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The unoffically uninvited

Who’s Invited to the Royal Society Evolution Paradigm Shift Meeting? – The Unofficial List

Excerpt:

I was informed by the Royal Society science program office that there will be no formal presentations on viruses, per se, which seems peculiar considering viruses are now understood to be the biggest part of the biosphere, and a key reason for paradigm shift. Viruses and microbes — both organisms — were left out of the modern synthesis.
Seriously missing then from the proceedings will be Paradigm Shifters and virus specialists/enthusiasts: Eugene Koonin, Luis Villarreal, Ricardo Flores, František Baluška, Corrado Spadafora, Günther Witzany and Eibi Nevo.

My comment: The mere mention of the obvious role that viruses play in mutation-driven pathology would cause presenters to gasp and then try to explain why they ignored this fact.

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

Note, my published comment to the Science site was replaced by the authors’ response.  My comment still appears on the Atlantic Magazine site.  I included some sarcasm: “I’m not sure that the laws of physics apply to viruses…” That may have embarrassed the authors, and the editors at Science Magazine. In any case, the authors clarified what needed to be made perfectly clear.
I wrote:

The idea of biophysical constraints seems antithetical to the idea of nature somehow selecting mutations that cause amino acid substitutions. However, I am not a biophysicist or evolutionary theorist.
The problem may be my focus on nutrient-dependent receptor-mediated amino acid substitutions in species from bacteria to humans (non-viral organisms). Since I am not a virologist or physicist, I’m not sure that the laws of physics apply to viruses and their replication.
If they do, natural selection for random mutations is not likely to result in amino acid substitutions because the thermodynamics of changes in organism-level thermoregulation preclude such randomness. Stability of protein biosynthesis and degradation that probably depends on protein folding must somehow be controlled. Besides, I don’t know how random mutations in viruses could be naturally selected for inclusion in the human virome (or in the virome of any organism capable of thermoregulating its thermodynamic intercellular signaling).
If the Second Law of Thermodynamics does not apply to viruses, which means the chemical bonds that enable the amino acid substitutions can form at random and somehow be naturally selected, the details of biophysical constraints in this article seems out of place, since I do not think in terms of constrained random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution.
Hopefully, someone with a background in biophysics will address my confusion in case others are confused. In addition, I wonder if the consequences of understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that govern viruses extend to consequences important to understanding the evolution of species from bacteria to humans via constrained random mutations and natural selection?

Addendum: Serious scientists cannot comment on pseudoscientific nonsense without mentioning the Laws of Physics and the biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry that links RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all cell types of all individuals of all living genera. Therefore, serious scientists cannot be allowed publicly comment on the pseudoscientific touted by teleophobic neo-Darwinists. It causes too much ill will among all academics. This may be especially true of academics who are trying to sneak through the changes that are required to salvage the unsalvageable bits and pieces of the ridiculous “Modern Synthesis.” They must try to keep some theory of evolution protected from facts about how atoms are linked to ecosystems via hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs. If they cannot do that, everyone will realize that there have been no  Paradigm Shifters in academia and that all the proponents of required change to the Modern Synthesis, have ignored what is known to serious scientists about viruses and energy theft.
What was known to Luca Turin caused him to join others who have stayed on the list of the uninvited.
See: A Spectroscopic Mechanism for Primary Olfactory Reception.
Reported as: ‘Quantum smell’ idea gains ground

“He’s had some peripheral support, but… people don’t want to line up behind Luca,” Prof Jacob said. “It’s scientific suicide.”

See also: Book Review by James Vaughn Kohl
The Emperor of Scent: A Story of Perfume, Obsession and the Last Mystery of the Senses
by Chandler Burr
New York: Random House (2003).
Excerpt:

Human studies have shown that we can sniff out genetically determined differences in natural body odor, but that this is not done consciously. Therefore, such perceptions seem to fall outside the realm of Turin’s vibration theory for odor recognition (which he indicates occurs at a conscious level).

More than a century ago, in 1900, Max Planck, one of the greatest physicists of all time, announced his revolutionary new scientific theory of an energy constant in quantum mechanics. Eighteen years later he was awarded a Nobel Prize. As Luca Turin waits for his rewards/award, he and others may benefit from knowing more about Planck’s attitude: “…a new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.”

 
 

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The bug in the "holy grail" of evolution

Evolution Bug

by Richard William Nelson, October 1, 2015
Excerpt:

In one of the largest invertebrate amino acid sequences studies to date, Young and Hebert, found highly variable patterns of amino acid sequences in the enzyme known as cytochrome C between species. None of Charles Darwin’s continuous “successive, slight” evolutionary changes in more than 4,000 species of arachnids studied were found. The paper, published in the highly respected journal PLoS ONE, August, 2015, demonstrates the persistent bug in the theory of evolution – no common ancestor.

My comment: This is an unparalleled accurate representation of facts that link nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to all cell type differentiation in all living genera via metabolic networks linked to genetic networks. See also: Clinically Actionable Genotypes Among 10,000 Patients With Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing. Pharmacogenomic testing links nutritional epigenetics via metabolism to energy-dependent protein folding via amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes.
In the same context, McEwen et al (2015) Mechanisms of stress in the brain  can be compared to Bohacek & Mansuy (2015) Molecular insights into transgenerational non-genetic inheritance of acquired behaviours
McEwen et al (2015) eliminates evolutionary theory via focus on the conserved molecular mechanisms that link nutrient stress and/or social stress from ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all living genera. Bohacek & Mansuy (2015) try to put what is known about the nutrient-dependent innate immune system, cell type differentiation, and the physiology of reproduction into the context of evolutionary theory.
All serious scientists know the outcome of the conflict between McEwen et al (2015) and evolutionary theory. It is not possible to put what is known about RNA-mediated gene silencing or any other aspect of RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression into the context of ridiculous theories. The conflict ends when all serious scientists link the “holy grail” of biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and protein folding to an end to the search for the “holy grail” of evolution.
Simply put, the search for the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) has ended badly for theorists. What is known about molecular epigenetics links ecological variation to ecological adaptation via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, without LUCA. Without LUCA, there is no neo-Darwinism; no Modern Synthesis; no evolution industry, and no big bang cosmology industry.
Ecological adaptation starts with the required response of the innate immune system to viruses, which perturb protein folding.

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

I wrote:

The idea of biophysical constraints seems antithetical to the idea of nature somehow selecting mutations that cause amino acid substitutions. However, I am not a biophysicist or evolutionary theorist.
The problem may be my focus on nutrient-dependent receptor-mediated amino acid substitutions in species from bacteria to humans (non-viral organisms). Since I am not a virologist or physicist, I’m not sure that the laws of physics apply to viruses and their replication.
If they do, natural selection for random mutations is not likely to result in amino acid substitutions because the thermodynamics of changes in organism-level thermoregulation preclude such randomness. Stability of protein biosynthesis and degradation that probably depends on protein folding must somehow be controlled. Besides, I don’t know how random mutations in viruses could be naturally selected for inclusion in the human virome (or in the virome of any organism capable of thermoregulating its thermodynamic intercellular signaling).
If the Second Law of Thermodynamics does not apply to viruses, which means the chemical bonds that enable the amino acid substitutions can form at random and somehow be naturally selected, the details of biophysical constraints in this article seems out of place, since I do not think in terms of constrained random mutations and natural selection in mutation-driven evolution.
Hopefully, someone with a background in biophysics will address my confusion in case others are confused. In addition, I wonder if the consequences of understanding the evolutionary mechanisms that govern viruses extend to consequences important to understanding the evolution of species from bacteria to humans via constrained random mutations and natural selection?

When my comment (above) was replaced by the author’s comment on Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution, the facts about evolution became perfectly clear.
Darwin claimed, “conditions of life” must come first. His conditions are nutrient-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. Top-down causation and the physiology of reproduction link ecological variation to ecological adaptations in all living genera via amino-acid substitutions the stabilize the organized genomes of all living genera.
See also: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution
Excerpt:

We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.

My comment: If you have not yet grasped the fact that the claim above means there is no such thing as neo-Darwinian evolution, it is because the neo-Darwinists refuse to admit that they know the facts. (Alternatively, they may not know any.) Like Eugene Koonin, other neo-Darwinists are Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift to its death. But most others have not admitted that:

The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…

That admission eliminates all the ridiculous claims made by neo-Darwinists who left more biological facts out of the “Modern Synthesis” than they included in the estimates of how long it might take for one species to evolve into another, which never happens. Ecological adaptations happen, not evolution of viruses, proteins, or people.
Patterns of Protein Evolution in Cytochrome c Oxidase 1 (COI) from the Class Arachnida
Excerpt: 

…cytochrome c oxidase 1 (COI) from more than 400,000 animal species…

Conclusion:

…COI sequence data can provide an overview of patterns of amino acid evolution across both other groups of arthropods and animal life at large.

My comment: Animal life and plant life are linked to all biodiversity and all biomass by the conserved molecular mechanisms that link atoms to ecosystems via RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression and RNA-mediated gene silencing.

Biology to a Physicist

Olfaction & the octopus and human genomes (2)

Darwinian evolution in the light of genomics

Eugene Koonin excerpt:

The distribution of evolutionary rates across sets of orthologous genes, the distribution of the sizes of paralogous gene families, the negative correlation between the expression level and the sequence evolution rate of a gene, and other relationships between key evolutionary and phenomic variables seem to be genuine universals of evolution. The simplicity of these universal regularities suggests that they are shaped by equally simple, fundamental evolutionary processes, rather than by selection for specific functions.

My comment: Selection of food links ecological variation to ecological adaptation via specific functions that are required to support the physiology of reproduction. For example, the metabolism of nutrients links the chemical appeal of food from ingestion and metabolic networks to genetic networks that are required for specie-specific survival.

The octopus genome and the evolution of cephalopod neural and morphological novelties

Abstract concluding sentences:

Finally, we found evidence for large-scale genomic rearrangements that are closely associated with transposable element expansions. Our analysis suggests that substantial expansion of a handful of gene families, along with extensive remodelling of genome linkage and repetitive content, played a critical role in the evolution of cephalopod morphological innovations, including their large and complex nervous systems.

Reported as only someone who was biologically uninformed could do: Octopuses ‘are aliens’, scientists decide after DNA study 
Excerpt:

The octopus appears to be utterly different from all other animals…

My comment: The sequencing of the octopus genome links nutrient-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA of marine invertebrates to changes in crustaceans, insects, and mammals via nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated events such as gene duplication and amino acid substitutions. These RNA-mediated events link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in all genera via their physiology of reproduction, which typically eliminates mutations from organized genomes. For example, unused olfactory receptor genes are eliminated or they become pseudogenes when mutations, which perturb protein folding, lead to non-functional duplicate genes.
See also: RNA-Mediated Thermoregulation of Iron-Acquisition Genes in Shigella dysenteriae and Pathogenic Escherichia coli
Excerpt:

This study demonstrates that the expression of S. dysenteriae shuA and E. coli chuA, genes essential for the utilization of heme as a source of nutrient iron, is modulated in response to environmental temperature by a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. This work is the first to demonstrate temperature-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of shuA and chuA expression and the first to implicate temperature as an environmental factor controlling the production of an iron uptake system in Shigella. Finally, it is demonstrated that the observed post-transcriptional thermoregulation of both shuA and chuA expression is mediated by the activity of a conserved FourU RNA thermometer within the 5′ utr of each gene.

My comment: Organism-level thermoregulation and Darwinian evolution are based on RNA-mediated events in the context of his ‘conditions of life.’ Conditions of life, as exemplified in Shigella, are nutrient-dependent. The pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution, which was invented by population geneticists and taught to several generations of people who remain biologically uninformed, has never been supported by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect. That explains why biologically uniformed researchers have not linked anything known to serious scientists about physics or chemistry to ecological adaptations, which are required for the survival of every organism and every species on this planet.
The survival of each cell type in each individual of each organism is determined by the organism’s ability to regulate thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that enable organism-level thermoregulation, which prevents the replication of viruses that damage DNA and contribute to all pathologies.
Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin
Excerpt:

The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…

My comment: Will other evolutionary theorists continue to “ride” the evolution paradigm shift until it ends with the death of us all? See Greg Bear on terrorism and ask yourself who is joking about it? If only evolutionary theorists are the jokers, please consider joining the serious scientists who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease before its too late.
Re: “…genes essential for the utilization of heme as a source of nutrient iron…”

Amino Acid Changes in Hemagglutinin Contribute to the Replication of Oseltamivir-Resistant H1N1 Influenza Viruses

Conclusion:

Antiviral drugs are an important defense when humans face influenza epidemics and pandemics. Our studies further our understanding of the emergence of drug-resistant viruses. Current epidemic viruses continue to evolve under selective pressure; therefore, the continuous monitoring of epidemic viruses is essential to reduce the risk of emergence of epidemics caused by drug-resistant viruses.

My comment: Drug-resistant viruses do not “emerge.” They do not “evolve.” The selective pressure that viruses are subjected to are the same ones that we are subjected to.  They will steal our iron and our life if we let the evolutionary theorists continue to ride their ridiculous neo-Darwinian paradigm.
Again, see Greg Bear on terrorism and have a nice day, or see: The Darwin Code by Greg Bear and begin to learn about counter-terrorism before evolutionary theorists lead to the death of us all.
See also: Rhesus (RH) negative blood? You may belong to the Nephilim
Excerpt:

 The RH factor is a protein found in the human blood that is directly linked to the Rhesus Monkey.

Note: A single nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution in the hemoglobin molecule differentiates the cell types of gorillas, chimpanzees, and humans. See my comments on Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
See also: Octopus genome holds clues to uncanny intelligence
My comment: This suggests that the octopus genome also holds the key to the almost unbelievable ignorance of evolutionary theorists. See for example: Mutation-Driven Evolution. Viruses appear to have already pirated the nutrient energy that is required for intelligent thought. Unfortunately, the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs) helps to ensure the ignorance of each successive generation. If other animals could be taught to believe in the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian evolution, we would already be extinct. Instead, we are driving them to extinction via our ignorance of biologically-based cause and effect.
See for an alternative: Israeli Middle Schools School to Include Theory of Evolution
Excerpt:

…learning about evolution is not the primary function of the decision, but rather to use it as a building block for students to learn more about their ecology.
My comment: Ecological variation is linked from nutritional epigenetics to ecological adaptations via pharmacogenomics, which links metabolic networks to genetic networks via RNA-mediated events. The biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding is perturbed by viruses, which is why they are linked to pathology, except by pseudoscientists who have ignored the role that viruses play in preventing ecological adaptations or forcing organisms to adapt via theromodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation that lead to biodiversity in their morphological and behavioral phenotypes via energy-dependent base pair changes and single amino acid substitutions.
amino acid homeostasis

RNA-mediated terms of virus-induced en-deer-ment

 

KarmaWarrior Level – Oh Deer
Posted by Stanton Warriors on Friday, August 1, 2014

My comment: This reminds me of a reported incident from: Gibbons, D.L. (1989) Unusual case: Sex in the woods. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 23,10(Oct):63.

“Cindy, who was menstruating… had gone alone to a portable commode hidden in a thicket to change her tampon, unaware that a young stag was nearby… Smelling her menstrual secretions, the deer became sexually aroused. He bounded through the trees and knocked Cindy to the ground. Then while prancing up and down with his forefoot on her shoulder, the sexually excited deer sprinkled her with semen.”

The existence of mammalian pheromones is no joking matter, but this incident gave new meaning to the phrase “terms of endeerment.”

The involvement of mammalian pheromones in sexual arousal has been underestimated or denied in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and evolution. Here’s what happened to one hunter who may have believed in the ridiculous claims made by Richard L. Doty that mammalian pheromones do not exist.

Here is what other human pheromone-deniers, like Luis Villarreal and Larry Young, would like you to believe about RNA-mediated events that link the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from insects to elephants via the conserved molecular mechanisms of  biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry that we detailed in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. The video representation links viruses to human monogamy via ridiculous misrepresentations of biologically-based cause and effect.

For comparison, people like Eugene Koonin do not typically make frivolous claims about biologically-based cause and effect. For example: “The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…” The frivolous claims by others who have ignored the RNA-mediated links from 1) viral microRNAs and 2) nutrient-dependent microRNAs to 1) pathology or to 2) healthy longevity have now been placed into the context of biological facts that were not represented in either of the two videos.
See:
RNA-mediated gene duplication: the rat preproinsulin I gene is a functional retroposon (1985)
RNA-mediated virus resistance (2002)
RNA-Mediated Epigenetic Programming of Genome Rearrangements (2011)
RNA-Mediated Thermoregulation of Iron-Acquisition Genes in Shigella dysenteriae and Pathogenic Escherichia coli (2013)
RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity (2013)
RNA-mediated epigenetic regulation of gene expression (2015)
RNA-Mediated Regulation of HMGA1 Function (2015)
RNA-directed DNA methylation: an epigenetic pathway of increasing complexity (2010)
Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. (2013)
Global relationships in fluctuation and response in adaptive evolution (2015)
See also a google search for RNA mediated, or a scholar.google.com search.
Is any serious scientist not capable of performing such simple searches to find current information about biologically-based cause and effect? Or, is the evolution industry running the show — as I think is obvious in the video about VIRUS EVOLUTION?
Claims about virus-induced “evolved” monogamy exemplify more pseudosceintific nonsense that anyone should accept regardless of their industry associations and who has been conned into funding their research.
See also: “rna mediated” “James V. Kohl”

Filtering light through a prism to identify tissue type

Riding the wrong direction

Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

Excerpt:

The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…

Excerpt:

[T]he entire ideology of personalized medicine should be taken with many grains of salt.

My comment: Personalized medicine links the conserved molecular mechanisms of biologically-based cause and effect from nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated gene duplication to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions, which differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all genera. Fixation of the amino acid substitutions in the organized genomes of all genomes occurs in the context of their physiology of reproduction.
The idea that any aspect of this biophysically constrained chemistry of nutrient-dependent protein folding, which links atoms to ecosystems, should be taken with “…many grains of salt” is an idea commonly shared by those who do not understand how cell type differentiation occurs.
Koonin cannot yet be placed into the same category as other theorists. He clearly identified the problem with neo-Darwinian theories about a last universal common ancestor. See:

A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

Excerpt: 

We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.

My comment: Claiming anything about “…a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged…” closely parallels the claims of creationists whose claims are supported by experimental evidence that links viruses to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
First, the de novo creation of amino acids must occur. Then viruses can perturb the creation of different cell types in different species by preventing proper RNA-mediated protein folding. The viruses can then be linked to all pathology at the same time that RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions are linked to healthy longevity.
See also: The Darwin Code by Greg Bear
Excerpt:

In fact, even in 1983, when I was preparing my novel Blood Music, I asked myself–what do viruses do ¬for us? Why do we allow them to infect us? I suspected they were part of a scheme involving computational DNA, but could not fit them in…not just then.

My comment: In his 1985 novel, Greg Bear linked RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to learning and memory. He also linked learning and memort to cell type differentiation via RNA-mediated gene duplication.
See: RNA-mediated gene duplication: the rat preproinsulin I gene is a functional retroposon
At the same time, and since then, others began to learn that anything told to them by neo-Darwinian theorists had not been supported by experimental evidence. There is still no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that links mutations from natural selection to the evolution of different cell types in individuals of different species.
See also:

Mae-Wan Ho: No Boundary Really Between Genetic and Epigenetic

Excerpt:

Although Ho has not let up in her criticism of the Modern Synthesis, as our conversation reveals, she says evolutionary science has now “moved on to such an extent” that she and Peter Saunders don’t really care anymore about “trying to convince the neo-Darwinists.”

See also:

Luis P. Villarreal tells it like it is

Taken together, compare the experimental evidence for virus-driven ecological adaptation, which appears to occur via the anti-entropic epigenetic effects of nutrient-dependent microRNAs, and ask why any neo-Darwinian evolutionary theorist ever claimed anything without attempting to support the claim with experimental evidence that links biologically-based cause and effect. Instead, see this attempt to explain evolution in the ridiculous context of theory.

 
 

terrarium-eco-system

Viruses, proteins, and gut metagenomes do not evolve

A new family of hybrid virophages from an animal gut metagenome
Excerpt from their conclusion: “These findings further highlight recombination and module shuffling as the central theme in the evolution of viruses and other selfish genetic elements [27]. More specifically, these results indicate that the evolutionary trajectories of Polintons (polintoviruses) and virophages have repeatedly crossed beyond the original, ancestral relationship. Conceivably, the recombination that gave rise to the RVPs involved a virophage and a viral form of a Polinton [23] (polintovirus) within a giant virus-infected amoeba which is known as a “melting pot” for the evolution of diverse selfish elements [28].”
My comment: Viruses adapt to ecological variation via amino acid substitutions. The substitutions have been directly linked from virulence and/or maintenance of viruses in organized genomes to biodiversity via the biophysically constrained anti-entropic chemistry of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding in species from microbes to man.
Elsewhere, for example, senior author Eugene Koonin (with others) has stated:
“We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.” See: Military combat training to fight disease (2)
This observed universal intrinsic trend, which predates the emergence of the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms is linked to the light-induced de novo creation of amino acids via the experimental evidence reviewed here: On the Origins of Life with my comments about the Virus-driven origin of life.