxwell’s equations, potentially providing some of the first evidence of previously untested quantum models.

Effects of quantized energy as information cannot be defined in the context of equations, which is why physicists have traditionally been ridiculed for any attempt to explain energy-dependent top-down causation in the context of biophysically constrained healthy longevity.

All species on Earth exhibit an undefined, incalculable, innate ability to biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency. That ability is food energy-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. Food energy comes from sunlight, either directly or indirectly via plant grown and the creation of microRNAs in plants. Serious scientists know how to light the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to DNA repair.
See: Watson–Crick Base Pairing Controls Excited-State Decay in Natural DNA (2014)
Reported as: Base-pairing protects DNA from UV damage

…the Watson-Crick base-pairing mechanism itself controls the dissipation of the absorbed UV energy. This contradicts the conventional wisdom, which holds that the base sequence within the same strand is responsible for the deactivation of excited states,” says Wolfgang Zinth.

See also:  Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution (2015)

Ultrafast deactivation pathways bestow photostability on nucleobases and hence preserve the structural integrity of DNA following absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. One controversial recovery mechanism proposed to account for this photostability involves electron-driven proton transfer (EDPT) in Watson–Crick base pairs. The first direct observation is reported of the EDPT process after UV excitation of individual guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairs by ultrafast time-resolved UV/visible and mid-infrared spectroscopy. The formation of an intermediate biradical species (G[−H]⋅C[+H]) with a lifetime of 2.9 ps was tracked. The majority of these biradicals return to the original G⋅C Watson–Crick pairs, but up to 10 % of the initially excited molecules instead form a stable photoproduct G*⋅C* that has undergone double hydrogen-atom transfer. The observation of these sequential EDPT mechanisms across intermolecular hydrogen bonds confirms an important and long debated pathway for the deactivation of photoexcited base pairs, with possible implications for the UV photochemistry of DNA.

See also:  UV Irradiation Induces a Non-coding RNA that Functionally Opposes the Protein Encoded by the Same Gene (2017)
Reported as: Noncoding RNA Helps Cells Recover from DNA Damage
My comment to the Scientist:

There is clear evidence that femtosecond blasts of UV light repair DNA in the context of energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and autophagy, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and the degradation of messenger RNA.

The failure to integrate the Nobel Prize winning works of Ben Feringa (Chemisty 2016) and Yoshinori Ohsumi (Physiology or Medicine 2016) prevents theorists from linking what organisms eat to their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in the context of Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?”(1944) and this claim by Roger Penrose in the reprint edition:

“How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?” (Roger Penrose 8 August 1991)

See also: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior In our section on molecular epigenetics, we wrote:

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

The food energy that is linked from alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA to the chemistry of protein folding and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera seems to be largely ignored by those who are not Nobel Laureates.

It links the virus-driven theft of quantized energy from the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology, and physicists cannot explain that fact with math and definitions. They tried with de Vries 1902 definition of mutations, and they have failed miserably ever since.

See: Amino acid–base interactions: a three-dimensional analysis of protein–DNA interactions at an atomic level (2001)

To assess whether there are universal rules that govern amino acid–base recognition, we investigate hydrogen bonds, van der Waals contacts and water-mediated bonds in 129 protein–DNA complex structures. DNA–backbone interactions are the most numerous, providing stability rather than specificity. For base interactions, there are significant base–amino acid type correlations, which can be rationalised by considering the stereochemistry of protein side chains and the base edges exposed in the DNA structure.

See also: Systematic prediction of DNA shape changes due to CpG methylation explains [quantized energy-dependent] epigenetic effects… (2018)
The effects of sunlight and quantum chemistry link energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differentiation of all cell types in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction, which is controlled by pheromones in species from microbes to humans. Pheromones biophysically constrain viral latency in all animals that need to eat for their species to survive.

Cryo-EM technology predicts RNA-mediated DNA shape, which means the technology can be used to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology in the context of the games “Cytosis” and “Subatomic.”
When “Subatomic” is available, players will link what is known to all serious scientists who present during “Schrodinger at 75” to the overwhemling amount of pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists during the past 75 years.

Theorists failed to link subatomic particles to biophysically constrained viral latency via the “Virus Expansion” from “Cytosis.” That fact led to this admission of ignorance:

Microscopic chariots deliver molecules within our cells https://phys.org/news/2018-02-microscopic-chariots-molecules-cells.html

Excerpt: This discovery was totally unexpected, and will change how this motor complex is represented in cell biology and biochemistry text books,” says Saikat Chowdhury, PhD, a TSRI research associate and co-first author of the study.

“There had been years of biophysical experiments and biochemical experiments, and it was always assumed that there was just one dynein molecule,” Lander adds.

My comment: All the discoveries that have since linked energy-dependent changes from electrons to ecosystems were anticipated by Richard P. Feynman in his claims about “Plenty of Room at the Bottom.” Everything known to serious scientists links cryo-EM technology from ecological niche construction to socio-cognitive niche construction via food energy-dependent amino acid substitutions in the microtubules that link differences in animal behavior to human consciousness.

It will good to see “Subatomic” placed into the context of the admission that there are two dynein molecules. Others may begin to see the levels of complexity that must be represented in game play to prevent further assumptions based on ignorance of particle physics and energy transfer that biophysically constrains viral latency.

The fact that many people can readily learn more than most theoretical physicists have learned about subatomic particles and cell biology by playing games for fun is an exciting development for scientists and laypersons.

Magnus S. Magnusson wrote: James Kohl it [the Neil deGrasse Tyson meme] was not aimed at you, of course, understand that it is about the genera educational situation. BTW Einstein mostly missed biology and Hawking says the 21. century will be that of biology, which I also believe.”
The Icelandic atheist and hate monger, blocked me before I could comment further on Neil deGrasse Tyson’s overwhelming display of ignorance.
George FR Ellis, who co-authored with Stephen Hawking in the 60’s has already validated my model. See: Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience

George F R Ellis This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics.

The Genius Games series from John Coveyou is the way forward. The games successfully link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from top-down causation to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via a model that links electrons to ecosystems.

See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

IMG_3010

Enzyme-constrained interethnic diversity (7)

Summary:  I suspect that John Hewitt will soon publish an article on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes. He is most likely to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information to all pathology without challenging pseudoscientists and other science journalists to revise their ridiculous claims about mutation-driven evolution.
Digital medicine, on its way to being just plain medicine

There are already nearly 30,000 peer-reviewed English-language scientific journals, producing an estimated 2.5 million articles a year.

Until recently, no published works linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from ATP to the creation of RNA and biophysically constrained viral latency.
But see: EXD2 governs germ stem cell homeostasis and lifespan by promoting mitoribosome integrity and translation January 15, 2018

“Loss of EXD2 results in defective mitochondrial translation, impaired respiration, reduced ATP production…” and “…aberrant association of messenger RNAs with the mitochondrial ribosome.

Exonuclease 3′ –5′ domain-containing 2 (EXD2) is a mitochondrial ribonuclease. A ribonuclease is a type of nuclease that catalyzes the degradation of RNA into smaller components such as microRNAs. A nuclease is an enzyme capable of cleaving the phosphodiester bonds between monomers of nucleic acids. EXD2 is required for mitoribosome integrity and efficient mitochondrial translation.
See: The Excitable Mitochondria by John Hewitt, who brought the article on EXD2 to my attention in his tweets. The link from energy-dependent changes in EXD2 to homeostasis predicts the link from reduced ATP production to the virus-driven degradation of EXD2 to the aberrant associations that link mutations in messenger RNA to all pathology. I suspect that John Hewitt will soon publish an article on the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs and enzymes. He is most likely to link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information to all pathology without challenging pseudoscientists and other science journalists to revise their ridiculous claims about mutation-driven evolution. Challenging your peers leads to your elimination from consideration. Your peers cannot rise to the ocassion and meet the challenge, so they must ignore you.
As I finalize this series on enzyme-constrained interethnic diversity, I also offer information from my largely ignored FB posts on the anniversary dates indicated:
January 10, 2017

The scent of eros: mysteries of odor in human sexuality

“This is science at its best, with adventure, ideas, and lots of facts”. — Helen Fisher

“A treasure hunt through history, literature, and scientific data”. — Gina Ogden

On pages 160-162 of “The Scent of Eros” (1995/2002) we linked race and ethnicity to all biodiversity via the same model of biologically-based cause and effect. It is still the only valid model.

What exactly do people think was still being debated about the fact that all organisms must eat to reproduce, or that pheromones control the physiology of reproduction in all living genera?

How could race and ethnicity not be aspects of a valid model of biologically-based cause and effect unless pseudoscientists convinced you to believe in mutation-driven evolution?

January 10, 2016

This serves as a reminder to all sex researchers. Most of them understand nothing about how RNA-mediated sex differences in cell types are linked to sex differences in #behavior by nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions.
They refused to accept the fact that the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements link the molecular epigenetics of cell type differentiation in all cell types of all individuals of all species from microbes to humans.

Xistential crisis: Discovery shows there’s more to the story in silencing X chromosomes
Xist is widely believed to be both necessary and sufficient for X silencing,” … “We for the first time show that it’s not sufficient, that there have to be other factors, on the X-chromosome itself, that activate Xist and then cooperate with Xist RNA to silence the X-chromosome.
An example of how 20 years of ignorance about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation leads to “NEW” discoveries.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior 1996
Genomic-imprinting is also manifest in specific parts of the X-inactivation region’s related XIST gene. Here male- and female-specific methyl-group patterns participate in X-inactivation in females and also in the preferential inactivation of the paternal X in human placentae of female concepti (Harrison, 1989; Monk, 1995). This process indicates that tissues of the early conceptus can sense and react differentially to epigenetic sexual dimorphisms on the female conceptus’ own two X chromosomes. Furthermore, variations of X-inactivation patterns often account for traits discordance in monozygotic twin females. In other words, they are often found to have nonidentical patterns of X-inactivation, yielding differing expression of noticeable X-linked traits (Machin, 1996).
January 10, 2017

The anniversary of an attack on science.

Odious Christianity
Ray Comfort

Professor PZ Myers hates Christianity. Nor is he a big fan of my good friend, Ken Ham.
In writing about his hatred, PZ unwittingly showed his hand when he said,

“I reject his notion of sin — the idea that there is some kind of divine law against which we can transgress — but humanists do not deny that we can do wrong and we can do harm. We think we should do better, not to appease some vengeful deity, but because it improves our lives and helps make those around us happier and better able to live up to their potential. We certainly do accept that death is inevitable, but not because we are wicked — the wicked often seem to flourish while the good may die young. Are we to measure the virtue of human beings by their longevity? Charles Manson is 82, and surely destined to join the saints in heaven, while every infant death must open a chute directly to hell for its wicked soul.”
His hatred is perfectly in line with the Bible:
“Because the carnal mind is enmity against God; for it is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be” (Romans 8:7).
PZ is unashamedly godless (a state the Bible refers to as “carnal”), and so his mind is at “enmity” against God. That means he is in a continual state of hostility towards his Creator. That certainly is true. Even though he doesn’t believe that He exists, but he contemptuously hates the very thought of “a god.”
But look at the pinpoint accuracy of the Scriptures:
“…for it [our carnal mind] is not subject to the law of God, nor indeed can be.”
His hatred is directed at the “law of God,”–the moral Law (the Ten Commandments).
PZ is like a criminal who hates the police, not because of who they are individually, but because of what they represent. They stand for the law–that which is right and good, and that is offensive to someone who loves and lives for crime.
PZ’s railings about his loved ones dying is tragic, but peripheral. They are not the main reason why he is angry.
His anger is primarily at God and His Law, because he doesn’t like being told what to do. Like you and I before we came to Christ, he loves his sin, and he who loves the darkness hates the light.
I’m not sure why PZ called Charles Manson “wicked,” when his atheistic worldview doesn’t allow for anyone to be “wicked.”
Or could it simply be that Manson transgressed the moral Law, which says “You shall not kill,” and PZ intuitively knows that, because of his God-given knowledge of right and wrong (see Romans 2:15).
It’s actually heartening to see him using his moral compass. If he would put down his weapons and study how God’s moral compass is infinitely higher, he may rethink his rejection of “The soul who sins, shall die.”
This is because every death is sobering evidence of the truth of that verse.
You can see PZ in action in our movie “Evolution vs God” (over 2 million views) at www.FullyFreeFilms.com
P.S. PZ hates the movie.

January 10, 2017

How Your Toxic Boss Is Hurting Your Mental Health

Get out before the DNA damage is irreparable.


I do not have a boss. But the stress of attempting to interest others in what is known about how biologically-based cause and effect must be linked to interethnic similarities and differences may prevent some further attempts to explain how DNA damage is biophysically constrained in the context of naturally occurring RNA interference and viral latency.
November 27, 2017 See: Damage-induced lncRNAs control the DNA damage response through interaction with DDRNAs at individual double-strand breaks
Reported on November 29, 2017 as: RNA takes over control of DNA break repair

Now, a study shows that following the formation of DNA double-strand breaks, bidirectional transcription events adjacent to the break generate small RNAs that trigger the DNA damage response by local RNA:RNA interactions.

The RNA:RNA interactions are energy-dependent and they link the creation of microRNAs to the creation of enzymes, receptors, and hormones that protect organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and all pathology.  But they are not just RNA:RNA interactions. The interactions among microRNAs and messenger RNA link food energy and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity on Earth without the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by biologically uninformed theorists and science journalists such as Ed Yong and Carl Zimmer.

 
"Evolution of Man. - Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants.

Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (6)

I think that I may be able to finish this series before the end of the month and use my tweets to expose more than 100,000  people to what is known about how the energy-dependent creation of microRNAs prevents all pathology.
See for one example of more than 68,000 published works:
MicroRNA-22 suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting NLRP3
For an extensive review of biologically-based biophysically constrained viral latency, see:
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (1)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (2)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (3)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (4)
Enzyme-constrained interethnic biodiversity (5)
Moving forward:

 
See: Celgene Near Acquisition of Impact Biomedicines

Chief Executive Officer Mark Alles has pledged to look outside Celgene’s own labs for new drugs to bolster its pipeline, telling investors in October that “we look for opportunity all the time.”

The CEOs of companies like this have been looking in all the wrong places for several decades. All of “Big Pharma” is dangerously close to collapse under the weight of evidence known to serious scientists who have linked physics and chemistry to the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation that protect all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
The CEOs don’t want you to be freaked out by the price tag for medications that will bankrupt the economy of the United States of America. But, quite frankly, this freaks me out.
See also:  An $850,000 Price Tag on Gene Therapy Shouldn’t Freak You Out—Yet

Spark’s Luxturna was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December for patients who have a genetic mutation in the RPE65 gene, which causes degenerative retinal disease.

The therapy, which is injected into the eye, contains millions of engineered virus particles containing correct copies of the gene. The treatment improves vision but doesn’t fully restore it.

The real test may come when Spark and other companies start winning approval to sell gene-replacement therapies for diseases like hemophilia and sickle-cell anemia, which affect tens of thousands of people in the U.S.

Spark’s inadvertently appears to claim gene-replacement therapies can prevent the virus-driven theft of messenger RNA that causes the mutation in the RPE65 gene. If so, the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled hemoglobin S ecological adaptation will require treatment with enzymes or food supplements that increase the production of specific enzymes.
That might be the most effective treatment. However, sooner or later, people will learn that sickle-cell anemia is a food energy-dependent ecological adaptation that can be linked from one base pair change and one amino acid substitution to all other pathology. “Big Pharma” will then no longer control the economic success of the United States of America.
Indeed, this publication may drive the decline of the gene-editing component of the stock market:  Identification of Pre-Existing Adaptive Immunity to Cas9 Proteins in Humans
Pre-Existing Adaptive Immunity in Humans is RNA-mediated. The facts about interethnic variation in hemoglobin molecules link pre-existing humoral and cell-mediated adaptive immune responses from Cas9 to the RNA-mediated factors that must be taken into account before the CRISPR-Cas9 system moves forward into clinical trials. The CRISPR-Cas9 system damage to human DNA caused by gene editing could be prevented by something as relatively simple as enrolling more participants in studies like this one: Nevada Health Project Participants to Gain Access to Helix Genomics Marketplace
See for comparison: Exome Sequencing Data Links ADCY3 to Severe Obesity

Loss-of-function mutations in ADCY3 cause severe obesity, according to a series of new studies in Nature Genetics.

Exome sequencing yields much more data than genotyping does and the data conclusively shows that there is no such thing as a gain-of-function mutation. That is why food energy-dependent changes in SNPs have consistently been linked to interethnic biodiversity and to differences in longevity in modern human populations like the Amish.
See also:  Pfizer Ends Hunt for Drugs to Treat Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s by Jonathan.Rockoff@wsj.com
The end of the hunt links Bruce McEwen’s works to the beginning of the search for effective treatments that must help to biophysically constrain viral latency if they are used to treat some neurodegenerative diseases.
Bruce McEwen’s works, link energy-dependent cell type differentiation from feedback loops that link olfaction to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
Historical perspective: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” McEwen et al., (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

For a practical application of facts that McEwen’s life’s works have detailed since 1964, see:
Pheromones and the luteinizing hormone for inducing proliferation of neural stem cells and neurogenesis
The fact that human pheromones biophysically constrain the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases has been known to all serious scientists since the time that this was published in 1994.
Pheromonal regulation of genetic processes: research on the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)
The conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation have not changed since the dawn of the energy-dependent creation of ATP and RNA.
 
That fact was indirectly represented in New Description of the Rostral Migratory Stream in Adult Mice Brains Delineating the Starter of the Stream as an Infundibulum: A New Described Limb, by H&E and Antidoublecortin Antibody 

Conclusion: The neuroblasts take different arrangement through their period of life from their site of origin to their final destination the olfactory bulb through the RMS.

The creation of the neuroblasts and their energy-dependent niche construction in the olfactory bulb is tractable to the niche creation of bacteria, which neo-Darwinian theorists seem to think occurs in the context of the evolution of functional structures such as the flagellum via a “quantum leap.”
See: Biologists Trace Evolution of Bacterial Flagellar Motors

This clear separation between primitive and sophisticated species represents a ‘quantum leap’ in evolution…

That claim represents a return to de Vries definition of mutation, which Schrodinger (1944) placed into the context of his organized thoughts about biophysically constrained biodiversity with my emphasis.

“…about forty years ago [in1902] the Dutchman de Vries discovered that… a very small number of individuals, say two or three in tens of thousands, turn up with small but ‘jump-like’ changes, the expression ‘jump-like’ not meaning that the change is so very considerable, but that there is a discontinuity inasmuch as there are no intermediate forms between the unchanged and the few changed. De Vries called that a mutation. The significant fact is the discontinuity. It reminds a physicist of quantum theory -no intermediate energies occurring between two neighbouring energy levels. He would be inclined to call de Vries’s mutation theory, figuratively, the quantum theory of biology. We shall see later that this is much more than figurative. The mutations are actually due to quantum jumps in the gene molecule.

See for comparison: Evolution of higher torque in Campylobacter-type bacterial flagellar motors (January 8, 2018)

Phylogenetic inference was made using maximum-likelihood in GARLI (v2.01.1067)23, using Jones, Taylor and Thornton (JTT) amino acid substitution rates24.

Phylogenetic inferences still seem to be based on a definition of mutation from  1902. For comparison, all serious scientists have learned that the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction links the fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the cell types of all individuals of all species from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity in all living genera.
I have placed the proof of concept for my model into a series of blog posts on “Interethnic Diversity” in an attempt to help biologically uninformed theorists join serious scientists from the 21st century who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease
Recruits are required to take intelligence tests and compete basic training with an essay on top-down causation that links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the physiology of reproduction to all biodiversity on Earth without mention of mutation or evolution.
Recommended reading includes a monograph from Bruce McEwen about his life’s works, and one recently published work that was co-authored by Bruce McEwen:
See: Redefining neuroendocrinology: Epigenetics of brain-body communication over the life course
The details of natural biological rhythms; “allostatic overload” (as a natural part of autophagy and limits on population density);
a natural molecule acetyl-L-carnitine (LAC);  our natural day-night rhythm; and natural cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation are linked from a naturalistic rodent model to interethnic biodiversity. There is no mention of natural selection and only one mention of evolution and one mention of mutation.
See also: Loss of APOBEC1 RNA-editing function in microglia exacerbates age-related CNS pathophysiology
RNA interference links base editing from microRNA editing to the energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.

Bruce McEwen’s works and his advice: “Start with gene activation (in GnRH neurosecretory neurons)” led to publication of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. We linked food energy to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity in species from yeasts to primates via alternative splicing of pre-mRNA.
From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…  That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.

The fact that sex differences do not evolve has since been linked to all the other differences in cell types that did not evolve. The National Microbiome Initiative has been linked to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to refutations of all the pseudoscientific nonsense that has been touted by theorists during the past few decades of stalled scientific progress.
See for another example. Epigenetic supersimilarity of monozygotic twin pairs

…we identified genomic regions at which the epigenetic similarity of monozygotic twins is substantially greater than can be explained by their genetic identity. This “epigenetic supersimilarity” apparently results from locus-specific establishment of epigenotype prior to embryo cleavage during twinning. Epigenetically supersimilar loci exhibit systemic interindividual epigenetic variation and plasticity to periconceptional environment and are enriched in sub-telomeric regions. In case-control studies nested in a prospective cohort, blood DNA methylation at these loci years before diagnosis is associated with risk of developing several types of cancer.

Reported as: Identical twins can share more than identical genes: Molecular similarity

For decades, researchers have studied genetically identical twins to estimate what proportion of disease risk is determined by one’s genes. To the extent that epigenetic supersimilarity affects risk of disease, as our results indicate, genetic risk estimates based on twin studies have been inflated.

This is how sex researchers stalled scientific progress. They failed to recognize that all molecular similarities and differences are food energy-dependent and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all similarities and differences must be links from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to the energy-dependent biodiversity that is displayed in all life on Earth.
Public health bodies such as the CDC are mandated to meet the needs of all people, in all their diversity.
All diversity is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained in the context of the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which links autophagy to viral latency. The Trump administration is clearly making an attempt to ensure that the CDC does not obfuscate the language used by serious scientists. Serious scientists know how to link physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to biophysically constrained viral latency by one or more RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The amino acid substitutions are consistently referred to as mutations in examples of human idiocy:
See: Brief report: Geographic variation in EGFR mutation frequency in lung adenocarcinoma may be explained by interethnic genetic variation The full article can be downloaded from here: http://bit.ly/2z97l9b
EDAR V370A and ABCC11 G180A are the two energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that the authors refer to as mutations, which they link to interethnic genetic variation in the context of de Vries 1902 definition of mutation and A Civic Biology: Presented in Problems (1914).
pp. 195-196

Evolution of Man. – Undoubtedly there once lived upon the earth races of men who were much lower in their mental organization than the present inhabitants. If we follow the early history of man upon the earth, we find that at first he must have been little better than one of the lower animals.

p. 263

If such people were lower animals, we would probably kill them off to prevent them from spreading. Humanity will not allow this, but we do have the remedy of separating the sexes in asylums or other places and in various ways preventing intermarriage and the possibilities of perpetuating such a low and degenerate race. Remedies of this sort have been tried successfully in Europe and are now meeting with success in this country.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

A Mathematical Model Links Quantum Physics to Quantum Souls (1)

Historical facts: All energy-dependent cell type differentiation is biophysically constrained by the de novo creation of microRNAs and enzymes that metabolize food and drugs. All food energy-dependent metabolism occurs in the context of microRNA-mediated cause and effect and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. The food energy-dependent pheromone controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria links what organisms eat to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of their morphological and behavioral phenotypes. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology in the context of the National Microbiome Initiative, the Precision Medicine Initiative, Alpha Genomix profiling of pathways linked to the creation of CYP enzymes and test results that differentiate the most likely response to some medications based on fixation of  RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of different people and different populations of modern humans.
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems (2014)
The ingestion of sago palm-like leaves linked increased endogenous vitamin C from the stability of the mouse genome to the stability of the organized genome in a modern human population via one base pair change and the fixation of one RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See also: Towards a systemic paradigm in carcinogenesis: linking epigenetics and genetics (2015)

The SMT’s [Somatic mutation theory’s] fundamental assumption is that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm.

See for comparison: Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention
Watch as 2 of 3 co-authors of the article about can prevention tell the world that cancer is caused by “bad luck.”

Now see one of the 3 co-authors admit to his overwhelming ignorance in: Why Is This Bacterium Hiding in Human Tumors?

“The whole idea of bacteria in tumors is fascinating and unexpected,” said Dr. Bert Vogelstein, a colon cancer researcher at Johns Hopkins.

  1. The fundamental assumption that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA in bacteria to the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria and healthy longevity via error-free DNA repair.
  2. The fundamental assumption that there is no cancer without genetic or chromosomal harm links virus-driven pathology to cell type-specific and species-specific pathology in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera via the failure of microRNA-mediated error-free DNA repair.

There is now a mathematical model of top-down causation that links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy on contact with water to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and all biodiversity via RNA-mediated error-free DNA repair. The mathematical model refutes the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists because it starts with the creation of the sun, which biophysically constrains viral latency. The importance of linking this mathematical model to all models of biologically-based cause and effect cannot be overstated.
See: Quantum Vacuum Dynamics, Coherence, Superluminal Photons and Hypercomputation in Brain Microtubules

After the Schrodinger’s intuition, expressed in his book “What is life?” [12], the first systematic approach to a quantum interpretation of biological process dated back to the model proposed by Frohlich [13] several years ago. He suggested the occurrence, in biological matter, of macroscopic quantum phenomena able to explain the energy transport without loss in the living organisms and signal transfer based on collective coherent oscillations associated to a branch of longitudinal
electric modes in the frequency range [ ] also known as Frohlich frequency. So in living systems, according to Frohlich’s model, energy could be stored in a thin two – dimensional layer placed beneath the cell membrane, that in this way would act as a biological superconducting medium, under dipolar propagating waves without thermal loss [13].

The ridiculous assumptions about thermal loss and evolution were placed into the context of other ridiculous assumptions that failed to start from the creation of the sun and link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun from food energy to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
For comparison see: Reversing the thermodynamic arrow of time using quantum correlations

We observe a spontaneous heat flow from the cold to the hot system. This process is enabled by a trade off between correlations and entropy that we quantify with information-theoretical quantities.

Reported as: Experiment shows that arrow of time is a relative concept, not an absolute one

The second law of thermodynamics says that entropy, or disorder, tends to increase over time, which is why everything in the world around us appears to unfold forward in time. But it also explains why hot tea grows cold rather than hot. In this new effort, the researchers found an exception to this rule that works in a way that doesn’t violate the rules of physics as they have been defined.
The idea of entangled particles has been in the news a lot lately as researchers around the world attempt to use it for various purposes—but there is another lesser-known property of particles that is similar in nature, but slightly different. It is when particles become correlated, which means they become linked in ways that do not happen in the larger world. Like entanglement, correlated particles share information, though it is not as strong of a bond. In this new experiment, the researchers used this property to change the direction of the arrow of time.

Succinctly stated as:

This observation did not violate the second law of thermodynamics, the group explains, because the second law assumes there are no correlations between particles.

The ridiculous assumption that there are no correlations between subatomic particles led to assumptions that energy emerged and that all life evolved in the context of mutations and natural selection, which led to the “bad luck” theory of cancer.
Frohlich’s model was dismissed and so was the the fact that “…energy could be stored in a thin two – dimensional layer placed beneath the cell membrane, that in this way would act as a biological superconducting medium, under dipolar propagating waves without thermal loss [13].
[13.] Long-range coherence and energy storage in biological systems (1968)

Biological systems are expected to have a branch of longitudinal electric modes in a frequency region between 1011 and 1012 sec−1. They are based on the dipolar properties of cell membranes; of certain bonds recurring in giant molecules (such as H bonds) and possibly on pockets of non-localized electrons. In Section 2 it is shown quit generally that if energy is supplied above a certain mean rate to such a branch, then a steady state will be reached in which a single mode of this branch is very strongly excited. The supplied energy is thus not completely thermalized but stored in a highly ordered fashion. This order expresses itself in long-range phase correlations; the phenomenon has considerable similarity with the low-temperature condensation of a Bose gas. General consequences and proposals of experiments are discussed in section 3.

Four years earlier, McEwen et al., (1964) linked the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the creation of ATP and the creation of RNA.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

That same year, Dobzhansky (1964) first asserted this claim:

The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.

In 1973, Dobzhansky again mocked all the pseudoscientists whose mathematical model failed to link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic energy from the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to RNA-mediated fixation of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all living genera.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution
He assumed that all serious scientists would recognize that the light of evolution linked Schrodinger’s claims about sunlight to all biodiversity via the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions.
He claimed

“…one can calculate the minimum numbers of single mutations needed to change the cytochrome C of one organism into that of another.”

He linked that calculation to this fact:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

The levels of complexity that must be addressed by the calculations have since been addressed and reported in: Quantum Vacuum Dynamics, Coherence, Superluminal Photons and Hypercomputation in Brain Microtubules
Nothing has changed about the facts that all serious scientists have linked from biophysically constrained viral latency to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
For example, see: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

See also Cytosis:A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Darwinian adaptation: a clear evolutionary trail?

Summary: The light harvesting occurs in the ocean and on land. It links the creation of sunlight from food energy to the physiology of pheromone-controlled viral latency in all living genera, and all serious scientists know that.
 

Origins of photosynthesis in plants dated to 1.25 billion years ago

The world’s oldest algae fossils are a billion years old, according to a new analysis by earth scientists. Based on this finding, the researchers also estimate that the basis for photosynthesis in today’s plants was set in place 1.25 billion years ago.

A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.

See for comparison:  Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (video)
For contrast, Philip Ball separates the origin of photosynthesis in plants from the origin of bioluminescence in bacteria in the ocean.
See: Water is an active matrix of life for cell and molecular biology

1) Water is a complex fluid in its own right (4, 5), and Darwinian adaptation to a complex milieu might be expected to generate much the same kind of enmeshing and interplay of the biological and environmental at the molecular scale that we find at higher levels of life’s organizational hierarchy.

Higher levels of organization are no different than other levels of organization. Organization is organization. But Philip Ball is a deceptive journalist. Neo-Darwinian evolution becomes Darwinian adaptation, which links the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from feedback loops and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction to microRNA-mediated autophagy and biophysically constrained viral latency in species from microbes to human. That causes the biologically uniformed journalist to claim:

2) All of this touches on the astrobiological question mentioned at the outset: should we, like Henderson (88) in 1913, regard water as uniquely “biophilic” and “fit” to act as life’s matrix?

There is no astrobiological question.  See the comments section on Understanding and accounting for relational context is critical for social neuroscience
George F R Ellis This is absolutely correct and forms part of the larger concept that top-down causation is a key factor not just in the way the brain works but in broader contexts in biology and even physics. This is explored here: http://rsfs.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/2/1.toc 25 Apr 2014 at 07:49am
I wrote:  Socioaffective neuroscience and psychology may progress more quickly by keeping these apparent facts in mind: Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).
Philip Ball has since changed the clear evolutionary trail that links the sense of smell to ecological adaptation. Ecological variation links the creation of enzymes that metabolize food and drugs to his claim about  Darwinian adaptation.
See also for a recent representation of his word-play: Quantum common sense

We don’t need a conscious mind to measure or look. With or without us, the Universe is always looking

There are stark difference in his claims about a Universe that is always looking that can be compared via claims about the creation of a universe in which viral latency is biophysically constrained by feedback loops. The feedback loops link food odors and pheromones from the physiology of reproduction in all living genera to all biodiversity via autophagy and the microRNA-mediated creation of supercoiled DNA.
In the spirit of the Christmas season and an attempt to stop the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by biologically uniformed theorists and journalists like Philip Ball, see: Quantized Energy Links Olfaction from Angstroms to Ecosystems Part 2 (video excerpt <2 minutes long)
Remember, Santa Claus (or someone like him) is coming soon. Philip Ball may not be prepared for that. He has been a very bad boy. At the same time that President Trump, who tries his best to be good, has been accused of censorship and compared to Hitler.  I do not think that President Trump would try to change neo-Darwinian evolution to Darwinian adaptation without mentioning how the speed of light on contact with water changes everything.
Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
Reported as: … the conditions that produce nucleic acid precursors also create the starting materials needed to make natural amino acids and lipids. That suggests a single set of [light activated] reactions could have given rise to most of life’s building blocks simultaneously.
All the theories can be linked via facts to creationist science that has been supported with experimental evidence of biophysically constrained viral latency as presciently foretold by
1) Schrodinger,
2) Feynman,
3) Dobzhansky
4) McEwen,
and by
5) Eshel Ben-Jacob, who wrote: Bacterial self-organization: co-enhancement of complexification and adaptability in a dynamic environment 
Note his use of the term adaptability. It may have led Philip Ball to change Darwinian evolution to Darwinian adaptation.
See also: Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing

Focusing on the energy, matter, and thermodynamic imbalances provided by the environment, Schrodinger proposed that life required the consumption of negative entropy, that is, the use of thermodynamic imbalances in the environment. From the perspective of thermodynamics, each bacterium can be viewed as a complex system that is composed of an “engine” that uses imbalances in the environment to do work, and a “machine” that uses this energy (to act against the natural course of entropy increase) for the synthesis of organic substances.13 A third information-processing system is also needed for the coordination and synchronization of the functioning of the engine and the machine. Namely, a living cell is analogous to a complex man-made cybernetic system, or a “chimera,” composed of information processing systems and of at least two thermodynamic elements. In addition, using the outer membrane, cells sense the environment.

We proposed that, besides “negative entropy,” organisms sense the environment to extract latent embedded information.13 By latent information we refer to data embedded in the environment that, once processed cognitively, initiates change in the organism’s function or behavior. Information induces changes; hence it can be used to generate an internal condensed description (model or usable information) of the environment, which guides the organism’s functioning.

See also: QuEBS 2018: Workshop on Quantum Effects in Biological Systems  has established itself as an outstanding stage to present the research in the intersection of physics, chemistry and biology. This field has… established excitons in biology as the “must-talk-language” when describing the quantum effects in biological light-harvesting systems.
The light harvesting occurs in the ocean and on land. It links the creation of sunlight from food energy to the physiology of pheromone-controlled viral latency in all living genera, and all serious scientists know that. If Philip Ball just realized that, he knows he has a long-standing problem with misrepresentations of  top-down causation. In any case, it is important to know that he has forced all theorists and journalists to acknowledge the likelihood that Santa Claus is not just a figment of a child-like imagination, and that the creation of sunlight must be linked from its contact with water to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.
 

For God and Country

Tai Chi vs PTSD and cancer

The link from energy medicine to Precision medicine is clear to all serious scientists
Tai Chi Proves Beneficial for Veterans with PTSD

Anything that is relatively simple and inexpensive to implement in at-risk populations is not likely to be accepted by most politicians.

It would not be rejected by the CDC — if funding documentation excluded the words that the current director reportedly recently recommended be excluded.

See: BANNED: CDC Gets List Of ‘Forbidden Words’ From The Trump Administration

Instead of comparing Trump to Hitler, use of Tai Chi would be examined in the context of protection from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that causes all pathology. The cure for PTSD and suicide prevention would then more readily be linked from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all healthy longevity via the energy-dependent de novo creation of food energy-dependent microRNAs that protect us all from activation of the death gene in the context of autophagy.

Optimized food energy-dependent autophagy, which is the most likely cure for brain cancer and all other cancers, would be an added benefit — especially for veterans who return from military service overseas.

See: Reduced expression of brain-enriched microRNAs in glioblastomas permits targeted regulation of a cell death gene

See also: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (6.37 minute-long video)