Cytosis can be used to teach everything from base editing to RNA editing to everyone over age 10. They will learn how to link the creation of energy to biophysically constrained viral latency via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Ecological adaptation: a new definition of heredity (4)

Experimentally Induced Metamorphosis in Axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) Under Constant Diet Restructures Microbiota Accompanied by Reduced Limb Regenerative Capacity (2018)

Our results show that distinct bacterial communities inhabit individual organs of Axolotl and undergo substantial restructuring through metamorphosis.

The restructuring during metamorphosis is biophysically constrained by feedback loops that link olfaction from food odors and pheromones to the creation of enzymes in bacteria and the secretion of the vertebrate decapeptide hormone GnRH (gonadotropin releasing hormone).
See: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist binding in tiger salamander nasal cavity (1993)
The authors presciently linked food odors and pheromones from epigenetic effects on feedback loops to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and microRNA-mediated morphological and behavioral diversity, and also to differences in the behavior of monogamous and polygamous prairie voles.
See: The prairie vole vomeronasal organ is a target for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (2001)
For comparison, Larry Young claimed that the evolution of viruses caused the differences in prairie vole behavior. He linked the virus-driven differences from three other hormones to the evolution of heterosexual love. See: Virus Evolution Amazing Documentary Full HD National Geographic Documentary 2015
Others, who are like Larry Young, have failed to link anything known to serious scientists from sensory input to energy-dependent changes in the creation of enzymes, receptors and hormones. The anti-entropic energy-dependent creation of enzymes by bacteria links the creation of receptors and hormones in vertebrates to protection of organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, which links mutations to all pathology.
See for comparison: 2013 Isaac Asimov Memorial Debate: The Existence of Nothing

Isaac Asimov, “…perhaps, the last polymath of our civilization.”

Originally a zoology major, Asimov switched to chemistry and earned a Doctor of Philosophy degree in biochemistry in 1948. In 1977, he contracted HIV from a blood transfusion. He was president of the American Humanist Association, which suggests that his atheism led to his death via his ignorance.
For example, in 1964, Dobzhansky wrote:

“The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology.”

If Isaac Asimov was the last polymath of our civilization, we are doomed. Clearly his ridiculous beliefs have led to the teaching of pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution despite the claims of Schrödinger (1944) and those who will link the anti-entopic virucidal energy of sunlight from the physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency and all biodiversity during Schrödinger at 75 – The Future of Biology – September 2018
See for comparison: How One Child’s Sickle Cell Mutation Helped Protect the World From Malaria
Once again, so-called science journalist Carl Zimmer shows that he does not know the difference between a mutation and an RNA-mediated amino acid substitution.
See: Updates of the HbVar database of human hemoglobin variants and thalassemia mutations

Single nucleotide substitutions or indels can lead to several hemoglobin variants owing to amino acid replacements, while molecular defects in either regulatory or coding regions of the human HBA2, HBA1, HBB or HBD genes can minimally or drastically reduce their expression, leading to α-, β- or δ-thalassemia, respectively.

Hemoglobin variants alter the oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cells. They are clear indicators of how ecological variation must be linked to ecological adaptation via food energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.
There are more than 1700 human variants. Anyone who claims that the variants are mutations should be required to link them from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes in all living genera to ecologically adapted human populations.
The alternative is sexist and racist. Much more is needed than a new definition of heredity. All intelligent people must dismiss the neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense about mutation-driven evolution. Then, we can start over with accurate representations of top-down causation and biophysically constrained viral latency.
But first see: EPA’s Scott Pruitt Doesn’t Buy Evolution

Andrew Rosenberg, director of the Center for Science and Democracy at the Union of Concerned Scientists, counters that Pruitt should not act as “the nation’s pastor.”

Andrew Rosenberg should become familiar with the extant literature or play the cell biology game “Cytosis” for ages 10+. There is no excuse for his level of ignorance.
Cytosis is a board game that details what takes place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses! In the context of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, a new tool is now available to help theorists link cause and effect via a mathematical model.
See: VarQ: a tool for the structural analysis of Human Protein Variants. The mathematical model has replaced neo-Darwinian theories with facts about how the energy-dependent structure of functional supercoiled DNA biophysically constrains viral latency.
See also: Inhibition of the Host Translation Shutoff Response by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Triggers Nuclear Envelope-Derived Autophagy (2013)
and Role of bacterial efflux pumps in biofilm formation
Only a few people I know would link antibiotic resistance from Escherichia coli to Acinetobacter baumannii via the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in Pseudomonas fluorescens. Until they are willing to do it in a public forum, see: Evolutionary resurrection of flagellar motility via rewiring of the nitrogen regulation system.
Pseudoscientists and most other theorists are still focused on mutation-driven evolution. Isaac Asimov’s “humanist” influence has prevailed across more than one generation of students who learned how to link nothing to everything from people like Neil deGrasse Tyson, Lawrence Krauss, and Carl Zimmer.

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Nature vs Science and Autophagy.pro

Conclusion: The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links food energy directly from the innate immune system to all morphological and behavioral diversity. It all about energy. It’s all about the creation of enzymes. It’s all about the base pairs.


Until the day that I launched Autophagy.pro, I had only one or two Facebook posts that were marked as spam. Since December 11, 2017, I have had ~5 posts marked as spam.

See for example: This comment was marked as spam at Ciência Biomédica, when I responded to  Synthetic protein packages its own genetic material and evolves

Packaging is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained. Nothing evolves. The concept is foolish. See: A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution 
Excerpt: Amino acid composition of proteins varies substantially between taxa and, thus, can evolve.
 
Laboratory co-oximeters determine the %HbO2 (%SaO2 ) by measuring the amount a specific frequency of light is absorbed as it passes through a known volume of blood. In contrast, pulse oximetry (SpO2) measures the change in light absorbed at systole and diastole. This allows the pulse oximeter to distinguish between the constant amount of light absorbed by the tissue, bone, venous blood, etc. from the arterial blood (the blood in the volume change due to the pulse).
 
The amount of light absorbed by the tissue, bone, venous blood etc., varies in the context of hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. Blood gas analysis in the medical laboratory links differences in hydrogen (H2) — as in H2O from quantized energy-dependent changes in the potential of hydrogen (pH) to all biophysically constrained biodiversity.
 

Measuring pH links what is known about nutritional epigenetics from the innate immune system to healthy longevity via everything known about autophagy. The measurements can be compared in the context of  what is known about virus-driven energy theft, which links stress from the replication of viruses to all pathology via critical care testing of other blood gas analytes such as pCO2, pO2, Sodium, Potassium, Chloride, Calcium, Glucose, Lactic Acid, and Hematocrit.

For example in a mammal, see: Epistasis Among Adaptive Mutations in Deer Mouse Hemoglobin (June 14, 2013)

See Fig. 2 Difference in the network of hydrogen bonds between high- and low-altitude Hb variants, HH-H and LL-L, respectively.

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My comment to the Science site (submitted 6/14/13 published 6/20/13):

In my model species-specific epistasis is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. An additional example of this showed up earlier this week in the context of the epigenetically-effected microRNA/messenger RNA balance: “miR-124 controls male reproductive success in Drosophila”

miR-14 acts in neurosecretory cells in the adult brain to control metabolism and miR-124 acts in the context of brain-directed neuroendocrine control of sexual differentiation and male pheromone production, which is controlled in mammals by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory cells of the hypothalamus.

We can anticipate extension to mammals of the Drosophila model from the abstract of a forthcoming Science article: “MiR-200b and miR-429 Function in Mouse Ovulation and Are Essential for Female Fertility.” Given our earlier work in the context of molecular epigenetics and the concept of alternative splicings and sexual differentiation in Drosophila and C. elegans, I suspect we will see evidence for nutrient-dependent adaptive evolution of GnRH pulse frequency-controlled LH secretion and pheromone-controlled female fertility in mice.

If I’m correct, this evidence will link glucose and pheromones to feedback loops that control reproduction in invertebrates and vertebrates. (See Nutrient–dependent / pheromone–controlled adaptive evolution: a model). Model organisms exemplify these feedback loops in microbes, nematodes, insects, and other mammals. The mouse to human example that Kamberov et al., and Grossman et al., detailed is the most telling.

A single amino acid substitution appears to result in what seem to be nutrient-dependent changes in the thermodynamics of intracellular signaling, intranuclear interactions, stochastic gene expression, and selection for phenotype via organism-level thermoregulation in a human population that arose in what is now central China during the past ~30K years.

Using a model that integrates what is known about the common molecular mechanisms may help establish whether adaptive mutations lead to thermodynamic effects on organism-level thermoregulation and epistasis, or whether epigenetic effects of nutrients and their metabolism to species-specific pheromones that control reproduction via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance are the driving force behind adaptive evolution in species from microbes to man.

See: Obligatory role of hypothalamic neuroestradiol during the estrogen-induced LH surge in female ovariectomized rhesus monkeys
Reported as:  Estrogen discovery could shed new light on fertility problems December 12, 2017

Estradiol builds in the bloodstream until it reaches a concentration that causes a surge of the hypothalamic and pituitary hormones, including one called luteinizing hormone, which in turn trigger an ovary to release an egg.

“It’s a feedback loop…

The feedback loop is food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled.
See: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Energy-dependent autophagy is the link from feedback loops to ecological adaptation. Science Magazine now has the opportunity to challenge the pseudoscientific nonsense of published works from the Nature Publishing Group. There is no need to consider mutations and evolution outside the context of virus-driven energy theft, which links the degradation of messenger RNA from mutations to all pathology.
See also: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease

Darwin probably anticipated the insemination of population genetics that led to the bastardization of his detailed observations in the “Modern Synthesis.” He politely insisted that ‘conditions of life’ be considered before natural selection.

There are two ‘conditions of life.’ It is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Rosenberg and Queitsch now note the work with Dobzhansky’s rarely acknowledged claim: “I am a creationist and an evolutionist.” They also declare the need for “Deep understanding of the mechanisms that generate variation at the molecular level…”

Deep understanding of the ‘conditions of life’ does not come from theory.

Problems with the “modern synthesis” now lead us back to the facts about biologically-based cause and effect that Darwin and Dobzhansky approached with humility, which are the same biological facts that evolutionists approached with ignorance about behavioral affects and the arrogance that accompanies that ignorance. Rosenberg and Queitsch echo the sentiments of those who have been subjected to academic suppression.

Clearly, however, “nothing in evolution makes sense except in the light of biology” is not an exaggeration. It is a common sense statement about the biologically plausible genesis of functional cell types. Population genetics and evolutionary theories abandoned the biophysical constraints of ecological variation and the physiology of reproduction, which enable epigenetically-effected nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled receptor-mediated ecological adaptations and species diversity via the complexities of protein folding and niche construction.

It’s time for biophysicists to tell theorists and pathologists how to differentiate between theories about the genesis of different cell types and the biological facts about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the genesis of different cell types in individuals of different species. Simply put, it’s time to stop trying to explain ecological adaptations in the context of mutations and evolution.

The retraction of Oligoarginine peptides slow strand annealing and assist non-enzymatic RNA replication attests to the amount of pseudoscientific nonsense published by the “Nature Publications Group” during the past few decades.
See: Retraction Watch

In retrospect, we were totally blinded by our belief [in our findings]…we were not as careful or rigorous as we should have been (and as Tivoli was) in interpreting these experiments.

How many others who published via the Nature Publishing Group were blinded by their belief in pseudoscientific nonsense that failed to link the food energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the creation of RNA from blood gas analyses to patient outcomes?
See for comparison: Dependence of RNA synthesis in isolated thymus nuclei on glycolysis, oxidative carbohydrate catabolism and a type of “oxidative phosphorylation” (1964)

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Who did not know that? How did non-enzymatic RNA replication become a non-energy-dependent consideration for anyone associated with the Nature Publishing Group?
See for comparison: Mechanisms of mTORC1 activation by RHEB and inhibition by PRAS40

Here we present the 3.0 ångström cryo-electron microscopy structure of mTORC1 and the 3.4 ångström structure of activated RHEB–mTORC1. RHEB binds to mTOR distally from the kinase active site, yet causes a global conformational change that allosterically realigns active-site residues, accelerating catalysis.

The global conformational change that allosterically realigns active-site residues (i.e., amino acids), accelerating catalysis, is an energy-dependent change.
Reported as:  Scientists unlock structure of mTOR, a key cancer cell signaling protein

1) Like many proteins, mTOR is an enzyme, which binds to target molecules called substrates in a precise way to hasten chemical reactions. Specifically, it is a type of kinase, which removes phosphates (P) from ATP, the cell’s energy currency, and places them on other molecules.

The creation of the enzymatic activity of mTOR is quantized energy-dependent and it links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained viral latency via autophagy. The retractions of Jack Szostak’s nonsense about the magical creation of enzymes after the energy of life emerged and organisms subsequently evolved in the context of differences in H2 to all biodiversity on Earth, can be placed into the context works by serious scientists.

2)  …mTOR is an enzyme, which binds to target molecules called substrates in a precise way to hasten chemical reactions. Specifically, it is a type of kinase, which removes phosphates (P) from ATP, the cell’s energy currency, and places them on other molecules. From that 2013 study, which took more than five years to complete, the team learned some key things about the protein, such as what the ATP-binding site looks like…

The study that took more than 5 years to complete was published as: mTOR kinase structure, mechanism and regulation

The structures also reveal active-site residues and conformational changes that underlie inhibitor potency and specificity.

They had experimental evidence of energy-dependent changes in active-site residues (i.e., amino acids). They subsequently failed to link anything known to serious scientists about the energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. They seemingly ignored all claims about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of autophagy, which links base pair changes from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to RNA editing.
How could the Nature Publishing Group not know what all serious scientists know?
See for example: All Nobel Laureates in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2017

Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash and Michael W. Young

“for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm”

The molecular mechanisms are energy-dependent.
Feedback of the Drosophila period gene product on circadian cycling of its messenger RNA levels  (1990) Hardin, Hall and Michael Rosbash
Who, besides Jack Szostak, does not know that the creation of energy must be linked to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via messenger RNA levels?

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2009

Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider and Jack W. Szostak

“for the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase”

Where did the enzyme telomerase come from?
Face the facts, Jack (Szostak) and others. Cell type differentiation is food energy-dependent and biophysically constrained at every level of examination. Biophysical constraints on viral latency are required for ecological adaptation. The anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight links food energy directly from the innate immune system to all morphological and behavioral diversity. It’s all about energy. It’s all about the creation of enzymes. It’s all about the base pairs.
See:  Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA

For God and Country

Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (1)

The structure-energy landscape of NMDA receptor gating

…using single-molecule Forster resonance energy transfer (smFRET), we map the energy landscape of the first transmembrane segment of the Rattus norvegicus NMDA receptor under resting and various liganded conditions. These results show kinetically and structurally distinct changes associated with apo, agonist-bound, and inhibited receptors linked by a linear mechanism of gating at this site. Furthermore, the smFRET data suggest that allosteric inhibition by zinc occurs by an uncoupling of the agonist-induced changes at the extracellular domains from the gating motions leading to an apo-like state, while dizocilpine, a pore blocker, stabilizes multiple closely packed transmembrane states.

Achiral glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) decapeptide links the energy landscape from ecological variation to the stability of the 7 transmembrane states in the GnRH receptor to the creation of all biophysically constrained vertebrate biodiversity via feedback loops that link food odors and pheromones to the survival of all species on Earth. Organisms die without food and species become extinct when too many conspecifics die. The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA, links mutations to all pathology and to death and the extinction of species.
Reported as: Molecule Movements Through Nerve Cells Could Lead to Multi-functional Drugs

The NMDA receptor is set of four protein subunits, each with four domains, and each of those domains has a particular function. Collectively, they span the cell membrane. Each subunit can have many “states,” or shapes, that regulate which electrical signals — and how many of them — pass through. The subunits sit on each side of the channel and activate when they bind both glutamate and glycine neurotransmitter ligands and trigger the signaling pathway that allows positively charged ions to pass into the cell.

The energy-dependent “states” are the functional shapes of receptors that link electrical signals to receptor-mediated behavior and to all biodiversity. Their function can be examined in the context of links from electrons to ecosystems via cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).
All energy-dependent functions in all living genera link top-down causation from food energy-dependent feedback loops to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species of microbes to survival of all species. For example, the effects of energy-dependent binding of glutamate and glycine neurotransmitter ligands to their substrates can be examined in the relatively simplistic context of this 2005 review of ecological variation and ecological adaptations.
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

It appears that GnRH neurons integrate a variety of information about the internal state of the animal and its external environment. At least 10,000 neurons in 26 different brain areas appear to transmit signals directly to GnRH neurons. Among these are areas involved in odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, arousal, reward, and other functions. This suggests that GnRH neurons are poised to modulate reproductive physiology and behavior in accordance with the overall state of the animal.

These studies also indicate that GnRH neurons are likely to influence numerous brain functions. They appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions (Badr and Pelletier, 1987; Jennes et al., 1988; Jennes et al., 1997). BL+ neurons likely to receive synaptic input from GnRH neurons were seen in areas associated with numerous different functions, including odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, appetite, defensive behavior, motor programs, and the relay of information to higher cortical areas. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See for comparison to what is known about the feedback loops: Replication defective viral genomes exploit a cellular pro-survival mechanism to establish paramyxovirus persistence
My summary: Viral persistence (paramyxovirus persistence) and biophysically constrained epigenetically-effected viral latency require the energy-dependent fine-tuning of epigenesis and epistasis that links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from species of microbes to humans via what is known about soil microbes, fescue toxicosis, and the bull sperm microRNAome.
The most confusing representation of biophysically constrained energy-dependent epigenetically-effected top-down causation I have ever seen was reported as: Team shows how seemingly acute viral infections can persist

…our cells are wired to survive if they are engaged in an antiviral response…

One expert from the report, which is about the well known aspects of food energy-dependent autophagy attests to all the facts known to serious scientists. The facts refute the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by most theorists. For example, see the three articles that link the food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in soil bacteria to all biodiversity in mammals.

  1. The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression
  2. Circulating microRNA as candidates for early embryonic viability in cattle
  3. The Breadth of Viruses in Human Semen 

The presence of viruses in semen is probably more widespread than currently appreciated, and the absence of virus in genital secretions should not be assumed for traditionally non–sexually transmitted viruses. The investigation of virus detection and persistence in semen across a range of viruses is useful for clinical and public health reasons, in particular for viruses that lead to high mortality or morbidity rates or to epidemics.

The presence of viruses in bacteria (bacteriophages) and in semen attests help to explain how serious scientists have linked the virus-driven theft of quantized energy from the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations and all pathology in all living genera. The facts can now be placed into the context of the fact that other organisms typically do not commit suicide. Energy-dependent autophagy typically links chirality to the protection of all cell types in all individuals of all species from suicide. That fact left me and others with questions about why people commit suicide.
See: Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (2)
See also: Energy-dependent structure and function: Until death (3)

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

MicroRNAs: Nature's secret ingredient

The Secret Ingredient That Stops Honeybees From Becoming Queens

Learning more about how these molecules can affect species in different kingdoms — like plants and insects or plants and humans — could help identify therapeutic applications for cancer treatments or to suppress allergic reactions, Dr. Askenase said. “Some important biological problems could now be addressed with this new knowledge of how nature works,” he said.

Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development

Overall, our study uncovered a new layer of caste regulation in which plant RNAs are transmitted between species of different kingdoms, offering hints for understanding cross-kingdom interactions and co-evolution.

I tried to post this comment to the Human Ethology Group (because it refutes all the pseudoscientific nonsense that Jay R. Feierman has been touting since the time he first dismissed my model with his question “What about birds?” (1995)

Global patterns of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in the context of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled chromosomal inheritance in species from insects to humans have been reported in The Secret Ingredient That Stops Honeybees From Becoming Queens.
See also: Honeybees become workers or queens depending on the plant microRNAs in their diet
My comment to the PLOS Genetics site on Plant microRNAs in larval food regulate honeybee caste development:
Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
Posted by jvkohl on 01 Sep 2017 at 16:32 GMT
Please consider watching this 7 minute-long virtual conference presentation about how the epigenetic effects of food energy and pheromones are linked from biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera via feedback loops and the physiology of reproduction. The feedback loops prevent the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology. See: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference
Apparently, what the NY Times refers to as “The Secret Ingredient” is the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight, which links the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to all biophysically constrained biodiversity. If so, there are now 64,000 published works indexed on PubMed that establish the fact that microRNAs are not a secret ingredient. They are the link from the creation of the sun to the creation of all biodiversity on Earth. Simply put, they prevent the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.

I will follow up with more details on microRNAs and link the following articles and representations to the claims in my virtual conference presentation, but I’m done working on this today.
Sex differences in microRNA-mRNA networks: examination of novel epigenetic programming mechanisms in the sexually dimorphic neonatal hypothalamus
Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs
A microRNA switch regulates the rise in hypothalamic GnRH production before puberty
A regulatory loop between miR-132 and miR-125b involved in gonadotrope cells desensitization to GnRH
 
 
 

diseases-disorders

Your indifference is killing you and others

Summary: Coherence-inducing mechanisms is double-speak for mechanisms that are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.
Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction has been presented in double-speak as Looplessness in networks is linked to trophic coherence

We are currently studying the entropy of the coherence ensemble we defined for this work. “In general, higher trophic coherence would be associated with lower entropy states, which means that if networks are more coherent than the random expectation there must indeed be some kind of negentropic process at work.” Johnson notes that the impact in this case relative to trophic coherence would be found in quantifying the extent to which different empirical networks have been driven from their maximum entropy state. “This might be the best way of discovering when there are coherence-inducing mechanisms at work, how much energy must be involved, and ultimately identifying the nature of such processes.”

Feedback loops link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the food that organisms eat to the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera. The virucidal effect of ultraviolet light biophysically constrains viral latency. Energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA are fixed in organized genomes via the physiology of reproduction and supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology.
Coherence-inducing mechanisms is double-speak for nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. 
Despite the validity of the model, it has not been accepted by neo-Darwinian theorists or “Big Bang” cosmologists. Ridiculous beliefs about emergence and evolution are pervasive and the pseudoscientific nonsense of their theories leads to claims about coherence-inducing mechanisms.
That is why I changed the FB page description at RNA-mediated after a series of posts (see below).

It took 20 years for others to realize that all life on Earth is food energy-dependent. Now, most people are indifferent to that fact. They refuse to learn anything about where the food energy comes from.

Differences in the energy of photons have been linked to quantized energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions. The substitutions biophysically constrain supercoiled DNA via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.

Virus-driven energy theft links the degradation of messenger RNA to mutations via amino acid substitutions in viruses. The substitutions in the viruses have been linked to all pathology via changes in the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance.

For comparison, the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theories links mutations from natural selection to the evolution of new species. In reality, light energy is quantized information. The information links physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics from the speed of light on contact with water and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to learning, memory, and behavior via RNA-mediated events such as the energy-dependent creation of enzymes and the the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors such as olfactory receptor genes.

Top-down causation and de novo gene creation are exemplified by energy-dependent differences in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance that link natural selection for codon optimality to amino acid substitutions that link the physiology of reproduction to supercoiled DNA. Supercoiled DNA protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft. That fact supports the beliefs of young earth creationists, which may be the only existing basis for discussion of quantum biology and refutations of neo-Darwinian theories that have linked olfaction to quantum souls. If there is another basis for the link from quantum physics to quantum souls, no one has detailed in in the context of top-down causation, which must include information about the creation of genes.

Most people seem unwilling to accept experimental evidence that attests to how genes are created or information that shows how virus-driven energy theft is linked to all pathology. Discussion of the energy-dependent paradigm shift would lead others away from pseudoscientific nonsense about emergence and/or beneficial mutations and evolution.

Only via discussion of facts about the paradigm shift will others learn what is currently known to serious scientists about the biophysically constrained nutrient energy-dependent chemistry of RNA-methylation and all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. Simply put, the protein folding chemistry must be linked to all biodiversity by the physiology of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in all living genera.

Your indifference to that fact is killing people.

See for comparison: Looplessness in networks is linked to trophic coherence (May 16, 2017)

Our theory correctly classifies a variety of networks-including those derived from genes, metabolites, species, neurons, words, computers, and trading nations-into two distinct regimes of high and low feedback and provides a null model to gauge the significance of related magnitudes. Because trophic coherence suppresses feedback, whereas an absence of feedback alone does not lead to coherence, our work suggests that the reasons for “looplessness” in nature should be sought in coherence-inducing mechanisms.

Reported August 14, 2017 as Trophic coherence explains why networks have few feedback loops and high stability

The researchers are also investigating whether negentropy – the opposite of entropy, and in which a physical, thermodynamic or biological process creates order – are affected by trophic coherence. “The modern concept of entropy,” Johnson points out, “comes from statistical physics and is a property of ensembles, as described above – that is, the entropy of an ensemble is simply a function of the number of elements it contains.” Moreover, he adds, graph ensemble entropy has proven to be a powerful tool for understanding various network properties. We are currently studying the entropy of the coherence ensemble we defined for this work. “In general, higher trophic coherence would be associated with lower entropy states, which means that if networks are more coherent than the random expectation there must indeed be some kind of negentropic process at work.” Johnson notes that the impact in this case relative to trophic coherence would be found in quantifying the extent to which different empirical networks have been driven from their maximum entropy state. “This might be the best way of discovering when there are coherence-inducing mechanisms at work, how much energy must be involved, and ultimately identifying the nature of such processes.”

See for comparison: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction

These studies also indicate that GnRH neurons are likely to influence numerous brain functions. They appear to transmit signals to as many as 30,000 or more neurons in 34 brain areas, consistent with previous studies showing GnRH+ fibers and GnRH receptors in multiple brain regions (Badr and Pelletier, 1987; Jennes et al., 1988; Jennes et al., 1997). BL+ neurons likely to receive synaptic input from GnRH neurons were seen in areas associated with numerous different functions, including odor and pheromone processing, sexual behavior, appetite, defensive behavior, motor programs, and the relay of information to higher cortical areas. These results may reflect a strategy wherein GnRH neurons can modify diverse functions in order to coordinate the internal state of the animal and its behavior with reproduction in order to optimize reproductive success.

See my posts on Discovering Vismodegib in the Fight Against Skin Cancer: The First Approved Inhibitor of the Hedgehog Pathway
No one I know is likely to understand this link from the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to prevention of all pathology because they must first understand the fact that proteins do not create themselves. There is no need for this inhibitor of the Hedgehog pathway or inhibition of any other pathway if cancer is prevented. But most people are not willing to learn about prevention because they think they can rely on medical practitioners to effectively treat their diseases. Do you think that your physician knows anything about light scattering characterization of glycoproteins and their interactions with other proteins and antibodies?
Absolute Characterization of Glycoproteins and their Interactions with Proteins and Antibodies by Light Scattering
Light scattering can now be linked to the characterization of glycoproteins and their immune system interactions in all species on Earth. That suggests the speed of light on contact with water links energy as information to the de novo creation of the glycoproteins,
If so, the physiology of reproduction links pheromones to biophysical constraints on the creation of more glycoproteins in the context of morphological and behavioral differences in species from microbes to humans. That suggests the refutation of neo-Darwinism is complete, since the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to all pathology in bacteria that become archaea before virus-driven energy theft causes them to become L-forms.
Simply put, Carl Woese was wrong. There is only one domain of life and virus-driven energy theft is what destroys all life on Earth.

 

Can protein folding chemistry be understood by theorists?

Excerpt: The researchers believe their discovery dovetails with their research on how tumor viruses and cancer mutations change a cell’s DNA structure and organization to cause uncontrolled cell growth.
Aye group discovers avenue for precision cancer treatment

One challenge is that multiple variations, or isoforms, of the same protein can all catalyze the same cellular function, “but the nuances of biology rest in how individual isoforms are regulated,” Aye said.

Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality regulates the creation of isoforms and all biodiversity via links from RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA to chromosomal inheritance.

Protein folding: Much more intricate than we thought

All protein folding chemistry is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. It must link chirality to autophagy and the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction or it cannot link quantum physics to quantum souls via what organisms eat in the context of niche construction.
See also: New Imaging Technique Overturns Longstanding Textbook Model of DNA Folding

The researchers believe their discovery dovetails with their research on how tumor viruses and cancer mutations change a cell’s DNA structure and organization to cause uncontrolled cell growth.

Energy-dependent protein folding chemistry is no more intricate than it was when we detailed everything known about RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in this 1996 Hormones and Behavior review. From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

See also: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

THIS MODEL DETAILS HOW CHEMICAL ECOLOGY DRIVES ADAPTIVE EVOLUTION VIA: (1) ecological niche construction, (2) social niche construction, (3) neurogenic niche construction, and (4) socio-cognitive niche construction.

See also: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction.

See also: Olfaction Warps Visual Time Perception

See for comparison: What the ctenophore says about the evolution of intelligence

The ctenophore was already known for having a relatively advanced nervous system; but these first experiments by Moroz showed that its nerves were constructed from a different set of molecular building blocks – different from any other animal – using ‘a different chemical language’, says Moroz: these animals are ‘aliens of the sea’.

Moroz tries and fails to recover from decades of touting the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian evolution.  See: Independent origins of neurons and synapses: insights from ctenophores

The possibility of secondary loss of neurons and synapses in the Porifera/Placozoa clades is a highly unlikely and less parsimonious scenario.

The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA has been linked to the secondary loss of G protein-coupled receptors that link multisensory input from the sense of smell in bacteria to our visual perception of mass and energy in the context of the space-time continuum.
See also: Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk

So, where do viruses come from that essentially share the same sequences as those found in their host genomes? Perhaps the evolutionists have placed the cart before the horse on this issue, as proposed by several creationist scientists.4,6 In fact, in an ironic twist, the evidence mentioned above indicates that viruses likely arose from their hosts and not the other way around. As molecular biologist and biochemist Peter Borger notes, “The most parsimonious answer is: the RNA viruses got their genes from their hosts.”6

The possibility that the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes the secondary loss of neurons and synapses in the Porifera/Placozoa clades is the most likely and most parsimonious scenario. Neo-Darwinian theorists and others who have failed to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to the biophysically constrained physiology of reproduction and all biodiversity via the chemistry of protein folding are forced to continue to ignore all experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect. Their only alternative is to invent new terms for “microRNA,” since energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger balance have linked the physiology of reproduction from chromosomal rearrangements to viral latency and all biodiversity.
See also:  Gut viruses tied to potentially deadly complication of bone marrow transplant

…the onset of GvHD appeared to trigger the late awakening of these covert viruses, laying to rest a longstanding chicken-and-egg debate: which comes first, viral infection or GvHD? The researchers conclude that much of the viral flare they saw is due to reactivation of latent gut infections following transplantation.

The link from gut bacteria to reactivation of latent gut infections following transplantation links a change in the energy-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance to hematopoiesis and.cell type differentiation in all vertebrates and vertebrates.
 See also:
Mysterious children’s neurological disease is traced to a single error in one gene

The researchers found in all patients the same spontaneously occurring, non-inherited genetic change in a gene (named “UBTF”) responsible for ribosomal RNA formation.
 

The de novo creation of RNA is energy-dependent. No disease can be traced to a single gene outside the context of the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA that causes the pathology.

See: Oligogenic basis of isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency

The deficiency links the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA from a single gene to every aspect of vertebrate morphology and behavior via GnRH.

The de novo energy-dependent creation of RNA has been linked to GrRH since 1964.

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

I reiterate:  Next we will learn that “Nothing in Biology Makes Sense…” outside the context of food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated ecological adaptations.

NgAgo Paper Retracted

“[W]hen it comes to biology, answers are often not definitive. And when it comes to replication studies, the one thing we know is that it takes time,” it says. “In the case of NgAgo, the time has come and the data have spoken.”

Earlier today, I mentioned to my friend, Jo Rockafellor, that Bruce McEwen told me, in 1992, my model could not be validated without starting from gene activation in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. After learning from Donald Pfaff that Robert L. Moss might know something important, “Bob” Moss and I became friends. He once told me, “you know how it works, write the book.”
 
If you think I am name-dropping, you are right. These are the people that others must learn from or they are not likely to learn anything about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation.
 
Another line of experimental evidence links publication of The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002), from Martha McClintock’s works to the claim made by Denise Chen when she introduced me to Wen Zhou.

Denise claimed that my book was responsible for her interest in the study of olfaction, and Wen Zhou has since linked quantum physics to quantum souls.

When someone like Moroz claims that “The possibility of secondary loss of neurons and synapses in the Porifera/Placozoa clades is a highly unlikely and less parsimonious scenario.” he attests to the ignorance of several generations of pseudoscientists who failed to ask how and when the energy-dependent de novo creation of RNA occurred. Instead, they link the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA to all biodiversity via mutations and natural selection.

That, is foolish. See: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (9)

Summary: Energy determines genome compaction because activity in the nucleus is energy-dependent. Chromatin chains link energy-dependent changes in base pairs from single nucleotide polymorphisms to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. It’s all about the base.

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (8)

ChromEMT: Visualizing 3D chromatin structure and compaction in interphase and mitotic cells
Excerpt 1)

The chromatin structure of DNA determines genome compaction and activity in the nucleus.

My comment: Energy determines genome compaction because activity in the nucleus is energy-dependent.
Excerpt 2)

Chromatin chains have many different particle arrangements and bend at various lengths to achieve structural compaction and high packing densities.

My comment: Chromatin chains link energy-dependent changes in base pairs from single nucleotide polymorphisms to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction.
Reported as: Scientists solve longstanding biological mystery of DNA organization

Besides potentially upending the textbook model of DNA organization, the team’s results suggest that controlling access to chromatin could be a useful approach to preventing, diagnosing and treating diseases such as cancer.

“We show that chromatin does not need to form discrete higher-order structures to fit in the nucleus,” adds O’Shea. “It’s the packing density that could change and limit the accessibility of chromatin, providing a local and global structural basis through which different combinations of DNA sequences, nucleosome variations and modifications could be integrated in the nucleus to exquisitely fine-tune the functional activity and accessibility of our genomes.”

The packing density of supercoiled DNA is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Sunlight is the source of all biophysically constrained energy on Earth.The anti-entropic virucidal effect of sunlight biophysically constrains the degradation of messenger RNA.
Virus-driven energy theft causes negative supercoiling of supercoiled DNA. Without food energy-dependent RNA-mediated DNA repair (autophagy), viruses cause the degradation of messenger RNA that links mutations to all pathology. The sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy links changes in chirality to autophagy and the de novo creation of enzymes, hormones and receptors that are needed to protect all organized genomes from viruses.
The textbook model of DNA organization was represented in Mutation-driven evolution for comparison to “Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model, which was published on the same day more than 4 years ago.
Masatoshi Nei used an ambiguous definition of mutation and linked any energy-dependent nucleotide substitution, insertion/deletion, segmental gene duplication, genomic duplication, changes in gene regulatory systems, transposition of genes, horizontal gene transfer, etc, (any change in the structure of supercoiled DNA) from natural selection to an evolutionary process initiated by mutation.
In my review, I used examples of food energy-dependent changes in base pairs to link the honeybee model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biodiversity to a history of published works that began with The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (reviewed by Mark Sergeant)
The index from The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality may help others to establish all the known links from the energy-dependent de novo creation of microRNAs to the creation of G protein-coupled receptors and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion, which was linked to all biodiversity. See, for example, these entries from page 217:

See also: Cytosis: A Cell Biology Board Game

A board game taking place inside a human cell! Players compete to build enzymes, hormones and receptors and fend off attacking Viruses!

See also: Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (10) in prep

A rendering of how changes in an electron's motion (bottom view) alter the scattering of light (top view), as measured in a new experiment that scattered more than 500 photons of light from a single electron. Previous experiments had managed to scatter no more than a few photons at a time. Credit: Extreme Light Laboratory|University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (8)

Summary: The role of vitamin C in the treatment of pain: new insights links what is known about the “superfood” Spirulina (blue-green algae), which is grown in marine and freshwater environments, to the stability of all organized genomes via its biological activities, such as antioxidant, anti-diabetic, cholesterol-controlling and insulin resistance effects. The biological activities are energy-dependent and they link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and microRNAs in plants and animals.
For example, see: Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs

Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (7)

7/26/17 Brain’s stem cells slow ageing in mice

…these cells may have a role in regulating the neurons that release a hormone called GnRH, which is secreted by the hypothalamus and is associated with ageing. Imai would also like to know whether the microRNAs from the cells can pass into the bloodstream, which would carry them throughout the body.

I would like to know why Shin-ichiro Imai, who studies ageing at Washington University in St Louis, Missouri, claims to know nothing about food energy-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated biophysically constrained viral latency, which prevents the degradation of messenger RNA. I expect that anyone who studies aging to learn that the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA links mutations to all pathology via effects on all cell types in all individuals of all living genera. Perhaps Shin-ichiro Imai, and others who have not learned anything about energy-dependent cell type differentiation can play the game “Cytosis” when it is released in September, 2017. Or, perhaps they all are neo-Darwinian theorists who prefer not to examine any of the experimental evidence that links energy-dependent microRNAs to healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.

See for 63,127  examples: MicroRNA
See for comparison: The NAD World 2.0: the importance of the inter-tissue communication mediated by NAMPT/NAD+/SIRT1 in mammalian aging and longevity control by Shin-ichiro Imai

See also: 7/27/11 via my Pheromones Research FB page and Pheromones.com
This is very technical, but begins to address the role of pheromones in anti-aging medicine, particularly with regard to neurodegenerative diseases. Pheromones are used to increase neurogenesis in the area of the brain that is responsible for learning and memory.

Jo Rockafellor Is this the stuff you created James?

James Kohl I have nothing to do with the patent, but am responsible for the concept and first linking pheromones, luteinizing hormone, and neurodegenerative disease associated with aging.

Coleen Powell Keep searching for a cure!

7/27/17 James Kohl The cure is treatment with food energy-dependent microRNAs. See:Hypothalamic stem cells control ageing speed partly through exosomal miRNAs. Liberals hate that fact because it refutes their ridiculous theories about the emergence of energy and the evolution of all biodiversity via mutations and natural selection. They would rather watch people like Dick suffer and die prematurely from cancer than admit that they are biologically uninformed science idiots. (idiot: someone with no professional expertise)
Without labeling them, Feynman claimed that liberals were examples of human idiocy. He failed to differentiate between the beliefs of conservatives and liberals, but those differences have become perfectly clear.
Even those who have learned nothing about “The character of Physical Law” understand that all organisms must eat. That is why Feynman complained about the different units that are used to measure the single concept of energy. The energy that sustains life and all biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction comes from food.
Reported by James Kohl on 7/27/14 Study shows epigenetic changes can drive cancer
“Potential applications of this novel mouse model include the testing of targeted epigenetic therapies for prevention and treatment of human cancer.” http://www.jci.org/articles/view/76507
“Our straightforward approach to epigenetic engineering should be useful in testing the causal role of other epigenetic alterations implicated in carcinogenesis, and broadly applicable toward elucidating epigenetic etiology in a wide range of diseases.”
Their straightforward approach confirms that cell type differentiation is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in species from microbes to man, which refutes any aspect of mutation-initiated natural selection in the context of the evolution of biodiversity.

Ecological variation in the nutrient supply leads to ecological adaptations via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. Evolutionary theory should have been replaced by biological facts more than 18 years ago. We could have avoided the past 18 years of pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations and cancer and learned more about its origins, prevention, and effective treatments.
7/27/15 Reported by James Kohl
New Technology Lets Scientists Easily Rewrite Living Organisms’ Genetic Code
[For scientists to rewrite the genetic code, they must know how it was created.] 7/22/15 Sexuality is fluid – it’s time to get past ‘born this way’ reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[For people to get past the ‘born this way’ pseudoscientific nonsense, they must learn how energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs in the context of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.] Bacterial Hunger Games reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[Survivors find enough food to reproduce in the context of quorum sensing and the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum, which was reported in P. fluorescens.] Go ahead, be sarcastic: Research uncovers creative benefits in using sarcasm when people trust each other reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[I’ve tried presenting facts; using examples of top-down causation, and discussing the facts and examples with biologically uninformed science idiots after sarcasm did not work.
Study identifies ‘major player’ in skin cancer genes reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[The virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA causes all pathology] Honeybees Show Evidence of Insecticides reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[I used the honeybee model organism as an example of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model
CONCLUSION:
An environmental drive evolved from that of nutrient ingestion in unicellular organisms to that of pheromone-controlled socialization in insects. In mammals, food odors and pheromones cause changes in hormones such as LH, which has developmental affects on pheromone-controlled sexual behavior in nutrient-dependent reproductively fit individuals across species of vertebrates.]

Addendum: Environmental drives are food energy-dependent and pheromone-controlled in the context of feedback loops linked from supercoiled DNA to chromosomal rearrangements and all biodiversity. I used the term evolved to get past the ignorance of any potential reviewers who would most likely be theorists. In “The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002) we used the term mutation for the same reason. The editor at Continuum rightfully insisted.

The CRISPR craze: genome editing technologies poised to revolutionize medicine and industry reported 7/27/15 by James Kohl
[The CRISPR craze of using viruses to edit organized genomes is the example of more ignorance in medicine and industry than most people can comprehend.] See also: CRISPR–Cas systems exploit viral DNA injection to establish and maintain adaptive immunity

The acquisition of new spacer sequences from foreign DNA elements, also known as adaptation, is a hallmark of the CRISPR–Cas immune response1.

Any intelligent scientist would ask where the spacer sequences came from and learn that the spacers are food energy-dependent microRNAs that prevent the virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA and all pathology in all genera.
See Energy-dependent physical and biophysical constraints (9) (in prep) for examples of those who might otherwise seem to be intelligent scientists.
 

Dispensing with all pseudoscientific nonsense about evolution (2)

See also: Genomic analyses identify hundreds of variants associated with age at menarche and support a role for puberty timing in cancer risk
Reported as: Hundreds of Genomic Regions Linked to Age at Menarche

Age at onset of puberty is affected by a combination of genetic, nutritional, and other environmental factors and that timing, in turn, is associated with risk of cancer later in life.

Who will be next to link energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from nutritional epigenetics to other environmental factors and stress-linked pathology in all organized genomes?
They report that the strongest age at menarche (AAM) signal encodes a key repressor of energy-dependent microRNA biogenesis, which links methylation to limits on cell pluripotency.
Other significant genome wide signals were mapped to lysine-specific demethylase genes or to Mendelian pubertal disorder genes such as GNRH1 (178) and KAL1 (378). KAL1 and GnRH link olfaction and pheromones from fertilization to adult sexual behavior.
See also: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Stop pretending it takes a team of hundreds of people to determine that all biodiversity on Earth is nutrient energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction. All serious scientists know that feedback loops link chirality and autophagy from changes in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of microbes to mammals during their life history transitions.

See also: A quantum theory for the irreplaceable role of docosahexaenoic acid in neural cell signalling throughout evolution

Alternative splicing of pre-mRNA

Energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA

Chirality Check

Most biological macromolecules are homochiral, and enzymes help to maintain this state of affairs; for example, checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation.

The fixation of the only achiral amino acid, glycine in position 6 of the gonadotropin releasing hormone decapeptide protein links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction from yeasts to humans. That fact about RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is missing from the chirality check, It also is missing from representations of the anti-entropic virucidal force that biophysically constrains all biodiversity by protecting all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy.
That’s why theories of evolution have no explanatory power. An unknown force of nature must be included the theories for comparison to Schrodinger’s claims in What is Life? (pp. 73 and 74)

Indeed, in the case of higher animals we know the kind of orderliness they feed upon well enough, viz. the extremely well-ordered state of matter in more or less complicated organic compounds, which serve them as foodstuffs. After utilizing it they return it in a very much degraded form -not entirely degraded, however, for plants can still make use of it. (These, of course, have their most power supply of ‘negative entropy’ the sunlight.)

See for comparison: Force of nature gave life its asymmetry

…even demonstrating how a common physical phenomenon would have favoured left-handed amino acids over right-handed ones would not tell us that this was how life evolved…

The fact that there is no explanation for how life evolved outside the context of an unknown force of nature can be placed into the context of the energy-dependent creation of all differentiated cell types in all living genera.
See: RNA G-quadruplexes are globally unfolded in eukaryotic cells and depleted in bacteria (2016) by Junjie U. Guo and David P. Bartel,

Owing to the extensive hydrogen-bonding and base-stacking interactions, RG4 structures can be very stable, with in vitro melting temperatures well exceeding physiological temperatures. This stability typically depends on the presence of K+, which is the optimal size to bind at the center of two stacked G-quartets…

They fail to mention that energy-dependent hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution must be linked to the stability of supercoiled DNA. Instead, the unfolding of the RNA G-quadruplexes was reported as: RNA Sequences Don’t Predict In Vivo Transcript Structure

Interactions between nucleotides can turn sections of transcripts into loops, bends, and knots, some of which have regulatory functions in the cell.

See for comparison: Electrolytes induce long-range orientational order and free energy changes in the H-bond network of bulk water.  K+ is an important electrolyte in the context of interactions in solutions. That fact was reported as:  A single ion impacts a million water molecules. The fact that the interactions between nucleotides are pH-dependent makes it important to consider what happens when slight changes in the cell types of species-specific tissues occur in the context of nutrient stress or social stress.
The stress causes changes in protein folding that predictably links energy-dependent interactions between nucleotides from natural selection for codon optimaility to fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and healthy longevity? If pH does not facilitate energy-dependent codon optimality, a change in pH may predict a change in the structure of functional proteins, which can effect biophysically constrained cell type differentiation.
See for instance: Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition

The amino acid optimality code (Fig 6) provides an alternative perspective on sequence changes between paralogs in evolution and human disease.

Unfortunately, the nutrient energy-dependent interactions between nucleotides and amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins, are typically not considered in the context of virus-driven energy theft, which has been linked from viral latency to all pathology via transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in species from archaea to humans.
See for instance: Epigenetics and Genetics of Viral Latency
… viral latency is responsible for life-long pathogenesis and mortality risk…
My comment to The Scientist on RNA Sequences Don’t Predict In Vivo Transcript Structure :

See also: MicroRNAs: Genomics, Biogenesis, Mechanism, and Function (2004) by David P. Bartel

…about a quarter of the human miRNA genes) are in the introns of pre-mRNAs. These are preferentially in the same orientation as the predicted mRNAs…

For comparison, see: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

… epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans…  Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species.

Hydrogen-atom energy-dependent changes in base pairs have since been linked from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all living genera via amino acid substitutions.

The RNA-mediated fixation of amino acids links autophagy from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA. Virus-driven energy theft has been linked to all pathology via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. The changes link fertilization to adult sexual behavior.  See: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems.
See also, the other publications by David P. Bartel
2016 Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression
Excerpt:

…we assumed that (1) molecular species are well mixed within the cytosol and their concentrations are not influenced by cell growth and division; (2) each mRNA and miRNA is produced at a constant rate, and unbound mRNAs and miRNAs undergo constant first-order decay; (3) upon association with a miRNA, the mRNA degradation rate increases, regardless of the site type; and (4) miRNA binding is reversible, and upon miRNA dissociation the mRNA degradation rate reverts to its original value. We also assumed that the Michaelis constant (KM) describing mRNA degradation with respect to the miRNA-mRNA complex is well approximated by the complex dissociation constant (KD), and that both bound and unbound mRNA are translated.

Simply put, they seem to have assumed that energy-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance need not be considered in the context of any model of biologically-based cause and effect.
See for comparison: 2014 Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems
Abstract excerpt:

This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man.

The clear difference between the assumptions made by Bartel (and others like him) and the facts about energy-dependent biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry make it pointless for serious scientists to discuss experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect with anyone who does not agree that it is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of energy-dependent reproduction in all living genera.
See also: How the elite control the masses
Control involves giving the masses partial information, which is what Bartel and others appear to be doing in attempts to promote evolutionary theories.

See for comparison ( December 30, 2016 at 5:37pm):

Peter Berean wrote:

James, I have no problem with “energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions” … however, that does not show that energy = information.

And, neither does the article about “construction of phylogenetic trees”…

My recommendation is DO take the advice of your brothers in Christ… And correct your views and models accordingly.

IF you do so, you could actually have more people believe what you have to say about your models.

The comment about taking advice from my “brothers in Christ” is a classic. It comes from someone who may never understand anything about energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA, or how energy as information must be linked to all biodiversity.

Peter Berean is only one among many who are biologically uninformed. Their masses are not told that virus-driven energy theft can be linked to all pathology in the context of conserved molecular mechanisms, which have been detailed by all serious scientists. Peter Berean may think that his faith in God and/or his brothers in Christ will save him from his ignorance.

That may be true, but it may also not apply to those who have been told the truth and continue to ignore it. People like that encourage others to ignore the truth about energy-dependent hydrogen bonds in supercoiled DNA. The truth is that if you don’t know where that energy came from, you are no better off than any other theorist or atheist.

That makes this Chirality Check a reality check, and makes this a lie: “…checkpoints ensure that only l-amino acids are incorporated into proteins during translation.”

See: Evolution of constrained gonadotropin-releasing hormone ligand conformation and receptor selectivity as cited in Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor

When the chiral amino acid (Ala) in position six of Ciona I GnRH was substituted with the achiral glycine or with d-Ala, which enhances the type II’ β-turn conformation, there was a marked increase in the binding affinity of the peptides at the vertebrate GnRH receptor (Barran et al., 2005).

The substitution of achiral glycine and the increased binding affinity were placed into the following context in the Evolution of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) structure and its receptor:

The discovery of the fact that one decapeptide molecule, among the GnRHs, was constructed perfectly at the beginning of 400 million years evolution and that it is not possible to improve its physiological potency using the any natural amino acid is, in my opinion, important, fascinating and beautiful.

The claim about 400 million years of evolution has not been substantiated by experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect and virus-driven energy theft was not considered in the context of the invention of neo-Darwinian theory.
The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…
[W]hat Haldane, Fisher, Sewell Wright, Hardy, Weinberg et al. did was invent…. Evolution was defined as “changes in gene frequencies in natural populations.” The accumulation of genetic mutations was touted to be enough to change one species to another…. Assumptions, made but not verified, were taught as fact.
See also: Spectrum of Antimatter Observed for First Time

The Standard Model predicts that there should have been equal amounts of matter and antimatter in the primordial Universe after the Big Bang, but today’s Universe is observed to consist almost entirely of ordinary matter. This motivates physicists to carefully study antimatter, to see if there is a small asymmetry in the laws of physics that govern the two types of matter.

Without the anti-entropic energy of the sun, the laws of physics could not be linked from chemistry to molecular epigenetics, which must link energy-dependent autophagy from the innate immune system to supercoiled DNA. If not, you are left with the magic of emergence and evolution instead of the fact that Life is physics and chemistry and communication in the context of energy as information.
In 2016, scientists collectively failed to link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of the sun to autophagy and all biophysically constrained biodiversity via the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. They also failed to link virus-driven energy theft from the negative supercoiling of DNA to all pathology.
Instead, most scientific successes are examples of politicized science. Congratulations to those who are willing to place politicized science into the context of their theories.  The theories make their World a better place for other theorists to live in. Serious scientists, for comparison, will remember the theorists who failed to make the Chirality Check a reality check.