5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

MicroRNA-mediated autophagy, denuclearization and eusociality

Altruism in a volatile world

reported as: The Elusive Calculus of Insects’ Altruism and Kin Selection

In 1964, the evolutionary biologist William D. Hamilton seemingly explained one of the greatest paradoxes in biology with a simple mathematical equation.

He will be remembered by all serious scientists for his ignorance of top-down energy-dependent causation.
For comparison, McEwen et al. (1964), explained energy-dependent ecological adaptation and sympatric speciation by starting with the energy-dependent creation of RNA.
See: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Last year, the cell biology game “Cytosis” allowed ages 10+ to link ATP from the creation of RNA to biophysically constrained viral latency in all living genera.
Neo-Darwinian theorists still refuse to learn anything about viral latency. They think in terms of chronological clues rather than facts about energy-dependent gene transfers.

See: Chronological Clues to Life’s Early History Lurk in Gene Transfers

Traditionally, scientists have relied on “rocks and clocks” to date the tree of life: fossil evidence from the geological record, and “molecular clock” estimates that infer how long ago related species diverged by analyzing the rate at which mutations built up in their genomic sequences. But there’s a problem: Molecular clock rates differ between lineages — they’re much faster in rodents than in primates, for instance — so if they’re not calibrated against fossil data, they can lead to the wrong conclusions.

For comparison, see: Research: A comprehensive and quantitative exploration of thousands of viral genomes

Existing viral classification systems were developed prior to the sequencing era, so we present our analysis in a way that allows us to assess the utility of the different classification systems for capturing genomic trends.

Genomic trends? See for comparison: MicroRNA Regulation of RNA Virus Replication and Pathogenesis

…the development of a miRNA therapeutic for Ebola virus was used during the recent outbreak in Africa. However testing was ultimately suspended, as the drug did not demonstrate a significant role in patient recovery [78]. Also, insertion of tissue-specific miRNA binding sites have been used as an effective mechanism to prevent virus replication in particular tissues as an attenuation mechanism for vaccines, helping to limit adverse events [79]. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests the presence of viral-derived small RNAs during infection of both mammalian and arthropod cells [80,81]. While controversial, their presence and function during animal infections will need to be further examined. Viral interactions with the miRNA system can affect cellular miRNA and transcriptome levels as well as virus replication within a cell expressing a miRNA; these may indirectly modulate cytokine expression and tissue responses throughout an infected host.

Genetic transcription ‘pause’ is focus of NASA grant

The pause – which was first discovered 30 years ago by Cornell molecular biologist and geneticist John Lis – is a step in transcription where the enzyme RNA polymerase II begins transcribing and then is halted partway through the process and held in place by a specific .

The “pause” links seemingly futile cycles of microRNA biogenesis to the creation of enzymes and alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs (aka microRNAs). Energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance link the fixation of amino acid substitutions in proteins to healthy longevity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Simply put, the pause links autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency and sympatric speciation. The length of the pause is quantized energy-dependent and/or biophysically constrained food energy-dependent. It ensures that enough energy is available for cell type differentiation to proceed so that the organized genome is protected from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
When atheistic Communist researchers learned that vaccines could not protect them from a genetically engineered virus that could be created to target human populations in North Korea and China, denuclearization was virtually ensured. The threat of a viral apocalypse is far greater than the threat of another land war in Asia or the nuclear threat.
In the end, everyone will learn what life is about after review of “What is Life? (1944) and my comments here:

An evolutionary theory killer

Polymaths and paradigm shifts: from Asimov to Bear (1)

Summary: In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency.
Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
See: Conceptual Insights, Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002)

View this media module for an animated, interactive summary of how electron transfer potential is converted into proton-motive force and, finally, phosphoryl transfer potential in oxidative phosphorylation.

See: Section 18.4A Proton Gradient Powers the Synthesis of ATP
Place what is known to all serious scientists about the proton motive force into the context of energy-dependent electron transfer potential.
See also: Chemiosmosis

…the term proton-motive force (PMF)… can be described as the measure of the potential energy stored as a combination of proton and voltage (electrical potential) gradients across a membrane. The electrical gradient is a consequence of the charge separation across the membrane (when the protons H+ move without a counterion, such as chloride Cl).

See: Search results for proton motive force
On February 2, 2018 and on February 26, 2018 I linked the claim that Permeability transition in human mitochondria persists in the absence of peripheral stalk subunits of ATP synthase (2017) to findings on RNA-RNA interactions in The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense complementarity to lin-14  (1993) This link opens the to free pdf

Two small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were identified in C. elegans and found to contain sequences complementary to a repeated sequence element in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of lin-14 mRNA, suggesting that lin-4 regulates lin-14 translation via an antisense RNA-RNA interaction.

The small lin-4 transcripts of approximately 22 and 61 nt were subsequently referred to as pre-mRNAs before the term pre-mRNA became microRNA as the number of nucleotides (nt) was reduced to 22 in the context of more than 70,000 published works on microRNAs. See: microRNA
In the context of what is known about how top-down causation must be linked to all biodiversity on Earth, the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links differences in the energy of two photons from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs. The link from the proton motive force to the creation of microRNAs is endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). Endogenous RNAi is manifested as energy-dependent differences in biophysically constrained viral latency. Biophysically constrained viral latency has been linked to healthy longevity in all living genera from what appears to be the “dawn of creation.”
For instance see: Recent Explosive Human Population Growth Has Resulted in an Excess of Rare Genetic Variants (2012) and Evolution and Functional Impact of Rare Coding Variation from Deep Sequencing of Human Exomes (2012)
Reported May 17, 2012 as: Humans riddled with rare genetic variants
See also: Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants (2013)
Reported November 28, 2012 Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
See also: The splicing code (Feb 2018)

…except for very few and marginal variations, it is the same from bacteria to man, the RNA stretch: 5′ GUGUUC 3′ reads as the dipeptide: Val-Phe in bacteria, in yeast, in Arabidopsis, in zebra fish, in mouse and in human. A degree of ambiguity is possible if mutations are introduced in the tRNAs in a way that the anticodon reads one amino acid but the aminoacyl-transferase attaches a different one onto the tRNA.

See also: Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors
Sensory input must be linked to energy-dependent RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency.
See: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

In 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate:The Existence of Nothing, Neil deGrasse Tyson made this spurious claim:

Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”

A polymath should be required to link quantum physics from quantum chemistry to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity. Wide-ranging knowledge should include what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms that link the food energy-dependent physiology of reproduction to ecological adaptations in species from microbes to humans.
Eshel Ben-Jacob and Greg Bear are polymaths. Isaac Asimov was not.
Eshel Ben-Jacob presciently linked Learning from Bacteria about Natural Information Processing (2009)  to the biophysically constrained viral latency Greg Bear placed into the context of the creation of a new human species in two books reviewed in Nature:
Evolution rising from the grave (2000)
Living with the Neanderthals (2003)
See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)
Polymaths should be able to recognize patterns that link photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation from the creation of enzymes to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated DNA repair, which links ecological variation from phytoremediation to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Anyone who fails to do that in the context of the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens should be called a biologically uninformed theorist or a science journalist who has no excuse for reporting pseudoscientific nonsense.
The only way to resurrect the bacterial flagellum over-the-weekend involves what is known as the proton motive force. Fro example: A twitter search for “proton motive force” led me to this claim, thanks to Nigel Ten Fleming

Enzyme-bound ATP forms readily in the absence of a proton-motive force.

In the context of Energy Transformations in Oxidative Phosphorylation (2002), that claim was followed by this claim:

…the role of the proton gradient is not to form ATP but to release it from the synthase.

See also:

If the aspartate residue is protonated to its neutral form, the c ring can now rotate, but only in a clockwise direction. Such a rotation moves the newly protonated aspartic acid residue into contact with the membrane, moves the charged aspartate residue from contact with the matrix half-channel to the cytosolic half-channel, and moves a different protonated aspartic acid residue from contact with the membrane to the matrix half-channel. The proton can then dissociate from aspartic acid and move through the half-channel into the proton-poor matrix to restore the initial state. This dissociation is favored by the positive charge on a conserved arginine residue ( 210) in the a subunit.

The difference in the energy of photons was linked from protons to hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The energy-dependent biophysically constraints link microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to the differences in all cell types in all individuals of all living genera.
See also: 18.4.5. ATP Synthase and G Proteins Have Several Common Features (with my emphasis)

In Chapter 15, we learned that the signaling properties of other members of this family, the proteins, depend on their ability to bind nucleoside triphosphates and nucleoside diphosphates with great kinetic tenacity. They do not exchange nucleotides unless they are stimulated to do so by interaction with other proteins. The binding-change mechanism of ATP synthase is a variation on this theme. The three different faces of the γ subunit of ATP synthase interact with the P-loop regions of the β subunits to favor the structures of either the NDP- or NTP-binding forms or to facilitate nucleotide release. The conformational changes take place in an orderly way, driven by the rotation of the γ subunit.

See for comparison:Jay R. Feierman:

Variation is not nutrient availability and the something that is doing the selecting is not the individual organism. A feature of an educated person is to realize what they do not know. Sadly, you don’t know that you have an incorrect understanding [of] Darwinian biological evolution.

An evolutionary theory killer

How to create biologically uninformed theorists

Summary: On March 2, 2018, Philip C. Ball and Nick Lane started making claims about proton gradients. Their claims are based on my model of quantized energy as information. This post includes added support for what is known to all serious scientists about the light-activated endogenous substrates that link molecular epigenetics to RNA-mediated autophagy.
See first: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (audio/visual aid 2017)

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.

The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.

This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.

For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

Added support for the light-activated molecular epigenetics of autophagy:
Light-powering Escherichia coli with proteorhodopsin (2007)

…we quantify the coupling between light-driven and respiratory proton currents… and show that light-driven pumping by PR can fully replace respiration as a cellular energy source in some environmental conditions.

Structure of the Deactive State of Mammalian Respiratory Complex I (2018)

…the deactive state arises when critical structural elements that form the ubiquinone-binding site become disordered, and we propose reactivation is induced when substrate binding to the NADH-reduced enzyme templates their reordering. Our structure both rationalizes biochemical data on the deactive state and offers new insights into its physiological and cellular roles.

Global collective motions in the mammalian and bacterial respiratory complex I (2018)

…we identify here transitions between experimentally resolved structures of the mammalian complex I as low-frequency collective motions of the enzyme, highlighting similarities and differences between the bacterial and mammalian enzymes. Despite the reduced complexity of the smaller bacterial enzyme, our results suggest that the global dynamics of complex I is overall conserved.

The conservation of light-powered functional structures and energy-dependent proton gradients link the deactive state in critical structures to the active state via the creation of enzymes in species from bacteria to mammals. The energy-dependent creation of the enzymes links metabolism of the energy (e.g., food energy) from pheromones to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of the physiology of reproduction.
The pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans links our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of how ecological variation must be linked to energy-dependent ecological adaptations in all living genera.
See: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

Our perception of the world builds upon dynamic inputs from multiple senses with different temporal resolutions, and is threaded with the passing of subjective time. How time is extracted from multisensory inputs is scantly known. Utilizing psychophysical testing and electroencephalography, we show in healthy human adults that odors modulate object visibility around critical flicker-fusion frequency (CFF)-the limit at which chromatic flickers become perceived as a stable color-and effectively alter CFF in a congruency-based manner, despite that they afford no clear environmental temporal information. The behavioral gain produced by a congruent relative to an incongruent odor is accompanied by elevated neural oscillatory power around the object’s flicker frequency in the right temporal region ~150-300 ms after object onset, and is not mediated by visual awareness. In parallel, odors bias the subjective duration of visual objects without affecting one’s temporal sensitivity. These findings point to a neuronal network in the right temporal cortex that executes flexible temporal filtering of upstream visual inputs based on olfactory information. Moreover, they collectively indicate that the very process of sensory integration at the stage of object processing twists time perception, hence casting new insights into the neural timing of multisensory events.

See also: Odors Alter Subjective Time Experience Author: Dr. ZHOU Wen’s Research Group Update time: 2017/05/15

The brain is not a timepiece. Whereas it is equipped with senses like vision, audition, touch, smell, and taste, it has no direct access to or measure of the physical time (unless you read from a clock). Rather, it constructs the subjective “time” of an event from the dynamic multisensory inputs associated with that event. Yet different senses come with different temporal precisions. For instance, when standing near an apple tree, you can detect the falling of an apple much better with your eyes or ears than the nose. How does the brain coordinate multisensory signals entering different brain regions with different temporal resolutions, and come up with the subjective time?

A team at the Institute of Psychology at Chinese Academy of Sciences tackled this issue using odors and images. Specifically, Dr. Bin Zhou, the study’s lead author, and his colleagues examined whether odors could modulate one’s temporal sampling and subjective duration of visual objects. In their study, participants viewed two series of flickering isoluminant images in red and green (Figure 1A). One of the series contained opposite images of an apple or bananas; the other contained only images of red and green fields. When the images alternated at a frequency beyond 20 Hz, the participants started to have difficulty reporting which series contained an object. Indeed, for most people, chromatic flicker fusion frequency (CFF), the limit at which alternating colors become perceived as a stable fused color, falls somewhere between 20 and 25 Hz. Interestingly, the participants’ object detection accuracies around CFF were improved under the exposure of a congruent, as opposed to an incongruent, odor. In other words, the participants detected a rapidly flickering apple better when they smelled an apple odor rather than a banana odor, and vice versa (Figure 1B, left panel). In effect, the presence of a congruent odor facilitated the brain’s temporal sampling of a visual object and elevated its CFF (Figure 1B, right panel). Based on electrical activities recorded from the participants’ scalp, the researchers found that the integration between smell and vision strengthened the signals of the corresponding object in a brain region heavily implicated in object representations called the right temporal cortex, about 150-300 ms after object onset. They further showed that such integration lengthened one’s subjective duration of the corresponding object in a duration comparison task. The researchers concluded that subjective time is warped by the neural energy involved in representing multisensory inputs at subsecond scales.

Until Philip C. Ball mentioned that Nick Lane believed proton gradients came before the energy-dependent creation of RNA, I did not realize how little they knew about this link from differences in the energy of photons to consciousness.
See: What Affective Neuroscience Means for Science Of Consciousness (2013)

The coupling of the two circuits promotes an endogenous feedback that supports conscious processes. Within this framework, we present the defence that detailed study of both affective and cognitive processes, their interactions, as well of their respective brain networks, is necessary for a science of consciousness.

The coupling of the two circuits links differences in the energy of photons from the proton motive force to the light-activated endogenous feedback loops and Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction.
It is extremely difficult for intelligent people to not link this experimental evidence to biophysically constrained viral latency in the context of reports that claim “Creatures’ Adaptability Begins with Their Sensors.”
But, see for comparison: David Attenborough on creationsim May, 2015

My comment on his nonsense: First steps to neutralizing Zika: How highly potent antibody neutralizes Zika infection discovered

This is framed within the context of energy-dependent changes in pH, which facilitate receptor-mediated entry of nutrients or viruses into specific cell types of species-specific tissues via stress-linked changes in hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs.

Virus-driven energy theft has been linked to all pathology in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated polycombic protein folding chemistry compared to the hecatombic evolution of pathology manifested first in the differences between archaea and bacteria. Admitting that Carl Woese was wrong about the different domains of life is the first step towards understanding the difference between healthy longevity and the evolution of all virus-driven pathology.

Carl Woese was wrong

God did not create the viruses. He created the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy. Only the choices of our ancestors could have led to the increasing amout of virus-driven pathology during the past ~6000 years that pseudoscientists place into the context of millions of years of evolution. Then, they blame God, like these two pseudoscientists do. Darwin knew they would do that, which is why he insisted that others put conditions of life before natural selection. But they bastardized his theory anyway and taught their revision to anyone who was foolish enough to believe in it. It’s called the “Modern Synthesis” and was based on de Vries 1902 definition of “mutation.”

Celebrate Your Inner Virus

It is important that we understand the design present in viruses because God made them.

It is no wonder that Sir David Attenborough and many others like Philip C. Ball and Nick Lane are confused about the energy-dependent creation of healthy longevity and consciousness. Even some young earth creationists have failed to link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from changes in electrons to ecosystems via the proton motive force. That leaves every aspect of creation to be placed back into the context of ridiculous theories. The theories start with the virus-driven theft of quantized energy as information. The energy theft links mutations to all virus-driven pathology. The theft of quantized energy as information cannot be linked by serious scientists from beneficial mutations to the evolution of one species from another.
For comparison, pseudoscientists have no problem touting this confusing nonsense:
Sign of selection on mutation rate modifiers depends on population size (
1)  Genetic variation—the raw material for evolution—is ultimately generated by mutation.
2). …beneficial alleles never become deleterious and deleterious alleles never become beneficial.
Conclusion:

Whether these phenomena can be united in a single theoretical framework remains an open question that we are actively exploring. In any case, our results add to a growing appreciation of nonclassical population size dependence in evolution by natural selection (41, 42).

Funding for research that attempts to link natural selection to evolution via mutation-driven genetic variation should be used to link food odors and pheromones from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and ecological adaptations. It is time to stop creating more biologically uninformed theorists.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

Light-activated carbon fixation did not evolve (4)

Summary: Dobzhansky was joking about the time it would take for the creation of light to cause the energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, which link food energy to the creation of enyzmes that metabolized food. His joke extends from the creation of sunlight — as the “light of evolution” — to the species-specific pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and cell type differentiation in chimpanzees and humans compared to gorillas via one amino acid substitution. The joke was played on theorists who, in 1973, still believed that mutations could be linked to evolution despite the claims in Schroedinger: What is Life? (1944).
See: Light-activated carbon fixation did not evolve (3),(2),(1) and RNA mediated molecular epigenetics and virus driven entropy and The origin of information (2)
For comparison, see: Genome editor CRISPR’s latest trick? Offering a sharper snapshot of activity inside the cell

…this tool can record exposure to light, antibiotics, and viral infection or document internal molecular events.

The “tool” links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to the creation of enzymes, which link the metabolism of food energy to the physiology of reproduction in the context of autophagy and viral latency.

The facts about autophagy and biophysically constrained viral latency have been placed into the context of phage-activated continuous evolution (PACE) by people who do not want others to learn the facts about how autophagy protects all organized genome from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA.
See: Evolution in Action – Literally

The idea is that you use bacteriophage as your vehicle for evolving proteins, because of their extremely short generation time. These infect E. coli bacteria, and the two of them are modified in this system so that you can use selection pressure to get to a protein with specific binding properties. It’s been used to look at protease inhibitor resistance and DNA-binding specificity, and now it’s put to work for a protein-protein interaction.

All protein-protein interactions are energy-dependent, RNA-mediated and biophysically constrained in the context of the physiology of reproduction and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance.
See for contrast: Church Speaks George Church [2.14.18]

  1. Maybe it would help if the very top scientists believed in neo-Darwinism or something.
  2. We found the enzymes that occur in nature, which was not obvious, and both companies have patents on making those alkanes.

Top scientists who believe in neo-Darwinism are more likely to believe Church’s claim that the anti-entropic energy of sunlight was not the obvious link to the creation of enzymes and all biophysically constrained life on Earth. The creation of enzymes was required to biophysically constrain viral latency.

Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game: A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See: Regulation of the unfolded protein response by noncoding RNA
See: Endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling: the microRNA connection
See also: ER homeostasis and autophagy

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a key site for lipid biosynthesis and folding of nascent transmembrane and secretory proteins. These processes are maintained by careful homeostatic control of the environment within the ER lumen. Signalling sensors within the ER detect perturbations within the lumen (ER stress) and employ downstream signalling cascades that engage effector mechanisms to restore homeostasis. The most studied signalling mechanism that the ER employs is the unfolded protein response (UPR), which is known to increase a number of effector mechanisms, including autophagy.

Place the unfolded protein response (UPR) into the context of how virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology. Link femotosecond blasts of ultraviolet light to the creation of enzymes and energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair to complete the picture of creation vs neo-Darwinism.
See: UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair
If you are a top scientist who believes in neo-Darwinism, retire as soon as possible to avoid the ridicule that will be linked to the lack of funding for your so-called research.
See also: miRs-103/107 regulate autophagy in the epidermis

We found that antagomir-107 treatment in epidermis: (i) depleted endogenous miR-107; (ii) increased GFP-LC3 puncta in epidermal basal layers of GFP-LC3 transgenic mice, indicative of an accumulation of autophagosomes; (iii) inhibited LC3 turnover and increased p62, suggesting an inhibition of autophagy flux; and (iv) increased phosphorylated dynamin (p-dynamin, an inactive form), a key enzyme in end-stage autophagy. Conversely, miR-107 mimic treatment in mouse epidermis: decreased GFP-LC3 puncta in basal layer as well as p62 protein levels; and diminished p-dynamin, indicative of activation of this enzyme.

See also: CCPG1: A new breed of autophagy cargo receptor: 3:00pm GMT / 10:00am EST / 7:00am PST on Thursday 1st March
The anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of receptors is enzyme-dependent and RNA-mediated in the context of the physiology of reproduction and autophagy, which biophysically constrains viral latency.
The overwhelming complexity prevents most attempts to link quantum physics from quantum chemistry to the molecular mechanisms of epigenetically-effected cancer prevention and treatment. Despite that fact, prevention and effective treatments will continue to link the speed of light on contact with water from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution via the creation of microRNAs linked to biophysically constrained viral latency.
Do you remember what Barry J. Marshall did to link H. pylori to prevention of gastric cancer?
See: Neutrons identify critical details in bacterial enzyme implicated in gastric cancer

Ronning’s team focused on H. pylori’s use of a unique biosynthetic pathway to synthesize vitamin K2, which aids in the electron transfer processes, or chemical reactions, of all organisms.

Ronning’s team linked Barry J. Marshall’s energy-dependent changes (e,g., hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution) from electrons to ecosystems and healthy longevity in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
I asked the evolutionary theorist, John Hewitt (a so-called science journalist): “Are you still planning to do that by starting with the magical creation of selenocysteine?”
I’ve heard nothing from him, since then.
See also: Is Maternal Food Security a Predictor of Food and Drink Intake Among Toddlers in Oregon? (2012)

CDC Disclaimer: The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

The 35-year-old author works as a team lead for the CDC’s Division of Population Health.

Authorities say he called in sick on February 12, 2018 and has not been heard from since.

In 2014 he was the first author of: Sex-specific relationships between adverse childhood experiences and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in five states

This work adds to a growing body of research suggesting that ACEs may contribute to health problems later in life and suggesting a need for program and policy solutions.

The link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to healthy longevity and the link from stress-induced biophysical constraint-breaking mutations reaffirms that suggestion.
Cunningham’s brother, Anterio Cunningham, does not want to assume the worst, yet he is worried something horrible has happened for him to leave his family and prized job with no notice.
The CDC did not immediately respond to ABC News’ request for comment.

Anyone with information is urged to call 911 or the Atlanta Police Homicide/Adult Missing Persons Unit at 404-546-4235.

The need for program and policy solutions at the CDC could bring the current practice of medicine to an end. The end requires all practitioners to acknowledge the facts about disease control. The facts link the creation of sunlight from fixation of light in cyanobacteria to the physiology of reproduction in humans and to all biodiversity via biophysically constrained viral latency.
See also: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution (1973)

 I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation.

Dozhansky supposedly assumed that:

Creation is not an event that happened in 4004 B.C.; it is a process that began some 10 billion years ago and is still under way.

But he may also have been joking. He wrote:

…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.

Dobzhansky was joking about the time it would take for the creation of light to cause the energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, which link food energy to the creation of enyzmes that metabolized food. His joke extends from the creation of sunlight — as the “light of evolution” — to the species-specific pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and cell type differentiation in chimpanzees and humans compared to gorillas via one amino acid substitution. The joke was played on theorists who, in 1973, still believed that mutations could be linked to evolution despite the claims in Schroedinger: What is Life? (1944).
Anyone who places Dobzhansky’s claims from 1964 and the claims of McEwen et al. (1964) into the context of Frohlich’s assertions in 1968 would close the door on evolutionists in three steps.
Dobzhansky compared theorists to bird watchers and butterfly collectors.
McEwen et al., (1964) linked the creation of ATP to the creation of RNA.
Frohlich (1968) linked the creation of RNA to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.
The cell biology game “Cytosis” can be used to teach people like George Church about cell biology. Alternatively, Church could ask a serious scientist what was known about the energy-dependent creation of naturally occurring enzymes.
For comparison, retracted works by Jack Szostak’s group are the only works that might make that fact not obvious (e.g., to other theorists). Serious scientists know that all enzymes naturally occur in the context of their energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation. If George Church shared Dobzhanky’s creationist beliefs, he might have avoided the shame that comes from his claim that it was not obvious where all naturally occurring enzymes come from.
See: Retraction Watch Also reported as: Oops! Scientific retraction a major blow to evolution theory

Szostak’s study reopens what is perhaps the largest hole in evolutionary theory, as scientists remain unable to explain how the building blocks of life were “spontaneously” created.

Jack W. Szostak—a professor of chemistry and chemical biology at Harvard University,  shared the 2009 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. It seems likely that he influenced the works by George Church — also at Harvard, and the claims Church made about the “not obvious” creation of naturally created enzymes.
See for comparison: Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
Reported as: Researchers may have solved origin-of-life conundrum

…the conditions that produce nucleic acid precursors also create the starting materials needed to make natural amino acids and lipids. That suggests a single set of [light activated] reactions could have given rise to most of life’s building blocks simultaneously.

The difference between George Church’s neo-Darwinian approach, and the approach that serious scientists have taken, may be as simple as the difference between a creationist and an evolutionary theorist.
 
For comparison, see: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy Published on 30 Mar 2016

Poster: The anti-entropic force of virucidal ultraviolet light links guanine–cytosine (G⋅C) Watson–Crick base pairing from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to supercoiled DNA, which protects the organized genomes of all living genera from virus-driven entropy. For example, protection of DNA from permanent UV damage occurs in the context of photosynthesis and nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation, which links RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to DNA repair. In the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation, DNA repair enables the de novo creation of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs). Olfactory receptor genes are GPCRs. The de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes links chemotaxis and phototaxis from foraging behavior to social behavior in species from microbes to humans. Foraging behavior links ecological variation to ecological adaptation in the context of this atoms to ecosystems model of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Protein folding chemistry links nutrient-dependent microRNAs from microRNA flanking sequences to energy transfer and cell type differentiation in the context of adhesion proteins, and supercoiled DNA that protects all organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.

5th-6th Sept 2018 Dublin, Ireland

The MicroRNAome Strikes Back: A Sokalian hoax (10)

Linda Buck, Ben Feringa, Michael Gazzaniga, Christof Koch, Nick Lane and Svante Paabo are among the presenters who will almost undoubtedly discuss some or all of my claims.
Prepare to ask questions or intelligently discuss accurate representations of top-down causation by watching this:

The energy-dependent creation of the microRNAome protects the organized genomes of all living genera from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
See: The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental changes may impact the expression of specific miRNA.

See also: Dynamic control of chirality and self-assembly of double-stranded helicates with light
See for comparison: A Bioenergetic Basis for Membrane Divergence in Archaea and Bacteria (2014)

We conclude that the enzymes involved took these alternatives by chance in independent populations that had already evolved distinct ion pumps. Our model offers a quantitatively robust explanation for why membrane bioenergetics are universal, yet ion pumps and phospholipid membranes arose later and independently in separate populations. Our findings elucidate the paradox that archaea and bacteria share DNA transcription, ribosomal translation, and ATP synthase, yet differ in equally fundamental traits that depend on the membrane, including DNA replication.

The microRNA-mediated creation of enzymes is quantized energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by phosphorylation in the context of food energy and the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of all morphological and behavioral phenotypes in species from bacteria to primates. Membrane divergence in archaea occurs via the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links the loss of quantized energy from mutations to all pathology. The degradation of the cell membrane links archaea to L-forms, the last remnant of the life of a cell. See: The Inner Life of the Cell (video)
See also: Virus-mediated archaeal hecatomb in the deep seafloor (2016)

We show here for the first time the crucial role of viruses in controlling archaeal dynamics and therefore the functioning of deep-sea ecosystems, and suggest that virus-archaea interactions play a central role in global biogeochemical cycles.

So far as I know, none of the people who are presenting at “The Future of Biology” meeting have linked Schroedinger’s claims from the past to what is known about the conserved molecular mechanisms of energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans. Even if they are not evolutionary theorists, most have not linked the energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to increasing organismal complexity and some have even reversed what is known about top-down causation. For example, Nick Lane, like Gunter P. Wagner have used mathematical models of correlations.
See: Pervasive correlated evolution in gene expression shapes cell and tissue type transcriptomes
They start with this admission”

A major challenge for interpreting this data is that cell type transcriptomes may not evolve independently…

They seem to think they can use statistics and interpretations to address the challenge of facts about increasing organismal complexity.

Our study provides a statistical method to measure and account for correlated gene expression evolution when interpreting comparative transcriptome data.

See for comparison: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior and Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
The fact that what organisms eat has been linked from the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes, receptors, and hormones to the affect of hormones on behavior in all invertebrates and vertebrates was placed into the context of the cell biology game, Cytosis.

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

During the month of January (2018), 2831 people learned from my twitter profile about the domains RNA-mediated.com and Autophagy.pro and some of them learned from more than 100,000 impressions how energy must be linked to RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency by autophagy.
Jan 2018 Summary
Tweets
1,199
Tweet impressions
102,000
Profile visits
2,831
Mentions
71
New followers
29
 

Why do I have only 29 new followers? Are theorists really that scared? If so, how will they help to prevent the next viral apocalypse, if it has not already started before September, 2018?

See also:

If my claims about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation are not discussed by Linda Buck, Ben Feringa, Michael Gazzaniga, Christof Koch, Nick Lane, and Svante Paabo others will have another example of what happens after a paradigm shift.

 In the past nothing happened because serious scientists failed to acknowledge this fact: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction. The article was co-authored by LInda Buck. There is no mention of mutations or evolution and Linda Buck is scheduled to present what can best be described as a refutation of neo-Darwinian evolution.

http://nnjournal.net/article/viewFile/2354/1850/10234

A mental health problem at the highest level (2)

Biologically uninformed theorists and so-called science journalists have ignored their own mental health issues and focussed their attention on the mental health of serious scientists. Some of the serious scientists advise the President of the United States in attempts to help him make America great again by draining the political and academic swamps.
It is time to examine the personality disorders of theorists and biologically uninformed journalists for comparison to the mental health of serious scientists and the President of the United States of America.

The Eight Basic Qualities in All Personality Disorders

The theoretical underpinnings of interpersonal style fall into an approach popular in the mid-20th century postulating that “all interpersonal interactions reflects attempts to establish and maintain self-esteem or avoid anxiety” (p. 679). According to this view, you’re constantly trying to feel good about yourself in your relationships because to recognize weakness would make you feel anxious. At some level, the theory proposes, we’re always searching for approval and validation.

The theoretical underpinnings led pseudoscientists to claim:

The 8 traits identified [are] …. domineering, vindictive, cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, overly nurturant, and intrusive.

All identified traits are based on social science and all social science is pseudoscience according to Richard P. Feynman.
See for comparison:  Epigenetic modifications poster
This poster covers

    • – Histone and DNA modifications
    • – Histone modifier enzymes
    • – Histone modification binding proteins

All epigenetic modifications are energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans. That fact has been known to all serious scientists since we included it in the context of our molecular epigenetics section from this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
See for comparison: The Future of Secularism: a Biologically Informed Theory Supplemented with Cross-Cultural Evidence
See the discussion attempt on the: Neuroscience Facebook group
Watch as participants from this group assert the claim that their theory about the intelligence and fertility of Muslims compared to Jews and Buddhists is “biologically informed.”
See for comparison: SIRT6-dependent cysteine monoubiquitination in the PRE-SET domain of Suv39h1 regulates the NF-κB pathway
Reported as: Researchers identify a new chromatin regulatory mechanism linked to SirT6

…suggests a regulatory landscape of these modifications much more complex than previously anticipated…

This suggests they failed to anticipate the link from the creation of anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun by the entity that John Hewitt referred to as “Sky Daddy.” For comparison to his ignorant biologically uninformed approach to chromatin regulatory mechanisms, see:
Analysis of experience-regulated transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development reveals spatiotemporal dynamics (with my emphasis)

Visual system development is light-experience dependent, which strongly implicates epigenetic mechanisms in light-regulated maturation. Among many epigenetic processes, genomic imprinting is an epigenetic mechanism through which monoallelic gene expression occurs in a parent-of-origin-specific manner. It is unknown if genomic imprinting contributes to visual system development. We profiled the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of mouse visual system development under normal- and dark-rearing conditions using B6/CAST F1 hybrid mice. We identified experience-regulated, isoform-specific, and brain region-specific imprinted genes. We also found imprinted microRNAs were predominantly clustered into the Dlk1-Dio3 imprinted locus with light experience affecting some imprinted miRNA expression. Our findings provide the first comprehensive analysis of light-experience regulation of the transcriptome and imprintome during critical periods of visual system development. Our results may contribute to therapeutic strategies for visual impairments and circadian rhythm disorders resulting from a dysfunctional imprintome.

A broad-based approach to the failure of most science journalists to understand why energy must be linked to the creation of all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera can be viewed in the light of this 2017 published work: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception
Wen Zhou’s group linked the energy-dependent creation of the sense of smell in bacteria from the physiology of reproduction to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the biophysically constrained space-time continuum.
See for comparison: The vibrational theory of olfaction for the win
I hope that other serious scientists will forgive me for suggesting that John Hewitt could help others understand how the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy is used to link the side chains of the tripeptide Ser65-Tyr66-Gly67 to an intrinsic covalently-bonded chromophore.
Like most science journalists, John Hewitt failed to link the creation of energy as information from the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal effects on biophysically constrained viral latency to the creation of enzymes that metabolize food energy and to all pheromone-controlled biodiversity. Most science journalists seem to be united against those who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease
For example, Ed Yong blocked me from following his tweets, Carl Zimmer blocked me from commenting elsewhere, and I now anticipate only more sarcasm from John Hewitt.  Perhaps I should have been less critical of Philip Ball at the end of this interview.

But, J.A. Parker laughed in the same context of this parody, which is a more technical representation of what all serious scientists know about energy-dependent cell type differentiation in the context of biophysically constrained mental and physical health.
All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody) 12/10/14
See: A mental health problem at the highest level (3)
 

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Diet-driven RNA interference and cancer prevention (3)

Excerpt: They claim to have found novel autoregulatory feedback loops that link changes in microRNAs to the alternative splicing factors SRSF1 and SRSF2.  Ectopic expression of SRSF1 can automagically repress the level of multiple microRNAs and SRSF2 can automagically upregulate miRNA expression.

The fact that a peer-reviewed work published in 2018 links autoregulatory feedback loops to automagically altered gene expression and apoptosis via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs suggests it is time for all serious scientists to retire. The magic of pseudoscientists has prevailed for more than 2 decades.

See for comparison: In clinical trial, cream reduces squamous cell carcinoma risk

Results of a new randomized, double-blinded, controlled clinical trial in veterans showed a 75 percent reduction in the risk of needing surgery to treat a squamous cell carcinoma for a year after applying a skin cream for up to four weeks.

How Fluorouracil Works: (with my emphasis)

The ability of chemotherapy to kill cancer cells depends on its ability to halt cell division. Usually, the drugs work by damaging the RNA or DNA that tells the cell how to copy itself in division. If the cells are unable to divide, they die. The faster the cells are dividing, the more likely it is that chemotherapy will kill the cells, causing the tumor to shrink. They also induce cell suicide (self-death or apoptosis).

Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells only when they are dividing are called cell-cycle specific. Chemotherapy drugs that affect cells when they are at rest are called cell-cycle non-specific. The scheduling of chemotherapy is set based on the type of cells, rate at which they divide, and the time at which a given drug is likely to be effective. This is why chemotherapy is typically given in cycles.

Chemotherapy is most effective at killing cells that are rapidly dividing. Unfortunately, chemotherapy does not know the difference between the cancerous cells and the normal cells. The “normal” cells will grow back and be healthy but in the meantime, side effects occur. The “normal” cells most commonly affected by chemotherapy are the blood cells, the cells in the mouth, stomach and bowel, and the hair follicles; resulting in low blood counts, mouth sores, nausea, diarrhea, and/or hair loss. Different drugs may affect different parts of the body.

Fluoruracil belongs to the category of chemotherapy called antimetabolites. Antimetabolites are very similar to normal substances within the cell. When the cells incorporate these substances into the cellular metabolism, they are unable to divide. Antimetabolites are cell-cycle specific. They attack cells at very specific phases in the cycle. Antimetabolites are classified according to the substances with which they interfere. Fluoruracil is classified as a pyrimidine analog because it interferes with DNA and RNA synthesis by mimicking the building blocks necessary for synthesis.

The term antimetabolites is confusing. Metabolism is enzyme-dependent. Cell type differentiation is energy-dependent and the creation of microRNA links ATP to the creation of enzymes that metabolize food to the species-specific pheromones.
Pheromones biophysically constrain viral latency. That is how they prevent all pathology in the context of metabolism. Enzyme-dependent cycles of metabolism are the key to healthy longevity. Simply put, pheromones prevent the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of nearly all viruses that have not been biophysically constrained by food energy-dependent metabolism.

Hardin, Hall and Rosbash (1990) put that fact into the perspective of Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels. The feedback loops are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by naturally occurring RNA interference (i.e., natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality). The feedback links the metabolism of food to pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained viral latency.
 

Rosbash shared the 2017 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which attests to the fact that all serious scientists probably know how to prevent or to effectively treat cancer as a disorder of cyclic changes in the chemistry of energy-dependent RNA mediated cell type differentiation. Prevention should include limiting exposure to nutrient stress and/or social stress because stress alters microRNA-mediated alternative splicings that link food energy to the biophyiscally constrained chemistry of protein folding.

See: Microrna-mediated regulation of splicing factors SRSF1, SRSF2 and hnRNP A1 in context of their alternatively spliced 3’UTRs

The microRNAs targeting SRSF1 and SRSF2 are involved in a regulatory feedback loop. microRNAs miR-183-5p and miR-200c-3p that target SRSF2, affect the expression of genes involved in apoptotic regulation.

They claim to have found novel autoregulatory feedback loops that link changes in microRNAs to the alternative splicing factors SRSF1 and SRSF2.  Ectopic expression of SRSF1 can automagically repress the level of multiple microRNAs and SRSF2 can automagically upregulate miRNA expression.

The fact that a peer-reviewed work published in 2018 links autoregulatory feedback loops to automagically altered gene expression and apoptosis via alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs suggests it is time for all serious scientists to retire. The magic of pseudoscientists has prevailed for more than 2 decades.

See for comparison:

From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two [model organisms.]

See also:
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction (2005)
The feedback loops are food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.

Sarcasm alert: The treatment of automagically dysregulated apoptosis should probably begin with a change in diet.

Changes in diet have been linked from the energy-dependent creation of enzymes that specifically link an energy-dependent base pair change to microRNA-mediated DNA repair via fixation of an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution. The substitutions are linked to energy-dependent cell type differentiation and healthy longevity without the magic.

Just add food energy or the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to eliminate the term autoregulatory and you could prevent or effectively treat all virus-driven pathology. 

Energy-dependent RNA interference links the enzyme-dependent metabolism of food and drugs to cell type differentiation via feedback loops that link pheromones to biophysically constrained viral latency.

Do not claim to have a logical philosophy if you cannot link the creation of the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to every aspect of the biophysically constrained pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to human by starting with the obvious need to control viral replication in the ocean and linking the control to healthy longevity in modern human populations via fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in all differentiated cell types.

See also: Metabolic Labeling and Profiling of Transfer RNAs Using Macroarrays

Transfer RNAs (tRNA) are abundant short non-coding RNA species that are typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length. tRNAs are directly responsible for protein synthesis by translating codons in mRNA into amino acid sequences.

See also: Molecular mechanism of promoter opening by RNA polymerase III

RNA polymerase III (Pol III) and transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) assemble together on different promoter types to initiate the transcription of small, structured RNAs.

Nothing happens without the energy-dependent creation of the enzymes and the biophysically constrained viral latency that links the creation of G protein-coupled receptors to the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. The claims about molecular mechanisms of promoter opening appear to be deliberate attempts to obfuscate cause and effect.
Activation of G protein-coupled estrogen receptor signaling inhibits melanoma and improves response to immune checkpoint blockade

Female sex and history of prior pregnancies are associated with favorable melanoma outcomes. Here, we show that much of the melanoma protective effect likely results from estrogen signaling through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) on melanocytes. Selective GPER activation in primary melanocytes and melanoma cells induced long-term changes that maintained a more differentiated cell state as defined by increased expression of well-established melanocyte differentiation antigens, increased pigment production, decreased proliferative capacity, and decreased expression of the oncodriver and stem cell marker c-Myc. GPER signaling also rendered melanoma cells more vulnerable to immunotherapy. Systemically delivered GPER agonist was well tolerated, and cooperated with immune checkpoint blockade in melanoma-bearing mice to dramatically extend survival, with up to half of mice clearing their tumor. Complete responses were associated with immune memory that protected against tumor rechallenge. GPER may be a useful, pharmacologically accessible target for melanoma.

Sex-specific cell type differentiation links yeasts to primates via the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction that links the food energy-dependent structure and function of enzymes and G protein-coupled receptors to the biophysically constrained Structure and dynamics of GPCR signaling complexes, which are required to biophysically constrain viral latency in the context of effect of androgens and estrogens on difference in the cell type of males and females.
Any focus on G protein-coupled estrogen receptors compared to G protein-coupled androgen receptors  should be viewed with suspicion in the context of what has been known to all serious scientists about hormones and behavior since our Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (1996)
Simply put, the alternative splicings of pre-mRNAs, which are now called microRNAs, biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency and prevents the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of nearly all virus-driven pathology until excess nutrient stress or social stress takes its toll on the innate immune system.
Eventually, our food energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair fails, and the accumulation of viral microRNAs predicts the failure of cell type differentiation in the tissues that are required to sustain our physical health and mental health.

Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

The tipping point (revisited): 68,000 publications

MicroRNA  Items: 1 to 20 of 68011 (earlier today, on 12/21/17)

See for example: In Vitro Validation of miRNA-Mediated Gene Expression Linked to Drug Metabolism 12/20/17

The approaches described can be employed broadly for the validation of miRNA-mediated negative regulation of any gene. Determining miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism is a critical step in designing personalized therapy and for understanding the mechanisms responsible for variations in the responses to therapeutic agents.

The “…miRNA-mediated regulation of enzymes and transporters affecting drug metabolism…” links the National Microbiome Initiative to the Precision Medicine Initiative and to all healthy longevity or to all virus-driven pathology in all living genera via differences in energy as information.
For review, see: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Light induced energy-dependent changes link angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy. The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection. This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA. Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes. For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

For a historical perspective on what is known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated (aka microRNA-mediated) cell type differentiation, see:
The quantum / classical RNA-mediated ‘tipping point’ 3/26/15
The tipping point? 50, 000 publications 5/16/16
The tipping point? 50, 000 publications (2) 5/16/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (3) 5/17/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (4) 5/26/16
The tipping point? 50,000 publications (5) 7/27/16
The tipping point (revisited): 60,000 4/20/17
By May 16, 2016, the innate antiphage defense strategy was linked from quantum physics to classical physics by 50,000 publications that mentioned microRNAs. Nineteen months later, every aspect of the microRNA-mediated gene expression that had already been linked to drug metabolism attests to the fact that not all scientists have followed the extant literature.
Many scientists are still among the pseudoscientists who who failed to notice the most obvious links from the antiphage defense strategy to healthy longevity. Perhaps they were also too busy to notice the most obvious links from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to the need for drug therapies.
If so, that may explain why the drug therapies have been largely ineffective. The drug therapies may be like vaccinations. They appear to link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to more mutations, which clearly link the virus-driven theft of quantized energy to all pathology.
With more than 18,000 published works in the past 19 months, (8,000 in the past 8 months) it is time to again address the tipping point between quantum physics and classical physics in the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation via what is known about autophagy.
In the context of drug metabolism, the energy-dependent microRNA-mediated creation of enzymes was linked from the metabolism of food to all biodiversity on Earth via pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
See for example page 19 of the sample report from Alpha Genomix that you can download as a pdf here. The food energy-dependent creation of the CYP enzymes protects our organized genome by biophysically constraining viral latency.

See for comparison: Our Top 17 in ’17: The Year in Science at PLOSBLOGS 

…the far-reaching war on science being conducted by the Trump administration, an assault on facts which, as several of our bloggers have noted, constitutes a removal of scientific evidence from the formation and discussion of public policy and an evisceration of funding and communication of vital research in medical research and regulation, public health, climate, energy, agriculture and education.

The only war on science that I know about, is the one in which serious scientists are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease. To place that claim into the context of what has happened during 2017, see the retraction of this article.
Biomechanical Characteristics of Hand Coordination in Grasping Activities of Daily Living [retracted]
It was retracted because the authors mentioned the creator of the hand. The creation of the hand occurs only in the context of biophysically constrained viral latency.

See for comparison: Retraction Watch

In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

Where else besides PLOS have you seen a retraction for the mention of a creator? Where did PLOS report on the retraction for misrepresentations in “Nature Chemistry?” Who still believes that microRNA and messenger RNAs created each other so that they could automagically constrain viral latency?
Who else besides PLOS is waging a far-reaching war on science?
See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems 4/10/14

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.

Obama Advisers Urge Action Against CRISPR Bioterror Threat 11/17/16

Scientific advisers to President Obama warn that the U.S. urgently needs a new biodefense strategy and should regularly brief President-elect Donald Trump on the dangers posed by new technologies like CRISPR, gene therapy, and synthetic DNA, which they say could be coöpted by terrorists.

See for comparison:  2017 Global Infectious Diseases Threats to the United States 12/22/16

Flu.  Influenza remains one of the greatest threats to the US population killing on average 3,000-49,000 Americans annually.  People at the greatest risk of severe flu and death are pregnant women, residents of long-term care facilities, the very old (adults over the age of 65), the very young (children less than 2), Native American populations, and those with underlying chronic conditions such as asthma, COPD, heart disease, obesity, and other conditions.  Timely vaccination remains the most proven and effective way to avoid serious injury from influenza.

The new Trump Administration will face a formidable array of global and indigenous infectious disease threats in 2017.  A Global Health Security Agenda will help provide a framework for tackling some of these tough issues, but enhanced efforts will be needed to prevent new epidemics, especially from vector-borne and zoonotic neglected tropical diseases, measles, and the ever-constant threats from AMR and flu.

The biggest threat that the Trump administration has faced in the first year is the fake news. The most recent example accused him of censorship at the CDC for his director’s efforts to biophysically constrain energy-dependent viral latency. The CDC director’s efforts to help others with budget concerns were linked to censorship, and the President of the United States was compared to Hitler. Wake up and “Remember the Alamo.”
SARCASM ALERT: No, that was a different war. Wake up and remember the Manhattan Project, which also linked censorship about energy to the winning of a war.