Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent purifying selection / autophagy (2)

See: Energy-dependent purifying selection / autophagy

Thanks to Teresa Binstock for alerting me to this example, which was reported as: Shared epigenetic changes underlie different types of autism.

Teresa wrote: “You might enjoy a glance at a use of epigenetic technology. Findings begin to answer, why such syndrome-defining traits given such diverse inter-individual genetics and numerous associations with environmental factors.”

She co-authored our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. She took responsibility for the accurate representations of what was known about molecular epigenetics at that time, and nothing has changed since then. For an example of what has been ignored in the context of differences in brain development, see:

See also: Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis

My comment: Gene expression is energy-dependent. Virus-driven energy-theft prevents the gene expression that is required for cell type differentiation. Until theorists learn to place those facts into the context of RNA-mediated changes from physics to chemistry and the molecular epigenetics of cell type differentiation in all living genera the virus-driven threat to all humanity will be the biggest threat to have ever gone virtually unnoticed until it was probably too late to prevent the apocalypse.

See also Chinese group injects CRISPR edited cells into human test subject for first time

and see: Obama Advisers Urge Action Against CRISPR Bioterror Threat

For the past two decades, the government has focused its biodefense efforts on a list of known pathogens—such as anthrax, smallpox, and Ebola—declared by the Department of Health and Human Services and Department of Agriculture to have the “potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety.” Government-funded research on these pathogens receives special scrutiny, and the National Institutes of Health limits researchers from conducting experiments that could make certain germs, like influenza, more dangerous.

It has been two decades since publication of From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.

Our section on molecular epigenetics attests to fact about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, which is biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

Greg Bear is the only person I know who, until later today, put our claims into the context of a popular representation of accurate claims about what serious scientists know for comparison to the claims of neo-Darwinian theorists and other pseudoscientists, including many creationists.

See: The Darwin Code

See also (from later today):

Dinosaurs Gone Soft

See for an example of pseudoscientific nonsense: “Gender Differences in Recognition of Toy Faces Suggest a Contribution of Experience” reported as Finally, a type of face that men recognize better than women:

My comment: The pseudoscientific nonsense of social scientists is alive and well despite the fact that every aspect of their neo-Darwinian theories has been refuted by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect during the past twenty years.

See: Energy-dependent purifying selection / autophagy (3)

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Epigenetics and autophagy vs mutations and evolution (5)

Excerpt:

Yuste says he’s proud of what he and Denk accomplished. “But now I go to meetings where everyone is presenting two-photon calcium imaging, and no one knows, or remembers, or cites our work,” he says, laughing.

My comment: What else can be done but laugh? Most researchers still have not linked the anti-entropic energy of virucidal ultraviolet light from the biophysically constrained RNA-mediated chemistry of protein folding to all biodiversity in all genera despited the advances that link biophotonics and femotosecond blasts of UV light to DNA repair and to supercoiled DNA via the physiology of reproduction.

Many still seem to be largely unaware that supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy because they cannot see the femtosecond blasts. They decide to link mutations to the evolution of all biodiversity, instead.

See for comparison the molecular epigenetics section of our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

I stopped attending meetings where everyone is presenting on molecular epigenetics and no one knows, or remembers, or cites our work. Neo-Darwinian theorists have continued to present findings in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense and the are now trying to link the molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptation to a new ridiculous theory of evolution, which they refer to as adaptation.

Unified theory of evolution 

Introduction:

The unifying theme for much of modern biology is based on Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution, the process of natural selection by which nature selects the fittest, best-adapted organisms to reproduce, multiply and survive. The process is also called adaptation, and traits most likely to help an individual survive are considered adaptive.

My comment: The process of evolution was not called adaptation until people like Michael Skinner realized there is no such thing as mutation-driven evolution. They know it is obvious that nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry controls cell type differentiation because otherwise life could not exist on Earth.

See also: Why do some cancers suddenly disappear?

See also: Scientists analyze repeats in proteins implicated in neurological diseases

Glutamine is the amino acid coded for by the genomic trinucleotide CAG. Repeating glutamines, called polyglutamines, are normal in huntingtin proteins, but when the DNA is copied incorrectly, the repeating sequence of glutamines can become too long. The result can be diseases like Huntington’s or spinocerebellar ataxia.
The number of repeats of glutamine can grow as the genetic code information is passed down through generations. That means a healthy parent whose huntingtin gene encodes proteins with 35 repeats may produce a child with 36 repeats. A person having the longer repeat is likely to develop Huntington’s disease.

My comment: The number of repeats is nutrient energy-dependent and longer repeats link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Epigenetics and autophagy vs mutations and evolution

RNA interfernce in “evolution”

My comment: What evolved?
See for comparison: Energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry in the context of ecological adaptation.

 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

From Precis to Proof in 6000 years (3)

See first: Coulombic interactions facilitate polycombic adaptation
See also: From Precis to Proof in 6000 years (2)
See also: RNA catalyses nuclear pre-mRNA splicing 06 November 2013
Conclusion:

…our data indicate that the spliceosome, like the ribosome44,45, uses RNA to effect catalysis in the context of a complex ribonucleoprotein assembly. Moreover, the common catalytic mechanism used by the spliceosome and group II introns is consistent with a common evolutionary origin between the spliceosome and these ancient RNA retroelements46,47. Our findings thus support the idea that modern ribonucleoprotein enzymes evolved from a primordial ‘RNA world’ (ref. 48), in which catalysis was performed exclusively by RNA.

My comment: Claims that everything “evolved” are rarely seen in the context of data that links RNA-mediated physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics from the spliceosome and ribosome to catalysis and the complexity ribonucleoprotein assembly.  But here, they claimed: “Our findings thus support the idea that modern ribonucleoprotein enzymes evolved…”
See for comparison: Substantial contribution of extrinsic risk factors to cancer development 16 December 2015
Abstract conclusion

…rates of endogenous mutation accumulation by intrinsic processes are not sufficient to account for the observed cancer risks. Collectively, we conclude that cancer risk is heavily influenced by extrinsic factors. These results are important for strategizing cancer prevention, research and public health.

See for comparison: Cancer studies clash over mechanisms of malignancy 16 December 2015

Excerpt:

The authors also examined patterns in the mutations associated with certain cancers; ultraviolet light, for example, tends to create a tell-tale signature of mutations in DNA. And they used other mathematical models, expanding the data set used in the earlier work to include prostate and breast cancer — two of the most common cancers.

“There’s no question what’s at stake. This informs whether or not we expend energy on prevention.”

The models suggested that mutations during cell division rarely build up to the point of producing cancer, even in tissues with relatively high rates of cell division. In almost all cases, the team found that some exposure to carcinogens or other environmental factors would be needed to trigger disease.

My comment: Theories about mutation-driven evolution should have promptly been abandoned. Instead, this conference started on November 7, 2016: New trends in evolutionary biology: biological, philosophical and social science perspectives
 

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Top-down adaptation vs bottom-up evolution

Who rules the waves? – Viruses might just be bit players in the drama of the seas. Then again, they could be major actors
Excerpt:

Most consider viruses to be a legion of cripples, sterilised by ultraviolet radiation and rendered impotent by hosts that are largely immune to their threat. But a few researchers take the opposite view. And if they turn out to be right, viruses could radically alter the balance of life in the oceans, ripping away huge parts of the food web that supports whales, sea birds and the fisheries on which many people rely.

See the discussion attempt at: What does DNA have to do with the Origin of Life ?
My comment: Supercoiled DNA is the link from energy-dependent changes in angstroms to all ecosystems in all living genera. That fact has been established in the context of experimental evidence that links physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics and biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation at the level of quantum consciousness.

In an attempt to discuss my model on a Facebook group where Larry Kinser Jr., is an administrator and Taylor Kessinger is an antagonist,

I cited: Structural Dynamics and Mechanochemical Coupling in DNA Gyrase

I wrote: I predict that this group will be the first to link virus-driven energy theft to negative supercoiling in bacteria, but a student from Susan Rosenberg’s lab was on the same track several months ago when she contacted me. I also predict that mathematical models will continue to be as useless as they always have been due to their lack of explanatory power.
Previously, co-author Angelica Parente wrote: Do you have a source on this? I study bacterial supercoiling in the context of topoisomerase II structural biology. I’m assuming in honeybees it’s affecting chromatin dynamics? My lab would be really interested in learning more about this.
See also: Asking the right questions (1)
My comment: The Journal of Molecular Biology topic is “Mechanisms and Functional Diversity of Macromolecular Remodeling by ATP-Dependent Motors.” The authors have linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems via the conserved molecular mechanism of autophagy. The mechanisms link the innate immune system of bacteria to their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft and all pathology in all living genera.
See: 
1) Larry Kisner Sr. If the sun could kill viruses, you could harness that and win the nobel prizw
2) Larry Kisner Sr. there is no alternate model
3) Larry Kisner Sr. Evolution must be bottom-up
Summary: The anti-entropic energy of virucidal ultraviolet light kills viruses. I have linked that fact from top-down energy-dependent causation in a model that links nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry from amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA to protection of organized genomes from virus-driven entropy, which is the cause of all pathology.
Although Larry Kinser Sr. did not know that sunlight could kill viruses, he has since learned how I linked that fact to polycombic ecological adaptations in all living genera, and is closing fast on my claims that hecatombic evolution is the cause of all pathology.  If he is motivated by money, he will present the facts I have detailed as if they were his own ideas. Others have been doing that for more than 20 years, but it is especially frustrating when other people who are supposedly young earth creationists do it.
Is someone pretending to be Larry Kinser Sr., the administrator of a “false flag” group [The Battlefield]? I will not know until he either bans me from participation in the group, or admits that he is merely using my detailed model to convince others about the facts of Creation science so that they can dismiss the claims of biologically uniformed theorists.
Until then, Taylor Kessinger, or someone pretending to be Taylor Kessinger, claims to have a model that can be compared to mine.
He is the co-author of Coalescence and genetic diversity in sexual populations under selection
Conclusion:

Our model provides the background on top of which such singular adaptations can be sought, and understanding the statistical patterns of diversity and linkage within this null model is essential for reliable inference.

My comment: Anyone who thinks that this is a model of biologically-based cause and effect need only read the concluding sentence. It is nothing more than a theory of unreliable inferences. There is no claim about what must be selected to get from unicelluar to multicellular organisms or to sex differences in the cell types of yeasts. It is a mathematical model with no explanatory power.
See for comparison:  Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
Concluding sentence:

…the model represented here is consistent with what is known about the epigenetic effects of ecologically important nutrients and pheromones on the adaptively evolved behavior of species from microbes to man. Minimally, this model can be compared to any other factual representations of epigenesis and epistasis for determination of the best scientific ‘fit’

Characterization of Genetic Diversity in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus from Population-Scale Resequencing Data is listed as one of the other papers that cited the paper co-authored by Taylor Kessinger. The paper that Kessinger co-authored was not cited.
If it had been cited, Kessinger could be taken to task for not knowing how his mathematical model must be linked from the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in C. elegans to the morphological and behavioral diversity of the predatory nematode P. pacificus.
Instead of his inference of evolutionary history and charaterization of “…coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.” Taylor Kessinger would have a model for comparison to mine.
The two models could then be compared to representations in Natural selection constrains neutral diversity across a wide range of species to show that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is nutrient-dependent.
Excerpt:

…natural selection constrains levels of neutral genetic diversity across many species. This implies that natural selection may provide an explanation for this longstanding paradox of population genetics.

Kessinger may think that he has characterized an evolutionary history of “…coalescence, genetic diversity, and the speed of adaptation in the infinitesimal model of quantitative genetics.” Instead he has merely inferred the evolutionary history that prevents others from comparing ridiculous theories based on population genetics in the context of results like these:
See: Two genetic markers that predict malaria treatment failure found
Excerpt:

“By studying the genomes of these parasites we found two genetic markers that are linked with piperaquine resistance. Not only can we now use these markers to monitor the spread of the drug resistant malaria, they will also help towards understanding as much as possible about the biology and evolution of the parasite.”

Journal article excerpt:

The first marker is a [base pair change. It is referred to as a] single-nucleotide polymorphism, which encodes a glutamic acid-to-glycine aminoacid substitution, in a putative exonuclease gene. This exonuclease marker is associated… a low rate (0·38) of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine treatment efficacy… in Cambodia but not in other areas of the world…. The second marker is… a strong candidate for causal mutation because plasmepsins encode aspartic proteases, which are involved in the parasite’s haemoglobin degradation pathway…

Summary: Energy-dependent base pair changes and amino acid substitutions in the exonuclease gene are linked to the stability of supercoiled DNA. In all living genera the stability of supercoiled DNA is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled via the physiology of reproduction. Here, the energy-dependent base pair change and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are found with the plasmepsin markers, and the aspartic proteases, which should be linked from energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and  mRNA degradation. The mRNA degradation links virus-driven energy theft to kelch13 gene mutations and a single copy of the mdr1 gene, which is associated with cell type differentiation in mosquitoes with decreased piperaquine, but increased mefloquine, susceptibility.

Because these researchers failed to start with energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution they missed every other step that links nutrient energy-dependent base pair changes to healthy longevity. They also missed every other step that links virus-driven energy-dependent from the loss of quantised energy and loss of information as energy from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.

If the researchers knew anything about energy-dependent autophagy, they could link nutrient energy-dependent base pair changes to healthy longevity in the populations of different regions via the amino acid substitutions and link virus-driven energy theft to the mutations, which are linked to all pathology in all living genera.

Instead, we have yet another example of how people are being killed by neo-Darwinian theories that link mutations to pathology and to the evolution of new species via natural selection.

See also:  Why bad genes aren’t always bad news

Excerpt:

“We don’t really understand why some people with damaging mutations get the disease and some don’t. Some of this could be due to environment, but a lot of could be due to the presence of other mutations that are suppressing the effects of the first mutation,” said Roth, who is also a Senior Scientist at Sinai Health System’s Lunenfeld-Tanenbaum Research Institute.
Imagine being stuck in a room with a broken thermostat and it’s getting too hot. To cool down, you could fix the thermostat—or you could just break a window. This is how genetic suppression works to keep cells healthy despite damaging mutations. And it opens a new way of understanding, and maybe even treating, genetic disorders.

Excerpt:

“We’ve uncovered fundamental principles of genetic suppression and show that damaging mutations and their suppressors are generally found in genes that are functionally related. Instead of looking for a needle in the haystack, we can now narrow down our focus when searching for suppressors of genetic disorders in humans. We’ve gone from a search area spanning 20,000 genes to hundreds, or even dozens. That’s a big step forward,” said Boone.

My comment: Researchers like this have never made a big step forward, and they probably never will. They obviously do not know enough about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to link it from virus-driven energy theft and all pathology by as little as one base pair change and one amino acid substitution.
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Demoncrats fight polycombic ecological adaptation

Comey sent Congress letter on Clinton emails despite DOJ warning it would breach policy

Excerpt:

…we don’t ordinarily tell Congress about ongoing investigations, but here I feel an obligation to do so given that I testified repeatedly in recent months that our investigation was completed,” Comey wrote, referring to the Bureau’s previous investigation into Clinton’s private email server. “I also think it would be misleading to the American people were we not to supplement the record.

See also: 96. ‘The Huffington Post’ colluding with Hillary

https://wikileaks.org/podesta-emails/emailid/5988

“I am committed to make sure she is elected as the next President of United States. I am reaching out to my friends to raise money for her campaign. Please let me know if I can be of any service to you.”

No doubt the entirety of Huffington Post is in it for Hillary when they display their “disclaimer” (“Donald Trump is a racist, sexist, homophobe Hitler” or something along these lines) under every “article.”

The author of this email once an “article” on the Huffington Post that Trump was “a sorcerer and a wizard”. Yes… Huffington Post actually  published this.  That’s why no one takes The Huffington Post seriously.

See for comparison: 04/17/16 PART 2: A Wide-Ranging Conversation with Physicist Geoffrey West on Life, Evolution and US Presidential Politics

Excerpt:

I don’t think Bill Clinton has any interest in, or knowledge of science, and I suspect Hillary is the same.

Did The Huffington Post stop Suzan Mazur from reporting more facts about virus-driven energy theft in the context of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense touted by supporters of those who some people suspect have no interest in, or knowledge of science?

Are those people called Demoncrats? Does pattern recognition allow others to see who is supporting the pathology that has led us to the forthcoming viral apocalypse?

Excerpt:

Major scientists from a dozen countries present evidence that a paradigm shift is underway or has already taken place, replacing neo-Darwinism (the standard model of evolution based on natural selection following the accumulation of random genetic mutations) with a vastly richer evolutionary synthesis than previously thought possible.

See also: 8/6/15  Günther Witzany: Modern Synthesis “Must Be Replaced,” Communication Key to Evolution

My comment: Witzany is the author of: Life is physics and chemistry and communication

Excerpt:

Manfred Eigen extended Erwin Schroedinger’s concept of “life is physics and chemistry” through the introduction of information theory and cybernetic systems theory into “life is physics and chemistry and information.” Based on this assumption, Eigen developed the concepts of quasispecies and hypercycles, which have been dominant in molecular biology and virology ever since. He insisted that the genetic code is not just used metaphorically: it represents a real natural language.

My comment: What is known about virus-driven energy theft has already shifted the paradigm during the past few decades and the possibility of a new “evolutionary synthesis” has been eliminated by facts about energy-dependent ecological adaptation.

 
Excerpt from my comment:

…watch closely as they squirm under the weight of experimental evidence that collectively refutes their ridiculous theories and philosophy.

See also: 8/6/16 A Chat with Information Scientist Pedro Marijuán

Excerpt:
….the cell communicates with the environment via specific signaling pathways. This is the essence of all prokaryotic activity. And this is the essence of multicellular development.

My comment: Nothing more  has been published by Suzan Mazur about the biological regularities that show there is only one domain of life, not two or three. She must know by now that Carl Woese was wrong.

It has become perfectly clear that the organized genome of bacteria protects them from virus-driven energy theft that occurs at a higher rate in archaea. The energy-dependent link from the organized genomes of bacteria to the organized genomes of eukaryotes is also perfectly clear in the context of autophagy and the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Reproduction.

However, after months of installments that attacked the censorship of next week’s meeting of the Royal Society, it appears as if someone at the Huffington Post or someone they were colluding with told Suzan Mazur to stop her attacks on the Clinton’s lack of interest in, or lack of knowledge of science.

For one year, Suzan Mazur has been on the trail of lying pseudoscientists and one month before next week’s meeting, she published this book. Royal Society: The Public Evolution Summit 

Page 70 … There are interesting thoughts about the forming of RNA…

Bateson: interesting thoughts about the forming of RNA and its replication

Page 3 … Larry Moran — Sandwalk James Kohl — RNA-mediated.com…

Page 52 …invading DNA. Whether they do it at the DNA level or the RNA level…

Shapiro: we were told that DNA uptake was not possible in the context of the Luria-Delbrueck experiment.
See Comparing mutation rates under the Luria-Delbrück protocol

Page 10 Coincidentally, we have come to recognize that “non-coding” RNAs …

Page 11 These agents have been since ever and still are interacting RNA con…

Page 12 … evolution of genome invading RNA networks that edit host g…

Witzany is organizing a conference symposium for July 2018 “Evolution-genetic innovations without error replication”

Page 126 …of Francis Crick, i.e., that information flows from DNA to RNA to …

Energy as information does not flow from DNA to RNA. It flows from RNA to supercoiled DNA via autophagy in the context of the de novo creation of genes and increasing organismal complexity via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

See also:

Physics

Life is energy-dependent task management

See also: Life is energy-dependent task management (2)
Press Release: The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2016 

for the design and synthesis of molecular machines

Excerpt:

They have developed molecules with controllable movements, which can perform a task when energy is added.

My comment: When energy is added is the key to understanding healthy longevity in the context of popular information
Popular information (link opens pdf)
Excerpt:

All chemical systems strive for equilibrium – a lower energy state – but this is somewhat of a stalemate. We can take life as an example. When we eat, the body’s molecules extract the energy from the food and push our molecular systems away from equilibrium, to higher energy levels. The biomolecules then use the energy to drive the chemical reactions necessary for the body to work. If the body was in chemical equilibrium, we’d be dead.
Just like the molecules of life, Sauvage’s, Stoddart’s and Feringa’s artificial molecular sytems perform a controlled task. Chemistry has thus taken the first steps into a new world.

My comment: All steps that were designed to link energy as information to the physiology of reproduction and healthy longevity existed at the dawn of creation.  Chemistry finally links the differences between Old Earth Creationists (OEC) and Young Earth Creationists (YEC). The OEC appear to have assumed that the reaction times Schrodinger (1944) placed into the context of his claims in “What is Life?” occur across billions of years.
Excerpt:

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

In that context the emergence of energy automagically linked the “Big Bang” to theories about all reaction times. The reaction times linked what organisms eat to natural selection for mutations. Theorists may still think that de Vries 1902 definition of ‘mutation’ links their assumptions to the evolution of all biodiversity.
In 1991, Roger Penrose succinctly addressed that problem with the theorists claims in the forward to the reprint edition of “What is Life?

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?

My comment: The answer to that question was placed into the context of “…his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy,” when Yoshinori Ohsumi won the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Virus-driven energy theft is the link to all negative outcomes in the context of autophagy. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to mammals is the link from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biophysically constrained limits on life.
Life exemplifies natural selection for codon optimality, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.  The virus-driven theft of quantised energy links changes in base pairs to amino acid substitutions in viruses that facilitate their energy dependent replication. Differences in their rate of replication can be compared to differences in rates of energy-dependent cell type differentiation and proliferation in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.
That has already been done in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative and National Microbiome Initiative, which link energy-dependent differences in metabolic networks to genetic networks via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.  If the fine-tuned balance of life in all its diversity is not maintained by the proper use of available energy, nutrient-stress and/or social stress link energy-dependent viral latency to all pathology.
See: Epigenetics and Genetics of Viral Latency

… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…

My comment: When the 2017 Nobel Prizes in the hard sciences are again awarded to those who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease, which is what happened in 2015, how many more times will neo-Darwinian theorists and “Big Bang” cosmologists try to dumb-down the findings on how energy as information biophysically constrains cellular differentiation and proliferation in the context of ecological variation and energy-dependent ecological adaptations?

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Hypothesis free pseudoscience vs facts (4)

See first Hypothesis free pseudoscience vs facts (3)
See also: The terrorist inside my husband’s brain
Conclusion:

I know you have accomplished much already in the areas of research and discovery toward cures in brain disease. And I am sure at times the progress has felt painfully slow. Do not give up. Trust that a cascade of cures and discovery is imminent in all areas of brain disease and you will be a part of making that happen.
If only Robin could have met you. He would have loved you—not just because he was a genius and enjoyed science and discovery, but because he would have found a lot of material within your work to use in entertaining his audiences, including the troops. In fact, the most repeat character role he played throughout his career was a doctor, albeit different forms of practice.
You and your work have ignited a spark within the region of my brain where curiosity and interest lie and within my heart where hope lives. I want to follow you. Not like a crazed fan, but like someone who knows you just might be the one who discovers the cure for LBD and other brain diseases.
Thank you for what you have done, and for what you are about to do.

See also: Antibiotic Guideline for Central Nervous System Infections
My comment: Someone should tell Robin Williams’ widow that these guidelines could apply to the use of antibiotics to treat gut discomfort before virus-driven energy theft causes Lewy Body Disease to be misdiagnosed and leads to death by suicide. Perhaps she would believe someone like Dr. Jon Lieff.
See: Intelligent Lysosomes Are More than A Waste Disposal
Excerpt 1)

The lysosome is a sensory hub to determine what molecules are available, what has too much and what is needed. This includes all the molecules in metabolism of the cell such as amino acids to make proteins.

My comment: The lysosome links the energy-dependent secreting of a molecule to the sensing of the molecule, which enables the link from epistasis to homeostasis.
Excerpt 2)

The lysosome maintains a particular pH (4.5 to 5.0) as an optimal amount to hydrolyze various molecules. This is similar to the way the stomach maintains a particular acid balance. But, the lysosome maintains in a singular vesicle. It contains a very large number of particular enzymes to break down almost every type of molecule that is found.  It breaks down all large molecules (polymers).

See for example: Secreting and Sensing the Same Molecule Allows Cells to Achieve Versatile Social Behaviors with my comment to the Science site.

Re: “Evolution appears to favor efficient circuits and signaling elements that can accomplish many different tasks…”

That was inferred in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. We started with the conserved molecular epigenetics of yeasts and extended nutrient-dependent genetic diversity from the metabolism of nutrients to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man.

Four years later our yeast-to-mammalian model was extended by others to hormone-organized and hormone-activated invertebrate behavior, and 5 years after that to the life history transitions of the honeybee model organism.

Since then, “Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex” has linked yeasts to “Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction” in other species and to “Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model”

Placing all these published works into the context of evolution as Youk and Lim have done seems somewhat problematic for some evolutionary theorists. The conserved molecular mechanisms appear to represent adaptations to ecological variation via nutrient-dependent secretion of pheromones and the sensing of pheromones.

That links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man.

The fact that ecological adaptations occur via a nutrient-dependent signaling pathway, which regulates a pheromone-controlled signalling pathway shows how unicellular and multicellular organisms produce a coordinated response to multiple stimuli with no consideration for mutations or for natural selection of anything except food.

That does not present a problem in the context of biologically-based food odor- and social odor-driven cause and effect, but it makes mutation-driven evolution appear to be not only biologically implausible but also to not be an ecologically valid approach to species diversity.

More Nobel-Winning Research that challenges neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory was announced today.
From the comments on the 2016 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
Malay Saha:  Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. Despite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex..
See: Autophagy: process and function

Autophagy is an intracellular degradation system that delivers cytoplasmic constituents to the lysosome. Despite its simplicity, recent progress has demonstrated that autophagy plays a wide variety of physiological and pathophysiological roles, which are sometimes complex. Autophagy consists of several sequential steps—sequestration, transport to lysosomes, degradation, and utilization of degradation products—and each step may exert different function. In this review, the process of autophagy is summarized, and the role of autophagy is discussed in a process-based manner.

My comment: The article is available for free.
Excerpt from the 2007 conclusion:

…although autophagy is generally considered to be a tumor-suppressive process (Hippert et al. 2006; Levine 2007), the relationship between autophagy and cancer is complicated, in part because different steps of autophagy have different roles in tumor generation and tumor survival. A more quantitative view will be required to further understand the net role of autophagy in vivo. Finally, our knowledge of autophagy now seems to be ready for therapeutic application. Indeed, small molecules that can regulate autophagy seem to have great potential to modulate the clinical course of neurodegenerative diseases (Sarkar et al. 2007).

My comment: The small molecules are microRNAs, but the role that they play in linking hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to healthy longevity or from virus-driven energy theft to all pathology has not been explained in the context of how the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction must be linked from quorum-sensing in microbes to all biodiversity.
My comment to the FB page where the announcement of the 2016 Nobel Prize was made.

James Kohl: Let’s not discuss the fact that it must link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera in the context of their RNA-mediated DNA repair of virus-driven damage as manifested in the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus pathology. If we discuss that fact, neo-Darwinian theorists will attack.

See also:

Jon Lieff has stepped ahead of the data and linked it to biologically-based cause and effect in all living genera via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in the yeast model organism.

My comment: Jon Lieff’s timely entry was posted in Blog, Cellular Intelligence, Neuronal Plasticity and tagged Lysosomes work with autophagy, Lysosomes work with mTOR to regulate cellular molecules, Many ways to get lysosome storage diseases.
Unfortunately, it is obvious that most people will not understand the intricacies of the works that led Yoshinori Ohsumi to win the 2016 Nobel Prize for Physiology and Medicine ”for his discoveries of mechanisms for autophagy,” which must be linked to lysosome storage diseases and to healthy longevity.
Most people do not know what autophagy is. It is energy-dependent. That is the most important thing about it. Autophagy is linked to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry and cell type differentiation. It links nutrient energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction. That makes autophagy the link to all biodiversity via the physiology of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from yeasts to humans.
See also: Yoshinori Ohsumi wins Nobel medicine prize
My comment: His works take us from hypothesis-free pseudoscience to facts about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via experimental evidence of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained biodiversity in species from microbes to humans.
It is hard to escape the conclusion that all biodiversity is energy-dependent in the context of autophagy, and harder still to escape the conclusion that virus-driven energy theft is the cause of all pathology.
Minimally, Yoshinori Ohsumi he has bridged the gaps from physics and chemistry to biology by placing his experimental evidence into the context of molecular epigenetics. The details already were linked from energy-dependent amino acid substitutions to all biodiversity in Dobzhansky (1973).
But now there is new light shed on what Dobzhansky referred to as the light of evolution. It’s what Schrodinger (1944) called sunlight in the context of its anti-entropic virucidal energy.
See for comparison: A reply to Alice Roberts and Mark Maslin: Our ancestors may indeed have evolved at the shoreline – and here is why…
There is literally nothing left of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense, and yet the pseudoscientists still make the same ridiculous claims.

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Hydrogen-atom energy in DNA base pairs

See also: Consciousness is simply food rearranged
Role of Double Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions in Atmospheric Chemistry
Abstract excerpt: 

Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions are ubiquitous and play a crucial role in chemistries occurring in the atmosphere, biology, and industry.

My comment: The link from physics to chemistry and the conserved molecular mechanisms of biologically-based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation has been the focus my works for more than 20 years, even before I knew what I would need to explain about the energy-dependent links from angstroms to ecosystems via hydrogen-atom energy in all living genera.
See also: For first time, researchers see individual atoms keep away from each other or bunch up as pairs
Excerpt:

Different configurations of electrons give rise to specific elements, making carbon atoms, for instance, distinct from hydrogen atoms.

My comment: Without the different configurations of electrons,  energy-dependent changes in angstroms could not be linked from hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) in DNA base pairs in solution to all biodiversity in all ecosystems. Simply put, the sun’s biological energy must be linked from atmospheric chemistry to biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry on Earth.
When these interactions are seen for the first time the experimental evidence must confirm theories. Otherwise physicists will try to come up with new untestable theories to stall scientific progress.  Serious scientists make progress when experimental evidence is accepted. Chemists typically know what to accept. So do molecular biologists.
What do evolutionary theorists or other social scientists know about physics, chemistry, or molecular epigenetics? How do pseudoscientists known what to accept when they already have accepted only theories?
For comparison, serious scientists know that angstroms measure distance, and every angstrom is dynamic in the context of energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. How can any serious scientist understand the claims of theorists made in the context of articles like this:
Humans and Neanderthals had sex. But was it for love? An investigation
Excerpt:

We know for sure humans and Neanderthals had sex because of a Swedish scientist named Svante Pääbo, who “more or less invented the field of paleogenetics,” Elizabeth Kolbert wrote in a terrific New Yorker article in 2011.

My comment:  Elizabeth Kolbert lied and used Svante Pääbo’s works to support her ridiculous claim:

We know for sure humans and Neanderthals had sex…

Serious scientists know that Svante Pääbo is the senior author of two articles. The two articles linked Natural Selection on the Olfactory Receptor Gene Family in Humans and Chimpanzees and Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes Coincides with the Acquisition of Full Trichromatic Vision in Primates.
Natural selection for the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes and the loss of genes is not an indicator that humans and Neanderthals had sex. It is an indicator that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality occurred in the context of the physiology of reproduction in all primates. For contrast, all serious scientists know that members of two different species do not have sex. Chromatin remodeling and chromosomal rearrangements limit fertility among species via their nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and their behavior. The behavior is linked to energy-dependent codon optimality via the physiology of reproduction, not by sex between consenting humans and Neanderthals.
Is is silly to ask questions about sex for love without consideration of fertility, since the sexual interactions must be linked to survival of the species via biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry in the context of the physiology of reproduction. The biophysical constraints are energy-dependent, but the theorists’ and journalists’ preference for fiction is clear.
Excerpt:

Robert Sawyer is a science fiction author who won the Hugo Award — one of sci-fi’s highest honors — for his 2002 book Hominids, a story that imagines a parallel world where Neanderthals survived and we didn’t. In the book (which spawned a trilogy), a Neanderthal physicist opens up a rift between the worlds and falls in love with a human.

For comparison, see this presentation text about Greg Bear’s novels in which he detailed for his non-technical audience how the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction is linked from RNA-amino acid substitutions to all cell type differentiation in all individuals of all species. The Darwin Code
See also: Structural and Functional MRI Differences in Master Sommeliers: A Pilot Study on Expertise in the Brain
Excerpt:

This study identified enhanced structural and functional patterns in the olfactory network of sommeliers. These findings are consistent with the learning they undergo in achieving the status of Master Sommelier. Furthermore, the volume of a region of the brain involved in olfactory memory was associated with experience, suggesting that the continued training results in morphological changes of the brain. These results speak to the plasticity of the adult brain in response to sensory expertise.

Reported as: Smelling Lots Of Wine Makes Your Brain Alzheimer’s Resistant

Overall, these differences suggest that specialized expertise and training might result in enhancements in the brain well into adulthood,” the study states. “This is particularly important given the regions involved, which are the first to be impacted by many neurodegenerative diseases.

See also:  What Sensory Receptors Do Outside of Sense Organs
My comment to the Scientist (I have posted: 361 comments so far)

20 years ago, we published: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior, which was a review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. We included a section on molecular epigenetic in the Hormones and Behavior review.

Unfortunately, few people realize that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality links the de novo creation of genes from the creation of G protein-coupled receptors to chemotaxis and to phototaxis before biophysically constrained energy-dependent biodiversity via RNA-mediated protein folding biochemistry can be linked to all biodiversity by amino acid substitutions.
When others report that mutations are linked to pathology, they seem to miss the fact that virus-driven energy theft causes the mutations. Nutrient-energy dependent viral latency has gone missing from explanations that would otherwise link what is known about biologically-based cause and effect from physics to chemistry and everything known about molecular epigenetics.
See also: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization
My comment: Pseudoscientists could challenge representations like this if they had experimental evidence for comparison. They don’t. They have only their ridiculous theories, which they report in the story about sex between modern humans and Neanderthals. It is unadulterated pseudoscientific nonsense and nothing more than an unsubstantiated fictional account. It is not science fiction. The theorists claims are not scientifically based.
See for comparison: Role of olfaction in Octopus vulgaris reproduction and Two fatty acyl reductases involved in moth pheromone biosynthesis
Both articles cite Kohl (2013) Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
See also: The Ancient Origins of Consciousness: How the Brain Created Experience
Excerpt:

12. Plotnick, Dornbos, and Chen (2010). Others who advocate smell-first are Lucia Jacobs (Jacobs, 2012), who says the building of smell maps of environmental space came first and James Kohl (Kohl, 2013), whose model says chemical ecology is the main driver of adaptive evolution.  — p. 263

My comment: Chemical ecology is the main driver of energy-dependent ecological adaptations. It is not not the driver of mutation-driven evolution, and so far there is no other model for comparison to my model of chemical ecology. I deliberately used the term adaptive evolution to see if someone would take the bait and offer another model for comparison. No one did.
See also: How Psychiatrist Jon Lieff Turned an Interest in Cellular Intelligence into Award-Winning Blogging!
My comment: Lieff still presents cellular intelligence in the context of evolution. He ignores what is known about hydrogen-atom energy in DNA base pairs in solution. That shows how successful a blogger can be if they simply fail to address what is known about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. His focus is on evolution! That means he does not need to explain anything about how evolution occurs, or explain what he thinks cellular intelligence is or where it came from!
See for comparison: Direct interrogation of the role of H3K9 in metazoan heterochromatin function
Reported as: Tight DNA packaging protects against ‘jumping genes,’ potential cellular destruction
Tight DNA is supercoiled DNA and it protects the orgnaized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Simply put, supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft, which is the only way to establish a link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation without inventing another ridiculous theory.

… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…

Nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs are the obvious link from olfaction to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry, plasticity, and prevention of all pathology.
See for example: Olfactory organ of Octopus vulgaris: morphology, plasticity, turnover and sensory characterization

Supercoiled DNA is the link to viral latency, which is the link to healthy longevity.

See also, from the Neuroscience FB group “As simple as random can be”
See also:  Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults
My comment: There is no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that links anything except energy or energy theft to the species-specific COMT Val158Met amino acid substitution during life history transitions and the development of morphological and behavioral phenotypes.

COMT val158met polymorphism and molecular alterations in the human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: Differences in controls and in schizophrenia
Excerpt:

…the COMT val158met polymorphism is not found in species other than humans (Palmatier et al., 1999).

My comment: That fact makes the COMT val158met polymorphism a “smoking gun” in the context of energy-dependent de novo gene creation and virus-driven energy theft that links gene losses to loss of function via differences in G protein-coupled receptors.
Dopamine Neuron-Specific Optogenetic Stimulation in Rhesus Macaques
G protein-coupled receptor kinases as regulators of dopamine receptor functions
Subsecond Regulation of Synaptically Released Dopamine by COMT in the Olfactory Bulb
Programmable RNA-binding protein composed of repeats of a single modular unit
Excerpt from the conclusion:

… Pumby may present a simplified context in which to insert Pumilio modules to study how specific amino acids contribute to the emergent properties of modular RNA binding, independent of position-specific effects.

See also: Another gate-keeping attempt by Feierman

rp_levels-of-organization.jpg

Energy-dependent RNA methylation (2)

Energy-dependent RNA methylation (1)

Conclusion:

Until someone establishes a clear link from energy-dependent RNA methylation to behavior and publishes in a journal such as the Journal of Neuroscience, others may not examine other experimental evidence that clearly links viruses like the Zika virus to changes in morphological phenotypes and behavioral phenotypes via differences in energy-dependent brain development.

Each day, the neuroscience news and other news bring more examples of energy-dependent brain development that must be linked from RNA methylation to behavior by what is currently known to serious scientists about biophysical constrained links from angstroms to ecosystems.

Here are a few more examples of what all serious scientists can expect will be linked from RNA methylation to behavior sometime soon.

Principles of microRNA Regulation Revealed Through Modeling microRNA Expression Quantitative Trait Loci
My comment: MicroRNA regulation is energy dependent.
My summary of their “model”:
They attempt to link ecological variation to energy-dependent changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. SNPs are linked to microRNAs, but energy-dependent RNA methylation is not linked from changes in base pairs to RNA-directed DNA methylation and cell type differentiation via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. Instead, the term miRNA-eQTLs (sequence variants associated with miRNA expression levels) is used in their model. Their model fails to link the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy in the context of the physiology of reproduction.
They appear to realize that supercoiled DNA links metabolic networks to genetic networks via the physiology of reproduction and ecological adaptation in all living genera. But they fail to do anything to end the confusion for others who may not realize that evolutionary theorists have been forced to abandon their computer models and their use of terms like eQTLs. Clearly, they know they must begin using the term microRNAs in the context of links from quantized energy to physics and chemistry and the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained energy-dependent biologically-based cause and effect that protects organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Use of the term microRNA Expression Quantitative Trait Loci ( microRNA-eQTL / miRNA-eQTLs) shows they are willing to put up a good fight against scientific progress that already has eliminated neo-Darwinian theories from any further consideration whatsoever!
See also:  Sound-like bubbles whizzing around in DNA are essential to life
Excerpt:

…carried out experiments with a laser that produces femtosecond laser pulses about a trillion times shorter than a camera flash. This allowed them to succeed in the detection of sound-like bubbles in DNA.

My comment: This is the technology that also was used to link to link the speed of light on contact with water to energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via DNA repair in the context of supercoiled DNA and the physiology of reproduction.
See this blog post from: 3/4/16
Excerpt:

Chemists have since used femtosecond blasts of UV light to stimulate DNA repair via hydrogen-atom transfer in the base pairs guanine (G) and cytosine (C), which were in a solution.[2] The reactions appear to link the speed of light [3] on contact with water from an anti-entropic energy source to the de novo creation of nucleic acids [4] and to RNA-mediated DNA repair .[5] An astrobiological representation of top-down causation [6] links what has been reported in the context of molecular epigenetics and RNA-mediated cell type differentiation [7-10] The speed of the chemical reactions appears to link Schrodinger’s claims about the anti-entropic energy of sunlight [11] to the nutrient energy-dependent stability of organized genomes via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution [12] and to pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated DNA repair in the context of the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA.[13] Chromosomal rearrangements link supercoiled DNA from chemical ecology to organized genomes and biodiversity.[14] Supercoiled DNA appears to protect all living genera from virus-driven pathology in the context of ecological speciation.[15]

See also: A single ion impacts a million water molecules and see: Base-pairing protects DNA from UV damage
My comment: Light, water, and quantized energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair. That’s how ecological variation is linked to ecological adaptation. Virus-driven quantized energy theft is linked from mutations to all pathology. Who decided to link mutations to ecological adaptation and all pathology?
Who will still report their findings in the context of neo-Darwinian theory and ignore virus-driven energy theft?
See: C2c2 is a single-component programmable RNA-guided RNA-targeting CRISPR effector
Excerpt:

Almost all archaea and about half of bacteria possess Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and CRISPR-associated genes (CRISPR-Cas) adaptive immune systems (1, 2), which protect microbes from viruses and other invading DNA through three steps: (i) adaptation, i.e., insertion of foreign nucleic acid segments (spacers) into the CRISPR array in between pairs of direct repeats (DRs), (ii) transcription and processing of the CRISPR array to produce mature CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), and (iii) interference, whereby Cas enzymes are guided by the crRNAs to target and cleave cognate sequences in the respective invader genomes (3–5).

Reported as:  Scientists Find Form of Crispr Gene Editing With New Capabilities  Please pay special attention to this ridiculous claim:

Some parts of C2c2 genes share a common evolutionary origin with the defense systems seen in other bacterial species. Over billions of years, Dr. Koonin said, evolution has blindly tinkered with these genes in order to generate new ways to protect against viruses.

My comment: Koonin continues to shoot himself in the foot each time he tries to place what is currently known to serious scientists about virus-driven energy theft back into the context of ridiculous theories about random mutations (e.g., blind tinkering) and billions of years of evolution. The sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy has always been required to prevent virus-driven energy theft at the level of quantized energy, which has been linked to the de novo creation of receptors and all RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera via the physiology of reproduction and differences in energy-dependent behaviors.
There is no such thing as evolution in the context of the energy-dependent behaviors of reproduction. Organisms either have enough energy for RNA-mediated DNA repair, cell type differentiation, and reproduction, or they get stuck with feedback loops that link virus-driven energy theft to accumulated mutations and all pathology.
Koonin and many others like him simply do not want to admit that their ignorance has stuck us with all pathology. They want us to blame evolution for it. That way, no one else attempts to link the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of energy-dependent reproduction to healthy longevity or link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. No one will ask, how did differences in behavior “evolve?”
Also reported as: RNA-Targeting CRISPR
Excerpt:

One of these proteins, C2c2, seemed to be a putative RNA-cleaving—rather than a DNA-targeting—enzyme, the researchers reported at the time. Now, the same group has established that C2c2 indeed cleaves single-stranded RNA (ssRNA), providing the first example of a CRISPR/Cas system that exclusively targets RNA.

Also reported as: Discovered in bacteria as viral defense mechanism, researchers program C2c2 to manipulate cellular RNA using CRISPR
Excerpt:

“The study of C2c2 uncovers a fundamentally novel biological mechanism that bacteria seem to use in their defense against viruses,” said Eugene Koonin, senior author and leader of the Evolutionary Genomics Group at the NIH. “Applications of this strategy could be quite striking.”

My comment: Who will be the first to link RNA methylation from ecological variation to ecological adaptations via behavior? In November 2012, at the end of a Society for Neuroscience conference presentation on microRNAs, the speaker confirmed that all cell type differentiation occurred downstream from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. Since then, the number of indexed publications that mention microRNA has skyrocketed.
Who will be the first to link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from RNA methylation to behavior? Who will make Koonin stop touting the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution.

See also: For the First Time: CRISPR for RNA
My comment to the Labroots site:
Others are linking energy-dependent changes in RNA methylation from angstroms to ecosystems via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Why are Koonin and others still trying to put the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry back into the context of evolutionary theory?
Everyone knows that neo-Darwinists did not include virus-driven energy theft in their misrepresentations of energy-dependent cause and effect when they invented their theories. All that’s left of that pseudoscientific nonsense is Darwin’s energy-dependent “conditions of life.” His “conditions of life” link ecological variation to ecological adaptations and all biodiversity without claims that one species mutated and evolved into another that was automagically selected to survive for hundreds of millions of years.
What do you think will happen to evolutionary theorists when energy-dependent RNA methylation is linked from RNA-directed DNA methylation to behavior via the physiology of reproduction?