A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (6)

Conclusion: Like Richard Dawkins, Magnus S. Magnusson is a pseudoscientist.

A light-induced change in an endogenous substrate found in all cell types of all living genera links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the de novo creation of the innate immune system to RNA-mediated DNA repair in species from microbes to humans. The theft of quantized energy by viruses has been linked to all pathology.

The speed at which quantum decoherence occurs makes it difficult for virus-driven energy theft to be carried from one generation to the next via chromosomal inheritance, which is the only way that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance occurs — if it does not occur automagically in the small minds of theorists.

See first: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (5)
See next: Design of a synthetic yeast genome
They use what occurs in the context of natural selection for quantized energy-dependent changes in base pairs and link RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions from changes in enzymes and feedback loops. The feedback loops link the pheromone-controlled de novo creation of more receptors via the physiology of reproduction, which biophysically constrains viral latency in all organized genomes.
Their work was reported today, July 26, 2017 in the context of Scientists build DNA from scratch to alter life’s blueprint with my emphasis

Boeke, a researcher at New York University, directs an international team of 11 labs on four continents working to “rewrite” the yeast genome, following a detailed plan they published in March.

The research may reveal basic, hidden rules that govern the structure and functioning of genomes.

All serious scientists known that the structure and function of all organized genomes is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. For example, in all animals the functional structure of supercoiled DNA is controlled by food odors and pheromones in the context of the physiology of energy-dependent reproduction that links food energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to healthy longevity. Alternatively, virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology.

See: Viral MicroRNAs, Host MicroRNAs Regulating Viruses, and Bacterial MicroRNA-Like RNAs

The question arises: Does Boeke or anyone like him know that the organized genome of yeast is rewritten only in the context of the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysical constraints on viral latency? I ask because he may be hiding something. Anyone who does not know how chirality and autophagy biophysically constrain viral latency is not likely to have written a book chapter like this, which was co-authored by J.D. Boeke in 1988.

See: Yeast Ty Elements as Retroviruses in  Viruses of Fungi and Simple Eukaryotes

The title of J.D. Boeke’s latest effort: Design of a synthetic yeast genome, would make any young earth creationist proud of his Boeke’s accomplishment. It attests to facts about “design” that atheistic hate mongers like Richard Dawkins and other pseudoscientists have linked from mutations and natural selection to evolution.

See: Mutation-Driven Evolution

See also for example: Magnus S. Magnusson’s comments on Richard Dawkins event cancelled over his ‘abusive speech against Islam’ Magunsson started removing my responses a few hours ago.

I attempted to discuss the fact that Boeke and others use base substitutions within ORFs to introduce or remove enzyme recognition sites. That is how they facilitate the energy-dependent assembly of synthetic chromosomes.

But there’s more! Boeke’s history of publications links nearly 30 years of pseudoscientific nonsense to an impressive refutation of neo-Darwinian theory. The design of the synthetic yeast genome via the energy-dependent assembly of synthetic chromosomes attests to the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the link to the design of all biophysically constrained biodiversity.

See for instance: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

Some people might think that pseudoscientists can recover from refutation linked to the stability of messenger RNA (mRNA), but the recovery time ended two decades ago with publication of From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

See our section on molecular epigenetics.

Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes…

The proteins do not automagically create themselves. Energy-dependent changes in chirality must be linked from autophagy to biophysically constrained viral latency. In that context, this report is another clear refutation of mutation-driven evolution.

See: Lipophilic siRNA targets albumin in situ and promotes bioavailability, tumor penetration, and carrier-free gene silencing

These data reveal the immense promise of in situ albumin targeting for development of translational, carrier-free RNAi-based cancer therapies.

The increased amount of information on naturally occurring energy-dependent RNA interference (RNAi) linked to cancer treatment was reported as: Molecular hitchhiker on human protein signals tumors to self-destruct

“What fascinates and excites me most about this approach, in addition to improved tumor penetration, is lack of toxicity at a relatively high dose,” she said. “We could potentially use our siRNA delivery system to target several genes simultaneously or sequentially. Most cancers are driven by multiple abnormal genes, so targeting one often leads to activation of others as the tumor adapts.”

Tumors do not adapt. Viruses quickly adapt via energy theft and the substitutions of amino acids in their genomes. The amino acid substitutions in the tumors cause the tumors to adapt to the lack of energy-dependent microRNAs carried by albumin. That is how virus-driven energy theft is linked to the proliferation of undifferentiated cell types in all tissues of all organisms.

See: The phylogenetic utility and functional constraint of microRNA flanking sequences

As detailed here, the clear identity and easy alignment of these sequences makes them good candidates for estimating phylogeny, and they can reliably be found and identified across all members of a clade of interest. Their relatively slow evolution [3] also means that they can easily be identified in de novo assemblies of genomes.

The energy-dependent microRNA flanking sequences do not evolve and genes do not assemble themselves.  Quantized energy as information biophysically constrains virus-driven energy theft, which would otherwise link mutations to all pathology.

Young earth creationists recently placed the virus-driven theft of quantized energy into the context of Cancer Research Confirms the Curse.

…the cancer-suppressing molecule NAD+ diminishes with age appeared in the same Science issue.3Harvard Medical School News summarized the findings. As NAD+ lessens, “DNA breaks go unrepaired and, as these breaks accumulate over time, precipitate cell damage, cell mutations, cell death and loss of organ function.”4 It seems the only way to cure cancer would be to somehow reach into and constantly correct every cell’s mutations.

Carrier-free gene silencing links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the anti-entropic virucidal effects of sunlight on contact with water to everything serious scientists know about food energy-dependent top-down causation and changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance, which have been linked to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via what organisms eat and the physiology of their pheromone-controlled reproduction.

See: UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair

The sequences have been selected according special charge distributions and lifetimes of excimer states previously characterized by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy.(3a, 3c, 3d) With these selected sequences we demonstrate that repair occurs when the intrastrand charge transfer leads to a suitably charged nucleotide adjacent to the lesion.

A femtosecond is the SI unit of time equal to 10−15 or 1/1,000,000,000,000,000 of a second; that is, one quadrillionth, or one millionth of one billionth, of a second.[1] For context, a femtosecond is to a second as a second is to about 31.71 million years; a ray of light travels approximately 0.3 µm (micrometers) in 1 femtosecond, a distance comparable to the diameter of a virus.[2]

For comparison: One picosecond is equal to 1000 femtoseconds (fs). Theoretical physicists who thought they knew something about the nature of quantum coherence based their theories on measurements of timescales up to 1.5 picoseconds (ps), but they have since learned that decoherence occurs within 60 fs. The transfer of energy in the context of photosynthesis clearly links the anti-entropic virucidal energy of UV light to RNA-mediated DNA repair in much less time than theorists realized.

See: Nature does not rely on long-lived electronic quantum coherence for photosynthetic energy transfer

Given the relatively well-defined structure of the FMO protein, and comparative couplings between chlorophylls to other photosynthetic systems, the observed extremely fast decoherence should be viewed as general, bringing to question any significant quantum coherent transport contributions to photosynthesis.

See also: OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…unlike the theoretical predictions, analysis of the OLYMPUS measurements suggests that, most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

The differences in the energy of photons and the amount of time it takes for energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair link displays of ignorance by Magnus S. Magnusson and other atheistic hate-mongers that can be compared to any display by anyone who has ever been involved in linking pattern recognition to biophysically constrained life on Earth.

For comparison, that is what young earth creationists have done with the information about energy as information from Biblical Genesis.

See also: One billion suns: World’s brightest laser sparks new behavior in light

The light’s coming off at different angles, with different colors, depending on how bright it is.

That phenomenon stemmed partly from a change in the electron, which abandoned its usual up-and-down motion in favor of a figure-8 flight pattern. As it would under normal conditions, the electron also ejected its own photon, which was jarred loose by the energy of the incoming photons. But the researchers found that the ejected photon absorbed the collective energy of all the scattered photons, granting it the energy and wavelength of an X-ray.

See: The Reality of Color Is Perception

Color is one of the longstanding puzzles in philosophy, raising doubts about the truthfulness of our sensory grasp on things, and provoking concerns as to the metaphysical compatibility of scientific, perceptual, and common sense representations of the world. Most philosophers have argued that colors are either real or not real, physical or psychological. The greater challenge is to theorize the subtle way that color stands between our understanding of the physical and the psychological.

See for comparison: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

The fact that olfaction warps visual time perception links the speed of light on contact with water from the visual appeal of a rainbow to the integration of all sensory input and our appreciation of how energy and mass are linked across the time-space continuum via what is known about the sense of smell in bacteria and the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

For comparison, Magnus S. Magnusson co-authored “Complex spike patterns in olfactory bulb neuronal networks”  He and his colleagues failed to link fast decoherence from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction and RNA-mediated DNA repair.

In the world of those who have consistently linked olfaction to our visual perception of energy and mass in the context of the space-time continuum, Magnusson can be referred to as a biologically uninformed science idiot — if only because he has no expertise in any scientific discipline.

Conclusion: Like Richard Dawkins, Magnus S. Magnusson is a pseudoscientist.

A light-induced change in an endogenous substrate found in all cell types of all living genera links femtosecond blasts of UV light from the de novo creation of the innate immune system to RNA-mediated DNA repair in species from microbes to humans. The theft of quantized energy by viruses has been linked to all pathology via the difference between “Nature” and God’s perfect “Creation.”

The speed at which quantum decoherence occurs makes it difficult for virus-driven energy theft to be carried from one generation to the next via chromosomal inheritance, which is the only way that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled transgenerational epigenetic inheritance occurs — if it does not occur automagically in the small minds of theorists.

Although that fact has been repeatedly revealed in the extant scientific literature, which includes texts like the Holy Bible, atheistic hate-mongers refuse to read anything that challenges their beliefs at the same time they either claim to believe in nothing or attack the beliefs of intelligent scientists.

See for examples of what pseudoscientists are likely to believe.

This New Equation Could Unite The Two Biggest Theories in Physics

Quantum entanglement… describes the way that two particles can interact in such a way that they become inexorably linked, and essentially ‘share’ an existence.

The Universe According to Emmy Noethe

…energy may not be conserved “locally” — that is, in an arbitrarily small patch of space — but everything works out when the space is sufficiently large.

That claim forced others to make their ridiculous theories fit into the context of “…the idea that the Universe expanded just like a balloon shortly after the Big Bang.”

Stephen Hawking And 32 Top Physicists Just Signed a Heated Letter on The Universe’s Origin

…three physicists heavily criticised inflation theory – the idea that the Universe expanded just like a balloon shortly after the Big Bang. The article went as far as claiming that the model “cannot be evaluated using the scientific method” – the academic equivalent of saying it isn’t even real science.

Biology to a Physicist

Sal Giardina: apologetics revisited

March 26, 2017 Sal Giardina wrote:

“James, I appreciate your responding to my posts but I would prefer that your input would be related to the content of the post.”

My reply: If you do not want people to learn how my claims are linked to yours, please tell me that you intend to continue with apologetics rather the concept of energy as information.


… the religious discipline of defending or proving the truth of religious doctrines through systematic argumentation and discourse.[1][2][3] Early Christian writers (c. 120–220) who defended their beliefs against critics and recommended their faith to outsiders were called Christian apologists.[4] In 21st century usage, ‘apologetics’ is often identified with debates over religion and theology.

In the context of debates over religion and theology, Sal Giardina opened discussion of physics, chemistry, and the conserved molecular epigenetics of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. Secular humanists are scared by the ghosts of their biologically uninformed past and their ongoing ignorance. Fortunately for them, Sal Giardina and others like him cannot prove anything via the use of apologetics. So far as I know, the apologeticists have never convinced anyone to believe in any of their claims.
See for example: What does DNA have to do with the Origin of Life ?
Unfortunately, you must join this “false flag” group go find this post: https://www.facebook.com/groups/231023426993207/permalink/1119981528097388/?comment_id=1120290524733155&reply_comment_id=1120913471337527&notif_t=group_comment&notif_id=1477870268849582 I’ve been banned from the group twice, but just submitted a request to re-join.
My comments: Secular humanists seem willing to believe that the origin of life could somehow lead to consciousness as a side effect.
See for example: Consciousness could be a side effect of ‘entropy’, say researchers
My comment: Serious scientists do not make such ridiculous claims. These researchers are theorists who tout meaningless pseudoscientific nonsense. Their ridiculous claims makes news when biologically uninformed journalists, like Fiona Macdonald pass the unsupported claims on to others who do not know that the theorists are touting meaningless pseudoscientific nonsense.
See also: Virus evolution and this special issue on Orgasms:  Introductory editorial to ‘Orgasm: Neurophysiological, Psychological, and Evolutionary Perspectives
My comment: Who are the people trying to convince others that virus evolution links prairie vole monogamy to the evolution of human love via organsm? One of them is James Pfaus.

In ‘The Role of Orgasm in the Development and Shaping of Partner Preferences’, Coria-Avila, Herrera-Covarrubias, Ismail, and Pfaus (2016) explore the relationship between orgasm and sexual preference-formation in animals. Of particular significance with respect to human orgasm, Coria-Avila et al. describe the pre- and post-ejaculatory factors contributing to male rats forming conditioned sexual preferences.

See this article by Rachel Feltman, who placed the ridiculous claims of Pfaus before my detailed model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biologically-based cause and effect.
What Do We Actually Know About Pheromones?

But Kohl’s products, which he likens to food spices (“They give you an extra kick!”), make some researchers roll their eyes. Dr. Jim Pfaus, professor of psychology at Concordia University in Montreal, is one of them.

See for comparison: Ecologically relevant neurobehavioral assessment of the development of threat learning
Summary: “Informed Conditioning” is linked to the differences between wolves and dogs and biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all living genera.
See for example: A Comparison of the Sensory Development of Wolves (Canis lupus lupus) and Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris)
See also (link opens pdf): Early life experiences: enduring behavioral, neurological and endocrinological consequences

See also: Sexual Differentiation of the Brain: A Fresh Look at Mode, Mechanisms, and Meaning

…no study has yet shown an effect of manipulating the expression of a particular microRNA on a behavioral or brain sex difference. In other words, we are still awaiting the demonstration that microRNAs contribute to sexual differentiation of the brain.

Olfaction is important to humans as well, but visual stimuli are far more potent and the arousal potential of same-sex versus opposite-sex images depends on the partner preference of the observer (see for review Baum, 2006).

Michael Baum and others still make ridiculous claims about visual input compared to the epigenetic effect of food odors and pheromones on energy-dependent microRNA-mediated cell type differentiation in species from microbes to humans. That fact supports my claim that people like him are biologically uninformed.

See for comparison: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

See also: Crosstalk between epigenetics and metabolism—Yin and Yang of histone demethylases and methyltransferases in cancer

Pioneering experiments by Allfrey and Mirsky >50 years ago identified methylation and acetylation of histones by isotope incorporation and showed that histone modification can influence whether RNA synthesis of genes is switched on or off [3].

See also: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

If you knew nothing about the energy-dependent de novo creation of nucleic acid precursors, you still could start from the energy-dependent creation of RNA and link RNA-directed DNA methylation to all biophysically constrained biologically-based cause and effect in all living genera to their physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in the context of learning and memory at the cellular level of intracellular and extracellular communications.

See also: Experience-Dependent Accumulation of N6-Methyladenosine in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Memory Processes in Mice
My comment: The conserved molecular mechanisms of experience-dependent learning and memory have been linked from energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation to all biodiversity via quantised energy and all subsequent levels of examination the must begin with the origins of information, the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy.

See for comparison:  Ultraviolet Absorption Induces Hydrogen-Atom Transfer in G⋅C Watson–Crick DNA Base Pairs in Solution

My comment: Femtosecond blasts of UV light link the sun’s virucidal energy to RNA-mediated DNA repair in all living genera. People who do not know that should simply admit that they biologically uninformed. Most of them are theorists who know nothing about anything that must be linked from angstroms to ecosystems. They should not antagonize those who are biologically informed serious scientists. Serious scientists publish experimental evidence in reports such as this one.

UV-Induced Charge Transfer States in DNA Promote Sequence Selective Self-Repair


The sequences have been selected according special charge distributions and lifetimes of excimer states previously characterized by femtosecond infrared spectroscopy.(3a, 3c, 3d) With these selected sequences we demonstrate that repair occurs when the intrastrand charge transfer leads to a suitably charged nucleotide adjacent to the lesion.

My comment: The sequences cannot be selected outside the context of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality, which is the basis for the control of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Control is manifested in the measurement of pH.

See: Control of pH responsive peptide self-association during endocytosis is required for effective gene transfer


Coulombic interactions between the histidine residues modulate protonation and subsequent conformational transitions required for peptide mediated gene transfer activity and are an important factor to consider in future peptide design.

My comment: Coulomb barrier:The Coulomb repulsion which tends to keep positively charged bombarding particles out of the nucleus. Specifically, the Coulomb potential associated with this force.

Energy-dependent Coulombic interactions link autophagy to polycombic ecological adaptations for comparison to what happens when virus-driven energy theft is linked to the hecatombic evolution of all pathology.

See also: Coulombic interactions between partially charged main-chain atoms not hydrogen-bonded to each other influence the conformations of alpha-helices and antiparallel beta-sheet. A new method for analysing the forces between hydrogen bonding groups in proteins includes all the Coulombic interactions (published in 1995)

See for comparison: Jonas Edward Salk (October 28, 1914 – June 23, 1995) was an American medical researcher and virologist. He discovered and developed one of the first successful polio vaccines.

My comment: The fact that Jonas Edward Salk died in the same year that information about Coulombic interactions was published exemplifies the fact that we still need people like Salk to lead the way towards more scientific progress.

Is everyone who could do that already dead? Have people like Sal Giardina and other apologeticists replaced them. Will any of the works from the early 1990s to 1964 be resurrected before all of humanity is irreversibly impacted?

See for example: Biology, molecular and organismic (1964)

The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.

Such pronunciamentos can be dismissed as merely ridiculous. They are, however, caricatures of opinions entertained by some intelligent and reasonable people, whose views deserve an honest and careful consideration and analysis. Science must cope with new problems that arise and devise new approaches to old problems. Some lines of research become less profitable and less exciting and others more so.

Links from the creation of nucleic acid precursors to entropy and mutation-driven evolution are still being addressed by apologeticists who know nothing about physics, chemistry, or molecular epigenetics.
See also:  Biblical Creation / Entropy
See for comparison: What is life when it is not protected from virus driven entropy (6 minutes)
I think most people can understand the concept of Creation by God of all biophysically constrained life on Earth. If not, they should be told about the examples, since all examples show that all organisms must eat or die. If they die, they do not reproduce, which means they never became an extant species. Instead, the individuals and/or species became part of the fossil record or they became nothing recognizable to serious scientists as anything more than dirt.
See also: godordirt.org
See also: Virus Documentary | Discovering & Understanding Viruses || How Viruses Work ? (60 minutes)

My comment: Terra Firma is the battlefield mentioned in the video (a village in central Brazil). Stephen Morse, virologist at Rockefeller is fighting on the side of virus-driven entropy, which he attributes to emergence and evolution. For example, His book, Emerging Viruses (Oxford University Press) was selected by “American Scientist” for its list of “100 Top Science Books of the 20th Century”.

My comment: According to the book, our innate immune system emerged and evolved to become the source of all pathology. If the innate immune system is referred to as our “immune system” the word innate changes to evolved, and mutations are linked to evolution in the context of ridiculous neo-Darwinian theories. That is how emerging viruses are automagically linked to all healthy longevity via polycombic ecocological adaptation and to all pathology via hecatombic evolution.
We have come full circle back to the definitions that are used and discussed in Polycombic ecological adaptation as a science, not a theory (2):
See also:  The Human Virome

For comparison, see: Mutation-Driven Evolution


Mutation… includes nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion, segmental gene duplication, genomic duplication, changes in gene regulatory systems, transposition of genes, horizontal gene transfer, etc.

My comment: The definition above links mutations to any change in any genome. It does not link virus-driven energy theft toi mutations and all pathology.


Single nucleotide substitutions or indels [insertions/deletions] can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects [mutations] in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

My comment: The facts about nutrient energy-dependent single nucleotide substitutions and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link hemoglobin variants to healthy longevity and the facts link molecular defects to the pathology of α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

See for comparison: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

See also: Peptides design based on transmembrane Escherichia coli’s OmpA protein through molecular dynamics simulations in water-dodecane interfaces
See for comparison: Understanding abundance and diversity using ghosts and goblins: a spooky ecology lesson!

If we wanted to compare the diversity of two forests, we would want to look at climate, elevation, drainage, available nutrients, proximity to human disturbance, soils, etc. Diversity can be impacted by a slew of factors. While this is a fun and rather ridiculous example of how species counts and diversity works, the leap to how this can inform ecology, management, and conservation is clear.

My comment: The fact that nothing known about virus-driven energy theft is included in their comparisons makes the most important of all comparisons irrelevant to their claims about how climate, elevation, drainage, available nutrients, proximity to human disturbance, soils, etc. link ecological variation to polycombic ecological adaptation via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See for comparison: An NS-segment exonic splicing enhancer regulates influenza A virus replication in mammalian cells

G540A supports virus replication in mammalian cells while retaining replication ability in avian cells. Host splicing regulator, SF2, interacts with this ESE to regulate splicing of NEP/NS1 mRNA and G540A substitution affects SF2–ESE interaction. The NS1 protein directly interacts with SF2 in the nucleus and modulates splicing of NS mRNAs during virus replication.

Reported as: Single nucleotide change responsible for allowing H7N9 flu to jump from birds to humans found
The identification of the G540A links the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) from a biomarker in fowl infected with a flu variant to what was reported as mutation.
Researchers assumed that “…the mutation played a role in allowing the virus to spread between humans once it made the leap from an avian source.”
As usual, they found no evidence to support that ridiculous claim. That ridiculous claim is among many others that theorists thought could be used to link mutations to evolution via mathematical models instead of facts about nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.