### Energy-dependent pheromone-controlled entropy (1)

Let’s make peer review scientific

…peer review is often biased and inefficient. It is occasionally corrupt, sometimes a charade, an open temptation to plagiarists. Even with the best of intentions, how and whether peer review identifies high-quality science is unknown. It is, in short, unscientific.

A recent PubMed search for more peer-reviewed articles that mention microRNA returned a link to this published work. “Genetic 3’UTR variation is associated with human pigmentation characteristics and sensitivity to sunlight
One energy-dependent variation links the sensitivity to the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight from differences in the energy of photons to the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans via microRNA flanking sequences and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution.

That fact links endogenous RNA interference to healthy longevity. All experimental evidence of biologically-based facts also links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. It is past time for theoretical physicists and neo-Darwinian theorists to acknowledge the paradigm shift that links top-down causation from energy to healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. For example, neurodegenerative disease is caused by viruses that steal the energy required to create new G protein-coupled receptors, such as olfactory receptors.

This is an example of the consequences: Rising Numbers Of Alzheimer’s Patients Could Bankrupt Medicare (with my emphasis)

The Urgent Need For Research

Currently, there is no cure for Alzheimer’s. In fact, Alzheimer’s is the only one of the 10 leading causes of death in the U.S. that cannot be prevented, slowed or cured.

The Alzheimer’s Association report highlights the urgent need for increased funding and a major global research effort aimed at the prevention and treatment of the debilitating disease.

For now, money for Alzheimer’s research lags behind that of other diseases. While the U.S. government committed over $5 billion to cancer research and$3 billion to HIV/AIDS research in 2015, funding for Alzheimer’s research came in at less than \$600 million that year, according to AARP.

Virus-driven energy theft also causes cancer, but the failure to link that fact to the facts about virus-driven neurodegenerative diseases represents a failure that can only be attributed to pseudoscientists. Serious scientists attempted to move forward with this accurate representation of biologically-based cause and effect.

Instead of a non-invasive pheromone-based treatment for virus-caused neurodegenerative diseases, we got the CRISPR/Cas 9 technology. Some people claim that CRISPR is the biggest threat to humanity that has ever been brought to the attention of world leaders and philanthropists like Bill Gates.

Scientific advisers to President Obama warn that the U.S. urgently needs a new biodefense strategy and should regularly brief President-elect Donald Trump on the dangers posed by new technologies like CRISPR, gene therapy, and synthetic DNA, which they say could be coöpted by terrorists.

“The next epidemic could originate on the computer screen of a terrorist intent on using genetic engineering to create a synthetic version of the smallpox virus … or a super contagious and deadly strain of the flu.”

Instead of applying what is known about energy-dependent pheromone-controlled entropy, the CRISPR technology is rapidly becoming represented in the context of endogenous RNA interference. RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

Food odors and pheromones target energy-dependent feedback loops, which link RNA methylation to all biophysically constrained biodiversity via naturally occurring RNA-guided human genome engineering.

Until now, that fact protected us from the viral apocalypse. Epigenetic effects of ecological variation on failed ecological adaptations in hosts now link the adaptations of viruses to the forthcoming viral apocalypse.

Serious scientists saw this coming. Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

Now, see: Endothelial cell tropism is a determinant of H5N1 pathogenesis in mammalian species (with my emphasis)

… endothelial cell tropism is a determinant of the high virulence associated with HPAI H5N1 infection in mammalian hosts. By utilizing endogenous miRNA mediated restriction of viral tropism, we demonstrate that H5N1 infection of endothelial cells results in increased cytokine production in the lungs and loss of endothelial barrier function, which culminates in vascular leakage in the lungs. In addition, extrapulmonary spread of H5N1 virus likely occurs via the hematogenous route by infection of endothelial cells. Importantly, our studies strongly suggest that a combination therapy with drugs that improve endothelial barrier function and suppress host immune responses will be necessary for treating HPAI H5N1 virus infections. Apart from HPAI H5N1 virus, several other influenza virus strains either with (H7N7) or without (1918, H7N9) an MBS in HA have been shown to cause aggressive disease in mammalian hosts. Future studies are necessary to determine if the high virulence of other pathogenic influenza virus strains is due to endothelial cell tropism.

Re: …endogenous miRNA mediated restriction of viral tropism…

miRNA mediated restriction of viral tropism is the obvious energy-dependent link from nutritional epigenetics to RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, which protect all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft. When a theorist claims that the facts about biophysically constrained viral latency have been integrated into their claims about emergence and neo-Darwinian evolution, ask “Where did the energy come from?”

Darwin included energy in his “conditions of life.” Wherever the energy went when pseudoscientists invented their ridiculous theories, on March 10m 2017, it came back.

Wake up and smell the roses while you still can! Read Greg Bear‘s “Quantico” to find out what happens to those who can’t sniff out the differences between life and death.

Biography
Greg Bear … has also served as a consultant for NASA, the U.S. Army, the State Department, the International Food Protection Association, and Homeland Security on matters ranging from privatizing space to food safety, the frontiers of microbiology and genetics, and biological security.

Jon Stewart interviews Greg Bear

### The essence of precision medicine: drug targets or healthy longevity?

The molecular epigenetics of healthy longevity
Trichome, a Functional Diversity Phenotype in Plant
Abstract:

Trichomes play a very important role in the process of evolution for plant which are epidermal appendages covering the surface of plants. In this paper, some progress concerning the genes responsible for trichome formation is presented for monocots and dicotyledons plants. Meanwhile, the special structures and physiological functions of trichome are briefly introduced, such as reflectance, energy balance, ultraviolet protection, drought resistance, gas exchange, insect resistance and disease resistance. The review provides a theoretical basis for the further study of other trichome related traits in plants.

The review links the process of evolution from the energy balance to ultraviolet protection without mention of where the energy came from or how the energy balance is biophysically constrained by the chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding in the context of fixed amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA. They should simply claim that evolution is an automagical process that they cannot explain in terms that might be used by serious scientists to link physics and chemistry to molecular epigenetics and all biologically-based cause and effect.
Article excerpts

Trichomes, as a plant protective barrier against natural hazards such as herbivores, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, pathogen attacks and excessive transpiration, play a key role in development of plants and occur widely in various plants.

Trichomes are a model system for cell differentiation, cell cycle regulation, cell polarity and cell expansion…

Trichomes cannot be a model system because cell differentiation it is energy-dependent and biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

Light reflectors and energy balance

Studies have shown that trichomes can be reflectors of broadspectrum radiation, and play a physiologically significant role in modulating the plant energy balance [57,65,66]. When leaves are exposed in environments, this can regulate heat balance via transpiration cooling, which requires an adequate water supply or through reduced leaf absorption [66].

All physiologically significant roles played in the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation in all living genera must link energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems. Now that those links have been established, they can be used to virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Clearly, nothing evolves without an anti-entropic virucidal energy source, which means that no species has ever evolved into another species via natural selection for anything except energy-dependent codon optimality.
Natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the essence of precision medicine. See:
See for comparison: The histone demethylase KDM3A regulates the transcriptional program of the androgen receptor in prostate cancer cells

Methylation of histone lysine residues is a significant component of epigenetics and is associated with control of gene expression [1]. Specifically, methylation of lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9) has been recognized as hallmark of transcriptionally suppressed genes [2].

“The essence of precision medicine is to understand, which drug targets are effective given each person’s unique genetic and epigenetic makeup,” Filipp said.

Methylation is energy-dependent and RNA-mediated. Nutrient energy-dependent viral latency links lysine residues (amino acid substitutions) to all healthy longevity in all living genera via natural selection for differences in the energy of photons, which has been linked from hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to all biodiversity via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
Each person’s unique genetic makeup arises only in the context of epigenetic effects on supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy. Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.

Virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
For more pseudoscientific nonsense about cancers and metastases, see: Cancer Cells Conversations About Metastasis
My comment: Different levels of energy link energy as information in photons from changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
Virus-driven energy theft links mutations to all pathology.
Mitochondria as a Favourite Organelle for Invading Viruses

ER-alpha 36, A Novel Biomarker for ER-Negative Breast Cancer
DNA Repair Mechanisms in ESCs and iPSCs
If pseudoscientists consistently fail to link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via fixation of amino acid substitutions, do not expect them do discover that the energy for DNA repair is essence of precision medicine.
For example:
Do you realize that Ben Carson and others like him have linked energy to the experience-dependent near-infinite capacity of the brain, and linked virus-driven energy theft to all pathology via Schrodinger’s claims in “What is Life?” (1944)
All of Carson’s claims about the hippocampus link what is known to all serious scientists about energy-dependent RNA methylation and experience-dependent cell type differentiation, which is biophysically constrained by the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: “Experience-Dependent Accumulation of N6-Methyladenosine in the Prefrontal Cortex Is Associated with Memory Processes in Mice” June 22, 2016
The repository of non serious scientists is found among neo-Darwinian theorists. Also, Dobzhansky (1964) made claims about the difference between serious scientists and “serious intellectuals,” who he would probably also refer to as biologically uninformed.
For example, Neuroskeptic concludes that “It’s not a totally crazy approach, but it makes a lot of assumptions.”
Ben Carson did not make any assumptions about the claims that link ATP from the energy-dependent de novo creation of RNA to all biodiversity via links from RNA methylation to learning and memory in all living genera. See: Dobzhansky’s claims (1973) about RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and cell type differentiation in all living genera. The energy clearly must be linked from what organisms eat to the physiology of reproduction. See for comparison:
Biology, molecular and organismic (1964) Excerpt: “The notion has gained some currency that the only worthwhile biology is molecular biology. All else is “bird watching” or “butterfly collecting.” Bird watching and butterfly collecting are occupations manifestly unworthy of serious scientists! I have heard a man whose official title happens to be Professor of Zoology declare to an assembly of his colleagues that “a good man cannot teach zoology. A good man can teach, of course, only molecular biology. ”
For an example of some intelligent men, see: DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION” (1964)

The essence of precision medicine: drug targets or healthy longevity?

### Allen Institute confirms food energy is information

Excerpt: Predictably, Paul Allen will be the next to start funding works that might help to prevent the viral apocalypse, now that Bill Gates is mentally prepared to do so.

### Allen Institute FB page

3/3/17 Fascinating new research on stem cell division
Scientists discover an unexpected influence [of food] on dividing stem cells’ fate

One particular protein, Pex11b, caught her attention. It is associated with the membrane that surrounds the peroxisome, an organelle that helps to free energy from food.

“While some evidence already suggested the distribution of organelles, including energy-producing mitochondria, can influence the outcome of cell division, we have shown for the first time that this phenomenon is essential to the proper behavior of and formation of the tissue,” says Fuchs, who is also a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator.

This unexpected influence of food energy on endogenous RNA interference and cell type differentiation in skin cells from mice was first reported one month ago. However, the influence of food on the survival of all species is known to all serious scientists.

For example, see Schrodinger (1944). He linked the anti-entropic energy of sunlight from all energy-dependent biophysically constrained viral latency to healthy longevity before Roger Penrose (1991) mentioned this in his forward to the reprint edition:

How often do we still hear that quantum effects can have little relevance in the study of biology, or even that we eat food in order to gain energy?

In 1991, Penrose reduced the systems complexity of biophysically constrained top-down energy-dependent viral latency to the question of where the energy in a hydrogen atom comes from.comes from. Schrodinger suggested it came from sunlight in an attempt to stop the pseudoscientific nonsense about mutations that was touted after de Vries defined “mutation” in 1902. So far, no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has limited the claims about mutations and evolution that are made by biologically uninformed theorists.

See for comparison:

A mystery concerning the structure of protons is a step closer to being solved, thanks to a seven-year experiment led by researchers at MIT. Credit: Christine Daniloff/MIT

The resulting values of R2γ, presented here for a wide range of virtual photon polarization 0.456<ε<0.978, are smaller than some hadronic two-photon exchange calculations predict, but are in reasonable agreement with a subtracted dispersion model and a phenomenological fit to the form factor data.

The phenomenological fit links the claims of Schrodinger and concerns of Penrose to this report on the Lepton-Proton Scattering. The title includes the joke about the link from sunlight to evolution that Dobzansky (1973) reported as: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution. Dobzhansky’s clever creationist attack on neo-Darwinian theorists, who failed to link the creation of the sun to all biologically-based cause and effect went virtually unnoticed despite his claim:

I am a creationist and an evolutionist. Evolution is God’s, or Nature’s, method of Creation.

No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect links Dobzhansky’s claims about amino acid substitutions to evolution. For contrast, all claims made by other serious scientists link sunlight to energy-dependent changes in angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera.

The two-photon contribution to the structure of protons and the biophysically constrained functional structure of supercoiled DNA was reported as:

OLYMPUS experiment sheds light on structure of protons

…experiments had previously led researchers to assume that the electric and magnetic charge distributions are the same, and that one photon—an elementary particle of light—is exchanged when the protons interact with the bombarding electrons.

…two photons are indeed exchanged during electron-proton interactions.

However, unlike the theoretical predictions, analysis of the OLYMPUS measurements suggests that, most of the time, only one of the photons has high energy, while the other must carry very little energy indeed…

Natural selection for the higher energy photon is the most likely link from the anti-entropic effects of sunlight to energy-dependent codon optimality and cell type differentiation in all living genera via the physiology of pheromone-controlled reproduction and endogenous RNA interference.
The links from higher energy photons to energy-dependent changes in chirality and autophagy extend what is known about RNA-mediated DNA repair. The molecular mechanisms of DNA repair helped to establish sunlight as the energy source for hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution. The most recent report on one carbon metabolism also extends what is known about subatomic particles to the creation of the energy in hydrogen atoms and differences in the structure of teeth.
See: Evidence for dietary change but not landscape use in South African early hominins (2012)
Reported as: Millions of years of evolutionary history recorded in teeth (March 3, 2017)
The nonsense about the evolutionary history was refuted in 2013. See: System-wide Rewiring Underlies Behavioral Differences in Predatory and Bacterial-Feeding Nematodes
A change in diet was linked to differences in C. elegans and a predatory nematode with teeth. They claimed that the differences emerged during 200 million years, but no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect has ever supported such ridiculous claims.
Subatomic Particles, Part 1: Leptons
Subatomic Particles, Part 2: Baryons, the Substance of the Cosmos
Subatomic Particles, Part 3: Mesons

Please place the feedback loops into the context of how PCR applications are linked to what is known about cell type differentiation via virus-driven degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA), or linked by nutrient energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to healthy longevity.

A snapshot of the most common PCR application

1) “Another possible application: looking for an RNA target, either viral or an endogenous mRNA.”
2) “…the IC [internal control] should be RNA to reflect the desired sample type.”
3) Conclusion: An understanding of the overall method workflow and some of the possible causes of false positive or negative results is thus beneficial in appropriately interpreting test results in the full clinical context.The light energy as information-induced de novo creation of RNA, protein, and lipid precursors links the common origin of amino acids to cell type differentiation in all living genera via endogenous RNA interference and the physiology of reproduction, which links supercoiled DNA to chromosomal inheritance.
See: Common origins of RNA, protein and lipid precursors in a cyanosulfidic protometabolism
John Brunstein indirectly suggests that supercoiled DNA prevents mutation-driven evolution. Unless the mutations can be linked from amino acid substitutions to pathology, he also seems to also be suggesting that neo-Darwinian theories are sources of errors.  Researchers are virtually guaranteed to fail, if they start with theories and try to link the possible causes of energy-dependent  false positive or negative results from the National Microbiome Initiative cell type differentiation in the context of the Precision Medicine Initiative.
I hope that someone like John Brunstein will comment on facts about the degradation of messenger RNA (mRNA). For example, virus-driven energy theft appears to link mRNA degradation to all pathology.  If he does not agree, I hope he knows of an alternative model that links energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to all healthy longevity and something else to all pathology.
In any case,  I believe it is past time to eliminate neo-Darwinian theories, which link beneficial mutations to the stability of organized genomes in all living genera, but link amino acid substitutions to the stability of viruses.
See: Substitutions Near the Receptor Binding Site Determine Major Antigenic Change During Influenza Virus Evolution

The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.

Watch Jason Silva tell you about the importance of fire in an attempt to link the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by theorists to survival of all species except those that do not need to eat. Those species must have emerged and automagically evolved to become people like Jason Silva who can tell others how that happened, but won’t.

He can tell others about the importance of fire. Watch as everyone else in the world starts to link energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference to biophysically constrained gene activation and link virus-driven energy theft to all pathology during the cell type differentiation of all species from microbes to humans.

See for example: Services – QuantSeq 3’ mRNA-Seq Libraries

Lexogen provides a fully integrated service-workflow for generation of QuantSeq 3’ mRNA-Seq libraries, multiplexed sequencing, and data analysis. QuantSeq libraries are produced from total RNA to yield Illumina-compatible sequences close to the 3’ end of polyadenylated RNA.

Then wait for someone to tell you more about the importance of fire.

Alternatively, place everything known about energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation back into the context of “Nature.”
See: Nature Fights Back Against Gene Editing
Then, stop calling it “Nature” and learn what serious scientists already know about the energy-dependent links from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera. If not, now that the Allen Institute has linked food energy as information to brain development, you will be asked to tell others how “Nature” created everything from subatomic particles to the hydrogen-atom energy. Then, the next question will be about how the energy is transferred in DNA base pairs in solution to allow natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality and the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See also: The Persistent Contributions of RNA to Eukaryotic Gen(om)e Architecture and Cellular Function

Suzan Mazur: Do viruses play a role in regulating L-form bacteria?

Jeffery Errington: That’s a good question. Of course, much of the research on bacteriophages has shown that they tend to bind to components of the cell wall, so certainly you’d anticipate that L-forms would be resistant to many forms of virus. But I don’t know if much work has been done on this.

Anyone who does not know how much experimental evidence links food energy to all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction is not likely to know enough about anything that could be linked from bacteriophages to all pathology via the degradation of messenger RNA.

### Energy-dependent allelic imbalances, viruses, and pathology

Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference poster presentation February 15, 2017

These studies demonstrate that serial genetic changes at the Kras/KRAS locus are frequent in cancer and modulate competitive fitness and MEK dependency.

Taylor developed mathematical algorithms and software to analyze relative dosage of mutant KRAS and normal KRAS in tumor cells from biopsy samples, which contain many normal cells as well as cancerous cells.

The energy-dependent balance of genes is RNA-mediated and controlled by supercoiled DNA, which links amino acid substitutions that stabilize all organized genomes from chirality to autophagy.  In this study, they claim facts are “deeply understood” about the most common mutation in cancer and how oncogenic amino acid substitutions perturb activation of the molecular switch that enables protein folding chemistry.
Their understanding of biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry fails to differentiate between virus-driven energy theft, which causes all mutations, and nutrient energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA, which are linked from chromosomal inheritance to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of healthy longevity in all genera.
Simply put, the authors appear to be theorists using algorithms. There is no indication that they are serious scientists like those who have already linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via the physiology of energy-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction.
See also: Genome-wide identification of splicing QTLs in the human brain and their enrichment among schizophrenia-associated loci
Reported as: Changes in RNA splicing: a new mechanism for genetic risk in schizophrenia
Re: a “new” mechanism: See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

The authors who report on splicing QTLs in the human brain make it appear that the molecular mechanisms we detailed in our section on molecular epigenetics are something new. Only serious scientists know that why pseudoscientists continue to link energy-dependent changes in the microRNAs/messenger RNA balance to splicing QTLs.  For example, pseudoscientists do not want more people to learn that energy-dependent alternative splicings of pre-mRNA (aka microRNAs) link

1. the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal effects from
2. changes in base pairs to the
3. single nucleotide polymorphisms that link
4. hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution from
5. chirality to
6. autophagy
7. and all biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera
8. via the physiology of reproduction.

This article, from the “Nature Publications Group” is another attempt to ignore the established facts about protein folding chemistry and place the facts back into the context of ridiculous theories about mutations and evolution.

…alternative splicing may be the critical source of evolutionary changes differentiating primates and humans from other creatures such as worms and flies with a similar number of genes.

Excerpt from my comment ~3 years ago:

The alternative splicings are nutrient-dependent and appear to be enabled by the experience-dependent de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes, which enable additional receptor-mediated nutrient uptake and the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific blends of pheromones that control reproduction in species from microbes to man.

Energy-dependent allelic imbalances linked virus-driven energy theft from alternative RNA splicings to cancer and to schizophrenia in today’s science news. The conserved molecular mechanisms are consistently NOT linked to what is known  about the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction and ecological adaptations in species from archaea to humans.

### Francis S. Collins refutes theistic evolution

Criticisms of the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled evolutionary model

Based on his writings, both published and unpublished, James Kohl presents an unsupported challenge to modern evolutionary theory and misrepresentations of established scientific terms and others’ research. — Andrew Jones, BA

Editor’s note

The 2013 review article by James Vaughn Kohl published in Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology and criticized in the above Letter to the Editor was subjected to standard peer review and the revised version was accepted by me after it had been accepted by both reviewers.

See for comparison: The Language of God: A Scientist Presents Evidence for Belief, by Francis S. Collins. The current director of the NIH also is a co-author of Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes

…T2D risk alleles that overlap with RFX footprints uniformly disrupt the RFX motifs at high-information content positions. Together, these results suggest that common regulatory variations have shaped islet TF footprints and the transcriptome and that a confluent RFX regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic component of T2D predisposition.

No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect suggest that any common regulatory variations has ever evolved. Let me make that fact perfectly clear in the words of the co-authors:

“Individuals who are heterozygous for a frameshift mutation in RFX6 have increased 2-h glucose levels (33). Importantly, rare autosomal recessive mutations that alter DNA-contacting amino acids in the DNA binding domain of RFX6 result in Mitchell–Riley syndrome, which is characterized by neonatal diabetes (29).

The frameshift mutation and rare autosomal recessive mutations occur outside the context of energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference (RNAi). For comparison RNA-directed DNA methylation (aka endogenous RNAi) typically links DNA-contacting amino acids to healthy longevity via the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological and behavioral phentoypes in species from microbes to humans. It is difficult to describe all the links, but it is clear that RNAi links RNA-directed DNA methylation from energy-dependent changes in chirallity to base pairs, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and autophagy via the innate immune system.
Without any mention of how virus-driven energy theft links mutations from SNPs to pathology, Francis S. Collins and his co-authors link the rare autosomal recessive mutations to altered DNA-contacting amino acids. Apparently, they do not want to mention anything about the fact that natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality is the link from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to all biophysically constrained healthy longevity. Instead, they seem willing to ignore the facts about energy-dependent fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in cell types.
Indeed, they seem to put everything known to serious scientists into the context of the theistic evolution of pathology. Serious scientists know that nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation is the link from atoms to ecosystems in models of ecological adaptation.
Clearly, anyone who does not want to expose the pseudoscientific nonsense touted by neo-Darwinian theorists and theistic evolutionists should not mention “amino acid” and “mutation” in the same context. Using only the definitions of both terms in the same sentence (above) alerts all serious scientists to the fact that nutrient energy-dependent amino acid substitutions are not the same as mutations, which are caused by virus-driven energy theft.
Reported as: Diabetes in your DNA? Scientists zero in on the genetic signature of risk

…for now, it’s the first demonstration that many Type 2 diabetes-linked DNA changes have to do with the same DNA-reading molecule. Called Regulatory Factor X, or RFX, it’s a master regulator for a number of genes.

The regulation of genes is energy dependent.

“RFX is probably unable to read the misspelled words, and this disruption of regulatory grammar plays a significant role in the genetic risk of Type 2 diabetes.”

The concept of “misspelled words” is appropriate for use only in the context of pseudoscientific nonsense that fails to address facts about natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality. Codon optimality links the speed of light on contact with water to biophysically constrained RNA-medidated cell type differentiation in all living genera.

They characterized differences not just in DNA sequences, but also in the way DNA was packaged and modified by epigenetic factors, and the levels of gene expression products that indicated how often the genes had been read and transcribed.

Epigenetically-effected reading and transcription is energy dependent and biophysically constrained via the speed of light and hydrogen-atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution such as seawater and blood. Serious scientists noticed that pattern and linked virus-driven energy theft from pathology in bacteria to archaea and from the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika-virus damaged DNA in human infants. The craniofacial morphology and brain development of infected human infants clearly links energy-dependent fixation of amino acids to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of all living genera.
See: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

E. Margoliash, W. M. Fitch, and others have compared the amino acid sequences in cytochrome C in different branches of the living world. Most significant similarities as well as differences have been brought to light. The cytochrome C of different orders of mammals and birds differ in 2 to 17 amino acids, classes of vertebrates in 7 to 38, and vertebrates and insects in 23 to 41; and animals differ from yeasts and molds in 56 to 72 amino acids. Fitch and Margoliash prefer to express their findings in what are called “minimal mutational distances.” It has been mentioned above that different amino acids are coded by different triplets of nucleotides in DNA of the genes; this code is now known.

Facts about nutrient energy-dependent codon optimality also are known to be refutations of neo-Darwinian pseudoscientific nonsense because codon optimality links Darwin’s “conditions of life” to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera.
See: Codon optimality controls differential mRNA translation during amino acid starvation and Codon identity regulates mRNA stability and translation efficiency during the maternal-to-zygotic transition
See for comparison: Epigenetic Editing of Ascl1 Gene in Neural Stem Cells by Optogenetics

Each DNA change might alter this binding in a different way, leading to a slightly different effect on Type 2 diabetes risk or blood sugar regulation. But the common factor for many of these changes was its effect on the area where RFX is predicted to bind, in the cells of pancreatic islets.

So, says Parker, this shows how the genome – the actual sequence of DNA—can influence the epigenome, or the factors that influence gene expression.

The sequence of DNA cannot influence the epigenome before the energy-dependent sequence has been created via natural selection for codon optimality. That is why epigenetically-effected nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled energy-dependent changes in supercoiled DNA were linked from the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in Pseudomonas fluorescens to all biodiversity in all living genera via the conserved molecular mechanisms that link light energy-induced changes in microRNAs to all biodiversity.
Programmable artificial phototactic microswimmer

For active drug delivery, the nanomotor should be able to orient towards specific chemical signals, such as those demonstrated in chemotaxis21–25 and pH taxis26.

…assuming that it is possible to tune the preferred pH of bioactuators by genetic engineering, these biohybrid microsystems could potentially be applied to sense the pH gradient induced by cancerous cells in stagnant fluids inside human body and realize targeted drug delivery.

If naturally occurring chemotaxis could not readily be linked from pH-taxis and phototaxis to natural selection for codon optimaility and supercoiled DNA, light energy as information could not be linked to communication between the microscopic and the macroscopic world.
Light Could Propel Nanorobots on a “Fantastic Voyage” Through the Human Body

“Light is a more effective option to communicate between the microscopic world and the macroscopic world,” said Tang.

The fact that the energy-dependent virucidal effects of sunlight have been linked to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in an organism that fluoresces on exposure to UV light was placed into the context of claims about two amino acid substitutions that were reported as if they were mutations.
Summary: Francis S. Collins, current NIH director, is a theistic evolutionist. He should not use his position to tout the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolution. He is supposed to link experimental evidence of biologically-based facts to healthy longevity or to pathology.
See also: United states health care reform: Progress to date and next steps

All of the individuals who assisted with the preparation of the manuscript are employed by the Executive Office of the President.

Former President Barrack Obama should not have used his position or his employees to mislead the voters in the United States of America. He correctly stated that “…partisanship and special interest opposition remain…,” which ensured that “…experience with the Affordable Care Act…” would demonstrate “…that positive change is achievable on some of the nation’s most complex challenges.” That claim was placed into the context of misrepresentations made by ~50% of people who are biologically uninformed theorists and/or those who are atheists. Clearly there is overlap among those groups of people. Hopefully, others will see why. They’ve been taught to believe in theistic evolution or nothing.
Experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect refutes theistic evolution by linking virus-driven energy theft to all pathology in all living genera. In the context of  Genetic regulatory signatures underlying islet gene expression and type 2 diabetes, Francis S. Collins revealed either his ignorance or his treachery.
The article links the nutrient energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens via RNA synthesis, not mutations.
Virus-driven energy theft influences energy-dependent RNA-mediated gene expression, and the energy theft is clearly linked to mutations. See for example: DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION”

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

### Happy Darwin Day (2017)

My series of blog posts about the refutation of theistic evolution by George Church led him to contact me via email.

1. He asked why he would get credit for or against the refutations
2. He claimed he was trained in quantum physics.
3. He claimed that he has authored peer reviewed papers on protein folding, biodiversity, supercoiling, etc.
4. He wanted to know more but did not know enough about my target audience to realize why I included information about the viral hecatomb.
5. He also claimed to have written more on what is known about endogenous RNA interference than on exogenous RNA interference.

I invited him to discuss this further on my FB group, or on this domain. He declined. That was a great end to my 2017 Darwin Day.
See Evolution-guided optimization of biosynthetic pathways, which was co-authored by George Church and published December 1, 2014.
There is no such thing as evolution-guided optimization. Natural selection for energy dependent codon optimality is the only link from ecological variation to ecological adaptation in all living genera. That means we can move forward without George Church and still place his comments into the context of “Trust me, I’m a biologist.
I think that most serious scientists agree that you can’t trust evolutionary theorists For comparison, you can trust Darwin’s “conditions of life.”
Darwin’s “conditions of life” link the anti-entropic virucidal energy of sunlight to the physiology of reproduction in all living genera. Can you trust anyone who claims evolution did that?
See: RNA-Guided Human Genome Engineering

Repetitive elements or endogenous viral elements can be targeted with engineered Cas+gRNA systems in microbes, plants, animals, or human cells to reduce deleterious transposition or to aid in sequencing or other analytic genomic/transcriptomic/proteomic/diagnostic tools (in which nearly identical copies can be problematic).

Nutrient energy-dependent microRNAs link natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality to viral latency and protection of organized genomes from endogenous viral elements. Targeting endogenous viral elements with RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions is the key to biophysically constrained cell type differentiation. Fixation of amino acid substitutions prevents problematic nearly identical copies. There is no need for uncontrolled copies if there is no need to find another energy source. Uncontrolled copies link virus-driven energy theft from mutations to all pathology in all genera.
For example, energy theft from bacteria links messenger RNA degradation to morphological and behavioral phenotypes of archaea. Similarly, messenger RNA degradation in humans links the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of Zika virus-damaged DNA to craniofacial morphology and brain development in infants.
Taken together with what is known about differences in energy-dependent endogenous RNA interference in nematodes, all ridiculous misrepresentations of Darwin’s works must be reversed to show the truth about what virus-driven energy theft does. It links RNA-mediated cell type differentiation from the energy-dependent creation of bacteria to the energy-dependent creation of humans and it links virus-driven energy theft to all pathology.
Riding the Evolution Paradigm Shift With Eugene Koonin

The entire evolution of the microbial world and the virus world, and the interaction between microbes and viruses and other life forms have been left out of the Modern Synthesis…

Is Eugene Koonin joking about what was left out? If not, big bang cosmologists and neo-Darwinian theorists have never tried to support their ridiculous theories with any experimental evidence of biologically based cause and effect. They never examined the role of energy-dependent microRNAs or virus-driven energy theft. Instead, they invented gene-centric theories of mutation-driven evolution.

See for comparison: Membrane Patterns Carry Ontogenetic Information that is Specified Independently of DNA
Reported as: Peer-Reviewed Paper: Development Needs Ontogenetic Information that Cannot Arise from Neo-Darwinian Mechanisms

With over 400 citations to the technical literature, this well-researched and well-documented article shows that embryogenesis depends on crucial sources of information that exist outside of the DNA.

A 16 page monograph with 12 pages of citations is an unparalleled achievement for anyone who is not a polymath or someone who has not already linked physics and chemistry from molecular epigenetics to all biophysically constrained cell type differentiation in all living genera via fixation of nutrient energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.
None of the cited works appear to link what is known about virus-driven energy theft to all pathology. Again, it is time to move forward.
See: Charles Darwin’s Ocean Upwelling

It’s hard to overstate how vital Darwin’s coral reef theory was in developing his career and thinking. It paved the way, conceptually and methodologically, for everything to come — particularly his transmutation theory [natural selection]. The likenesses startle. Like the transmutation theory, the coral reef theory described how small, virtually unnoticeable changes could create differences of essential type in seemingly immutable forms — and in doing so, account for broad patterns of development and difference.

Changes in coral reefs are nutrient energy-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. De vries defined “mutation” in 1902, which means that Darwin could not have had a transmutation theory. Also, Darwin repeatedly asserted the claim that his “conditions of life” must come before any claims about natural selection.
Darwin Day 2017 may become known as the day George Church refused to publicly discuss evolution or to admit there is no such thing as evolution outside the context of virus-driven energy theft and the evolution of  pathology. On the same day, The Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History blog site published a post that misrepresented everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained energy-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation and healthy longevity.  Who could ask for a better Darwin Day than one during which Darwin’s “conditions of life” clearly triumphed over the ridiculous claims made by neo-Darwinian theorists and others who refuse to admit to the facts that link energy-dependent changes in chirality from autophagy to endogenous RNA interference and to supercoiled DNA, which prevents virus-driven energy theft from causing the mutations that all serious scientists have linked to all pathology?

### George Church refutes theistic evolution (3)

… George C. Williams developed in his 1966 book Adaptation and Natural Selection the essentials of a unifying theory of adaptation that remains robust today and has inspired immense progress in understanding how natural selection works.

Light Could Propel Nanorobots on a “Fantastic Voyage” Through the Human Body

“Light is a more effective option to communicate between the microscopic world and the macroscopic world,” said Tang.

See also: George Church refutes theistic evolution and George Church refutes theistic evolution (2)
Why did so many pseudoscientists fail to link ecological variation to ecological adaptation via natural selection for energy-dependent changes in supercoiled DNA, which protects all organized genomes from virus-driven energy theft and genomic entropy? Why have they continued to tout ridiculous theories for comparison to what is being reported about adaptation by serious scientists. Almost every day there is something old reported as if it was new information to be considered before it is again ignored by theorists.
See for examples from this past week:
Optokinetically encoded nanoprobe-based multiplexing strategy for microRNA profiling
Interplay between miRNAs and Human Diseases: A Review
400 pilot whales stranded on New Zealand’s ‘whale trap’ beach

Other factors include whales’ incredibly tight social bonding, which is especially strong within groups of pilot whales.

Social bonding is nutrient energy-dependent and controlled by the physiology of reproduction. In species from microbes to humans, the physiology of reproduction is controlled by the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones.

Rather than tout theories about solar storms and geographical traps, serious scientists investigate the facts that link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy to endogenous RNA interference via olfaction and the innate immune system. Serious scientists link food odors and pheromones to behavior in all living genera.

Future work on O. vulgaris olfaction must also consider how animals acquire the odours detected by the olfactory organ and what kind of odour the olfactory organ perceives. The OL acting as control centre may be target organ for metabolic hormones such as leptin like and insulin like peptides, and olfactory organ could exert regulatory action on the OL via epigenetic effects of nutrients and pheromones on gene expression (Kohl, 2013; Elekonich and Robinson, 2000).

Ecological variation that is not manifested in ecological adaptation links virus-driven energy theft to the stranded whales. The energy theft prevents nutrient energy-dependent ecological adaptation. Unfortunately, theorists do not understand any aspect of natural selection for energy-dependent codon optimality.The prefer to use definitions and assumptions for comparison to the experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that serious scientists must use in the context of their religion.

Pseudoscientists claim that atheism is not a religion. Atheism is a religion by definition.

See: atheism

1. 1a :  a lack of belief or a strong disbelief in the existence of a god or any godsb :  a philosophical or religious position characterized by disbelief in the existence of a god or any gods

See for comparison:  How an obscure oriental cult in a corner of Roman Palestine grew to become the dominant religion of the Western world
Even historians know that the history of a religion can influence the faith of believers today. For example, atheism today arose in the context of de Vries 1902 definition of “mutation” and acceptance of assumptions that accumulated mutations could lead from natural selection to the evolution of one species from another species.

Christianity can clearly be linked from events that start from the creation of energy as information in Biblical Genesis to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens, which fluoresces with exposure to UV light.

Atheism as a religion cannot stand up to the overwhelming amount of experimental evidence that supports claims in the Old Testament, which were linked to claims in the New Testament. There is nothing that appears to link the emergence of everything from nothing or the evolution of one species from another. That fact links three more definitions to all biodiversity on Earth.

The emergence of atheism as a world religion can now be placed into the context of definitions that recently were added to the Merriam-Webster dictionary.

Phytoremediation

the treatment of pollutants or waste (as in contaminated soil or groundwater) by the use of green plants that remove, degrade, or stabilize the undesirable substances (such as toxic metals)

CRISPR

The CRISPR segment encodes, via transcription, short RNA sequences that pair with complementary sequences of viral DNA. The pairing is used to guide an enzyme to cleave the viral DNA and prevent further infection.

1. 1 :  a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body <Your body is home to about 100 trillion bacteria and other microbes, collectively known as your microbiome. — Carl Zimmer> < … what’s arguably become the hottest area of medicine: microbiome research, an emerging field that’s investigating how the bacteria that live in and on our bodies affect our health. — Sunny Sea Gold>
1. 2 :  the collective genomes of microorganisms inhabiting a particular environment and especially the human body <They form one community among the many that make up the human microbiome: the full genetic complement of bacteria and other organisms at home on your skin, gums, and teeth, in your genital tract, and especially in your gut. — Nathan Wolfe>

The definitions that were recently added to the Merriam-Webster dictionary link the energy-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in bacteria from the National Microbiome Initiative to the Precision Medicine Initiative via endogenous RNA interference, which prevents the virus-driven energy theft that links mutations to all pathology.

For comparison, see: How algorithms (secretly) run the world

“Algorithms are not inherently fair, because the person who builds the model defines success,” she said.

Following the advice of Jeff Jarvis’s What Would Google Do, they are collecting data from both workers and customers, using algorithmic tools to make decisions, to sort the desirable from the disposable.

What would Jesus do about the use of algorithms to predict outcomes?

Algorithms can be made more accountable, respecting rights of fairness and dignity for which generations have fought. The challenge is not technical, but political, and the first step is law that empowers people to see and challenge what the algorithms are saying about us.

Did Jesus know the creation of energy and virus-driven energy theft are predictable links to outcomes that pseudoscientists think can be linked via algorithms? Did He ever mention the fact that pseudoscientists might be called theorists by serious scientists who have linked energy-dependent changes from angstroms to ecosystems in all living genera via what is known about the physiology of reproduction and the functional structure of supercoiled DNA.

See for example: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA
The functional structure of supercoiled DNA links what organisms eat to endogenous RNA interference and the physiology of reproduction, which links chromosomal inheritance from chirality to autophagy and all biodiversity on Earth. That cannot be done with definitions and/or algorithms.

How will you continue to avoid discussing the energy-dependent link from nutrient-dependent changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance to all healthy longevity, as everything known about virus-driven energy theft continues to be linked to all pathology?

Mitochondria Help Cancers Grow

Mitochondria adapt by producing cycles whereby electrons are removed from carbon at a greater rate as food is oxidized to make molecules for the cancers.

Mitochondria do not ‘produce’ the ‘cycles’ that link ‘food’ from one carbon metabolism to healthy longevity. Mitochondria do not ‘adapt.’ The food enables thermodynamic cycles of nutrient energy-dependent protein biosynthesis and degradation. Jon Lieff’s “doublespeak” obscures, disguises, distorts, or reverses the meaning of words.
The ‘pathways’ are nutrient energy-dependent. See for instance, DEPENDENCE OF RNA SYNTHESIS IN ISOLATED THYMUS NUCLEI ON GLYCOLYSIS, OXIDATIVE CARBOHYDRATE CATABOLISM AND A TYPE OF “OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

The synthesis of RNA in isolated thymus nuclei is ATP dependent.

Virus-driven energy theft prevents the synthesis of RNA and links the degradation of messenger RNA to all pathology via amino acid substitutions that stabilize the organized genomes of viruses. That fact makes it clear that any claims about two billion years of evolution must be placed into the context of energy-dependent exogenous RNA interference and the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding.
That means Jon Lieff cannot connect hisr blog post on viruses from last week to this blog post unless he ignore everything that he linked to communication among viruses.
It is time for him to admit that, like other theorists, he gives bits and pieces of information to his readers in ongoing attempts to limit the amount of accurate information they receive. He makes it difficult to integrate the information about nutrient energy-dependent healthy longevity and virus-driven energy theft.
That makes it unlikely that his readers will try to link the 2 billion-year-long absence of changes in bacteria living in ocean sediments to the weekend resurrection of the bacterial flagellum in P. fluorescens in the context of the same model.
By mixing theories with experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect, he consistently dilutes the experimental evidence and touts pseudoscientific nonsense about 2 billion years of evolution. He avoids addressing claims that the bacterial flagellum appears to have re-evolved itself sometime within 96 hours.
During that time, the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction enabled ecological adaptation in the organisms that survived.
I’ve asked Jon Lieff, “What led you to make this false claim?”

Mitochondria adapt by producing cycles whereby electrons are removed from carbon at a greater rate as food is oxidized to make molecules for the cancers.

If he answers that question we could discuss why he linked the false claim about mitochondria that ‘adapt’ to the energy-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types of all individuals of all living genera.

### Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference (2)

Precision Medicine virtual conference, Feburary 22-23, 2017
This abstract has been accepted for presentation as a poster.
Title: Energy as information and constrained endogenous RNA interference

•  James V. Kohl
• RNA-mediated.com
• jvkohl@bellsouth.net
• Abstract describing the poster

Abstract:
Feedback loops link quantized energy as information to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry.  Light induced energy-dependent changes link  angstroms to ecosystems from classical physics to chemistry/chirality and to molecular epigenetics/autophagy.
The National Microbiome Initiative links microbial quorum sensing  to the physiology of reproduction via endogenous RNA interference and chromosomal rearrangements. The rearrangements link energy-dependent fixed amino acid substitutions to the Precision Medicine Initiative via genome wide inferences of natural selection.
This detailed representation of energy-dependent natural selection for codon optimality links  biologically- based cause and effect from G protein-coupled receptors to  RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions and the functional structure of  supercoiled DNA.  Energy-dependent polycombic ecological adaptations are manifested in supercoiled DNA. Chromosomal inheritance links the adaptations from morphological phenotypes to healthy longevity via behavioral phenotypes.
For contrast, virus-driven energy theft is the link from messenger RNA degradation to negative supercoiling, constraint breaking mutations, and hecatombic evolution. The viral hecatomb links transgenerational epigenetic inheritance from  archaea to Zika virus-damaged DNA, which typically is repaired by endogenous RNA interference and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in organized genomes.

Scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory built a catalyst that mimics nature’s hydrogen-splitting enzymes—working reversibly at room temperature and pressure without added energy. This was achieved by stabilizing the catalyst’s structure by attaching an amino acid…”

This means they could also link the sun’s anti-entropic virucidal energy from the speed of light on contact with water to chirality and autophagy, which link the physiology of reproduction from supercoiled DNA to all biodiversity via hydrogen atom transfer in DNA base pairs in solution and endogenous RNA interference.
The mysterious 98%: Scientists look to shine light on the ‘dark genome’

…hidden among this noncoding DNA are many crucial regulatory elements that control the activity of thousands of genes. What is more, these elements play a major role in diseases such as cancer, heart disease, and autism, and they could hold the key to possible cures.”

Nothing is hidden. Everything has been revealed in the context of what is known to all serious scientists about biophysically constrained endogenous RNA interference.

### Dobzhansky 1973 and precision medicine (5)

Microenvironmental autophagy promotes tumour growth

…non-cell-autonomous autophagy is induced both in the tumour microenvironment and systemically… transformed cells engage surrounding normal cells as active and essential microenvironmental contributors to early tumour growth through nutrient-generating autophagy.

Non-cell autonomous autophagy links non-random natural selection for codon optimality from the nutrient energy-dependent pherormone-controlled physiology of reproduction to biophysically constrained RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry via fixation of amino acid substitutions in supercoiled DNA.

The supercoiled DNA links metabolic networks to genetic networks and chromosomal rearrangements to the transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of morphological phenotypes and behavioral phenotypes. Chromosomal inheritance links the 1933 Nobel Prize winning works of Thomas Hunt Morgan and Erwin Schrodinger to the works of 2016 Nobel Laureates Ben Feringa and Yoshinori Ohsumi.  Collectively, their Nobel Prizes explain why Richard Axel and Linda Buck won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2004 for detailing how the de novo creation of G protein-coupled receptors was linked to healthy longevity in all living genera.

It has become obvious that light induced changes in chirality must be linked from chemotaxis and phototaxis to all biodiversity via the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction.

Up-to-date research shows that they may employ dozens of mechanisms including epigenetic, hybridization, cryptic variation, behavioral changes, unreduced gametes, directed crossover, regulated micro-RNAs or RNA splicing, horizontal gene transfer, and even modulation of an organism’s microbiota. None of these mechanisms require a struggle for life and death!

See also this easy to read accurate representation of facts about healthy longevity compared to virus-driven pathology. Jeffrey P. Tomkins, Ph.D. 2015. Viral Genome Junk Is Bunk. Acts & Facts. 44 (4).
See also: Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

Cytochrome C is an enzyme that plays an important role in the metabolism of aerobic cells. It is found in the most diverse organisms, from man to molds.

E. Margoliash, W. M. Fitch, and others have compared the amino acid sequences in cytochrome C in different branches of the living world. Most significant similarities as well as differences have been brought to light. The cytochrome C of different orders of mammals and birds differ in 2 to 17 amino acids, classes of vertebrates in 7 to 38, and vertebrates and insects in 23 to 41; and animals differ from yeasts and molds in 56 to 72 amino acids. Fitch and Margoliash prefer to express their findings in what are called “minimal mutational distances.” It has been mentioned above that different amino acids are coded by different triplets of nucleotides in DNA of the genes; this code is now known.